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UNIVERSITY 

OF FLORIDA 

LIBRARIES 




From the Library of 



Charles D. Farris 



H^ 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/publicopinion19300unse 



PUBLIC OPINION 
1935-1946 



PUBLIC OPINION 

1935-1946 



Under the editorial direction of 
HADLEY CANTRIL 

Prepared by Mildred Strunk 



PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS 

1951 



Copyright, 1951, by Princeton University Press 
London: Geoffrey Cumberlege, Oxford University Press 



The facts recorded in this volume may be freely used 

in other publications. For extensive 

compilations or for reproduction of sections of the book, 

inquiries should be addressed to the publishers. 




Printed in the United States of America by 
Tbc Colonial Press Inc., Clinton, Mass. 



PREFACE 



One of the reasons for establishing the Office of Public Opinion Research in 1940 was to 
accumulate archives of survey data for research purposes. Almost as soon as it became known 
that this material was being gathered together, we were besieged with requests for informa- 
tion. Most of the requests were legitimate, coming as they did from social scientists, gov- 
ernment officials, public servants, and other observers or students of the current scene. As 
the years went on, the number and variety of requests mounted until it became quite impos- 
sible to answer them adequately. 

During a luncheon meeting several years ago with Datus Smith, Director of the Princeton 
University Press, and Lloyd Free, then Editor of the Public Opinion Quarterly, ^c talked 
about the nature of these requests and the potential value and usefulness this type of in- 
formation could have for a wide range of people: historians, sociologists, political scientists, 
economists, editors, policy makers, businessmen, labor leaders, and a host of others whose 
professional lives are, in one way or another, concerned with public reaction to events. We 
thought of the interest comparable information would have for us today if it had been gath- 
ered during the period of the American or French Revolution, the Civil War, pre-Hitler 
Germany, or the early days of the New Deal. And we thought, too, of the significance 
information approximating this in reliability and inclusiveness would have if it were avail- 
able from Soviet-dominated areas. 

So it occurred to us that a service might be performed both for present and future social 
scientists if we could somehow manage to put between two covers at somewhat regular 
intervals the available results of carefully indexed surveys. The job seemed a logical one for 
the Office of Public Opinion Research to begin. Accordingly, an appeal was made to the 
Rockefeller Foundation, which provided funds to assist in the preparation of this volume. 
As we got into the work, more and more data became available to us and the task assumed 
even greater proportions than we had originally contemplated. The present volume covers 
surveys from their beginning in 1935 through 1946 and includes material from 16 different 
countries. 

While any competent investigator knows that our methods for measuring and understand- 
ing public opinion are still in their infancy, there is little doubt among those concerned with 
empirical research in the social sciences that sampling techniques, combined with careful 
questionnaire design and skilled interviewing, provide one of the most reliable instruments 
so far devised for such research. The steadily increasing number of monographs and books 
that have appeared in the past decade and that have been based wholly or in part upon sur- 
vey material provides ample testimony of the function such material can have. Furthermore, 
the increasing amount of money spent by hard-headed businessmen and by government 
officials in acquiring special information via surveys can only reflect the demonstrated 
reliability of such data for those concerned with policy decisions. 

This is not the appropriate place to enter into any technical evaluation of methodology. 
Readers interested in such problems are referred to the Public Opinion Quarterly or to the 
International Journal of Opinion and Attitude Research. Nor is this the place to consider the 
implications of public opinion polls for the democratic process. It might be pointed out, 
however, that this scientific tool, like all others, is in itself neutral and can be used for good 
or evil according to one's own definition and purposes. It should also be noted that there 

[v] 



b 



[vi] 

is a great difference between using survey results to make yourself intelligent and to make 
yourself synthetic. It was our feeling in proposing this volume that a more precise under- 
standing of public opinion, in so far as it can be obtained through survey results, would 
increase the intelligence available both to scholars and to men in public affairs. 

In the Introduction prepared by Mildred Strunk, the reader will find the necessary details 
for use of the results: size of samples, the meaning of the date reference, of the various 
symbols employed, etc. Anyone who uses this book for serious study or interpretation is 
urged to read the Introduction carefully. And he is also urged to make his own cautious 
evaluation of the adequacy of the questions asked as they bear on his own problem. 

The responsibility for the actual preparation of this volume was largely that of Mildred 
Strunk. With the help of expert librarians, she worked out the categories used. She kept in 
constant touch with the appropriate personnel of the 23 organizations which so generously 
cooperated with us, checking with them on technical matters and on translations. As 
Director of the Office of Public Opinion Research, I am deeply indebted to her for her able, 
patient, and meticulous handling of this undertaking. We are also indebted to the Interna- 
tional Business Machine Corporation for the use of their machines and to the personnel 
of the Trenton office for their cooperation and interest. Without the encouragement and 
support of Datus Smith the volume would never have been conceived or born. Miriam 
Brokaw of the Princeton University Press has given invaluable assistance in preparing the 
manuscript for publication. 

Mrs. Strunk was unable to continue work on this volume until its completion. The varia- 
tion which may be noted in the final four hundred pages or more is due to this fact. 



Hadley Cantril 



Princeton, N.J. 
February, 1950 



INTRODUCTION 



This book aims to present as many opinion poll results as possible, in a convenient and useful 
form. The material presented has been collected from 23 organizations in 16 countries and 
covers the period from 1935, when George Gallup and Elmo Roper began publishing results 
obtained by the sampling method, through 1946. It is hoped that subsequent volumes 
covering five-year periods may be compiled. 

Although we have included most questions asked of national cross sections throughout 
the w^orld, this collection by no means includes every question ever asked in a public opinion 
poll. Market research material was not available, and because of space limitations we have 
been unable to incorporate results from local polls. 

The plan of the book is a simple one. In general, the classification and wording of both 
subjects and cross references are based on the Library of Congress subject headings which 
are the result of careful thought and wide experience. To insure uniformity, it seemed both 
wise and economical to adopt a system that has long been tested in practice through its 
wide use in libraries. Each question has been classified under the most specific subject that 
could be assigned to it; under each subject, questions have been arranged in chronological 
order except where questions on a single topic have been assembled for presentation in 
tabular form, when the entire series appears under the date of the earliest question. 

Many questions involve two, three, and sometimes more ideas or subjects. In these cases, 
the choice of subject had to be arbitrary, but cross references have been provided in the 
Table of Contents to connect such questions with all the subjects involved. To retain the 
sense of filter questions, it seemed essential that they be kept with the questions that follow 
and we have followed this practice since limitations of space prevented the publication of 
any question more than once. 

In some cases, questions on successive phases of a single topic have been classified under 
different heads, for example "International organization" and "United Nations"; "World 
War, 1939-1945: Food questions" and "Food relief." In the case of the United Nations, 
the earliest questions are classified under "International organization." A break was made 
with January 9, 1942, when the organization was given its present name — all questions after 
that date are under "United Nations." Similarly, questions asked during the war about 
food relief to Europe, etc., are classified under "World War, 1939-1945: Food question," and 
questions asked after the war are under "Food relief." These are arbitrary divisions, really, 
calculated partly to keep the size of the subject down to reasonable proportions, and partly 
to separate the successive phases of a subject. 

Cross references refer to questions and not to answers. To have referred also to answers 
would have been impracticable. The subjects themselves are printed in capitals in the 
Table of Contents; all other entries are cross references. 

We have made few exceptions to the rule of using only results based on a national cross 
section. The first survey made in France after the Allies took Paris was made only in Paris 
for lack of travel facilities. In the Netherlands, the first survey covers only the three western 
provinces — the rest of the country was still in the hands of the enemy. In Brazil, because 
of the peculiarities of the country, the two large cities — Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo — 
are the best cross section obtainable. A considerable number of surveys in Hungary were 
only of Budapest and suburbs because of interviewing difficulties in the rest of the country. 

[vii] 



[ viii ] 

The Czechoslovak Institute of Public Opinion had not succeeded in making arrangements 
to cover Slovakia at the time of the crisis in February 1948, so results labeled Czechoslovakia 
are results from Bohemia and Moravia only. The possible scarcity of material from either 
Hungary or Czechoslovakia in the future has encouraged us to include what we had. The 
material supplied by the American Military Government in Germany and the few questions 
from the French Zone in Germany, of course, cover only the areas occupied by the United 
States and France. The American Zone includes Bavaria, Hesse, Wiirtemberg-Baden; Berlin 
was sampled regularly after March 1946. 

Much as we should like to indicate the exact size of the sample used for each question 
asked, this proved to be impracticable. As already mentioned, the data in this volume are 
drawn from 23 organizations in 16 different countries with the result that a variety of 
sample sizes and sampling designs are represented. It is possible, however, to indicate the 
number of interviews usually conducted by each of the organizations in question. At the 
Loxwood Hall conference in England in May 1947, where the International Association of 
Public Opinion Institutes was formed, participating organizations reported on size of sample. 
AIPO, the American Institute of Public Opinion for general purposes uses a nationwide 
sample of 3,000, although on certain questions the samples are larger. Some questions are 
included on two or more ballots, which increases the size of sample in units of 3,000. Thereby, 
samples can be enlarged to as many thousands as are necessary to provide accuracy within 
any breakdown tabulations desired. The Australian Public Opinion Polls (APOP) uses 
2,000; the Brazilian Institute of Public Opinion (IBOPE) uses 1,500; the British Institute 
of Public Opinion (BIPO) uses 2,000; the Canadian Institute of Public Opinion (CIPO) 
uses 2,000 to 2,500; the Czechoslovak Institute of Public Opinion (CZIPO) uses 1,000 to 
1,300; the Danish Gallup Institute (DGI) uses 2,600; the Finnish Gallup Institute (FGI) 
uses 1,500 to 1,800; the French Institute of Public Opinion (FIPO) uses 2,500 to 2,800; the 
Italian Institute of Statistical Research and Public Opinion (DOXA) uses 3,000 to 3,600; 
the Netherlands Institute of Public Opinion (NIPO) uses 1,600 to 2,000; the Norwegian 
Gallup Institute (NGI) uses 2,000; and the Swedish Gallup Institute (SGI) uses 2,000. 

With the exception of the Czechoslovak Institute of Public Opinion, all the organizations 
represented at the Loxwood Hall conference are now Gallup affiliates. The members of the 
International Association of Public Opinion Institutes exchange information on techniques 
and survey results. Each institute is organized and directed entirely in the country which 
it samples — Dr. Gallup acts only in an advisory capacity. Through the chain, it is possible 
to put the same question to cross sections in each of the countries and make a comparative 
study of opinion. Following is a list of the Gallup affiliates with the dates of their founding 
or affiliation: American Institute of Public Opinion, 1935; British Institute of Public Opinion, 
1936; Canadian Institute of Public Opinion, 1941; Australian Public Opinion Polls, 1942; 
Swedish Gallup Institute, 1943; French Institute of Public Opinion founded in 1939 but 
suspended during the war, resuming late in 1944; Danish Gallup Institute, 1945; Finnish 
Gallup Institute, 1945; Norwegian Gallup Institute, 1946; Brazilian Institute of Public 
Opinion, 1946; Netherlands Institute of Public Opinion, 1947; and the Italian Institute for 
Statistical Research and Public Opinion Analysis, 1947. The Czechoslovak Institute of Public 
Opinion, which was also represented at the Loxwood Hall meeting, was formed under the 
auspices of the Ministry of Information shortly after the liberation in 1945- 

Fortune's Executive Forecast (FOR) is based on returns of an anonymous ballot mailed to 
over 10,000 leading business executives who have previously accepted an invitation to 



[ix] 

membership in the Fortune Forum of Executive Opinion which was founded in 1940. The 
ballot is also mailed to 9,000 prospective members. The number of returns tabulated varies, 
the cutoff point being reached when a sufficiently high degree of internal consistency- 
indicates that no significant changes in the results will be caused by tabulating additional 
returns. In no case are less than 4,000 ballots tabulated. 

The Fortune Survey (FOR) conducted by Elmo Roper was started in 1935 with a national 
sample of 3,000. This was increased to 4,500 in 1936 and to 5,000 in 1937 in order to achieve 
greater certainty in the breakdown of results. Until 1945 the sample remained at 5,000 
except for one or two special surveys. In that year the size was reduced to 3,5CO because it 
was felt that in the write-up of the survey, the breakdowns no longer needed such detailed 
analysis, and that differences between groups would be mentioned only when the variance 
was considerable. The sample has remained at 3,500 since 1945, except for certain political 
surveys when a sample of 5,000 was used. Most results included in this publication from 
Elmo Roper's column "What People Are Thinking" in the New York Herald Tribune (NYHT) 
come from the same surveys as the material from the Fortune Survey. 

The National Opinion Research Center (NORC) sample varies with the problem under 
investigation. The usual sample for results included here is 2,500 to 3,500, although in 
some cases samples as large as 7,000 have been used. This organization was started in 1941. 

Crossley's state by state election polls (CP) represent results based on samples from 
15,000 to 20,000 except in the surveys made in 1936, when each survey made before the 
election represented approximately 30,000 interviews. The Office of Public Opinion Research 
(OPOR), established in 1940, used samples ranging from 2,500 to 3,500. 

The size of the sample used by the American Military Government in Germany (OMGUS) 
has undergone considerable change since the first survey was made in October 1945. The 
work was done by the Opinion Survey Section of the Intelligence Branch under the direction 
of Frederick W. Williams. Small samples of the zonal population were originally designed, 
and, as men and materials became available, the sample was enlarged. Berlin was sampled 
regularly after March 1946. In August 1946 the sample was stabilized at approximately 
3,000 cases for the Zone and 400 for Berlin. Surveys made between October 26 and Novem- 
ber 26, 1945, are based on interviewing by American personnel whose language ability 
was unquestioned. Succeeding surveys are based on field work by German interviewers 
trained by these Americans. Surveys made between October 26 and November 26, 1945, 
used a sample of approximately 400; December 1 to December 13, 1945, used about 500; 
December 27, 1945, to March 29, 1946, used 1,000; April 5 to July 26, 1946, used 1,500; 
beginning with the survey dated August 9, 1946, a sample of 3,000 was used. 

The few questions from the French Military Zone in Germany (GMZFO) were released 
by the French Institute of Public Opinion with no information on the size of sample or 
construction of cross section. 

When the Hungarian Institute of Public Opinion Research (HIPOR) was started in the 
summer of 1945 with Paul H. Schiller of the University of Budapest as its director, the 
Gallup organization was the model of its procedure. Results for surveys made in Budapest 
are based on approximately 2,000 cases and national surveys on 5,000. 

The Belgian Academic Institute for Social and Economic Information (INSOC) was 
organized in 1946. We have been unable to get information on their size of sample. The 
Netherlands Foundation for Statistics (NFS), an independent organization in Holland 
founded in 1945, uses an average sample of 2,000. 



[x] 

Telegraphic surveys made by any organization naturally cover a smaller sample than 
personal-interview surveys, although some use samples as large as 1,000. The proportion 
of telegraphic results reported in this publication is very small. 

Date lines before questions indicate the date the ballot was sent out only in the cases 
of the American Military Government in Germany, the British Institute of Public Opinion, 
the National Opinion Research Center, and the Office of Public Opinion Research. In the 
case of the American Institute of Public Opinion the release date is used for published 
data, otherwise the send-out date is used. Unless otherwise noted, all others indicate the 
date of release and not the date on which the question was asked. Every effort has been 
made to achieve uniformity in the presentation of the data. 

For their cooperation in making possible the publication of this volume, the Office of 
Public Opinion Research wishes to express its deep appreciation to the Academic Institute 
for Social and Economic Information in Belgium; George Gallup and the American Institute 
of Public Opinion in the United States; Australian Public Opinion Polls in Australia; 
Brazilian Institute of Public Opinion in Brazil; British Institute of Public Opinion in Eng- 
land; Canadian Institute of Public Opinion in Canada; the Crossley Poll in the United States; 
Czechoslovak Institute of Public Opinion in Czechoslovakia; Danish Gallup Institute in 
Denmark; Finnish Gallup Institute in Finland; Elmo Roper and the editors of Fortune and 
the New York Herald Tribune in the United States; French Institute of Public Opinion in France; 
the Opinion Surveys Section of the Intelligence Branch, Office of Military Government for 
Germany (U.S.) in Germany; Hungarian Institute of Public Opinion Research in Hungary; 
Italian Institute for Statistical Research and Public Opinion in Italy; the Military Govern- 
ment for the French Occupation Zone in Germany; National Opinion Research Center 
in the United States; Netherlands Foundation for Statistics and the Netherlands Institute 
of Public Opinion in Holland; Norwegian Gallup Institute in Norway; and the Swedish 
Gallup Institute in Sweden. 

That the publication of such a volume as this is possible, is due to the spirit and patience 
of the participating organizations, to the cooperation of such people as Henr)' Halpern, 
who helped clarify some of the questions from the American Zone in Germany; to Julian 
Boyd, who helped with classification problems; and to the loyalty and persistence of the 
members of the staff who worked on the project at the Office of Public Opinion Research. 
For their painstaking work, we also wish to thank Eleanor Atha, Adrienne Hall, Barbara 
Hastorf, Josephine Hawk, Margaret Lewis, Eleanor Mount, Ann Stults, Kathleen Rogow, 
Frances G. Rosenberg, and Elaine Whitley, without whose help the preparation of the 
manuscript might well have taken another three or four years. 



M. S. 



Princeton, N.J. 
June 1949 



PARTICIPATING ORGANIZATIONS 



American Institute of Public Opinion 

16 Chambers Street, Princeton, New Jersey 

110 East 42d Street, New York City 17, New York 

Australian Public Opinion Polls 
352 Collins Street, Melbourne, Australia 

British Institute of Public Opinion 
Aldwych House, London, W.C. 2, England 

Canadian Institute of Public Opinion 
130 Carlton Street, Toronto, Canada 

Ceskoslovensky tJstav pro Vyzkum V'efejneho Mineni 
Prague II, Narodni tfida lO/III. p., Czechoslovakia 

Crossley, Inc. 
330 West 42d Street, New York City, New York 

Dansk Gallup Institut* 
Dr. Tvargade 29, Copenhagen K., Denmark 

Elmo Roper 
30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City 20, New York 

Fortune 
350 Fifth Avenue, New York City 1, New York 

Gouvernement Militaire Zone Frangaise Occupation 
(Material released through Institut Frangais d'Opinion Publique) 

Institut Fran5ais d'Opinion Publique 
5 & 7, Rue du Faubourg Poissonniere, Paris 9, France 

Institut Universitaire d'Information Sociale et Economique 
Pare Leopold, Brussels, Belgium 

Instituto Brasileiro de Opiniao Publica e Estatistica 
Rio de Janeiro, Rua Mexico, 11, 18 andar, grupo 1802, Brazil 

Istituto per le Ricerche Statistiche e 

I'Analisi dell' Opinione Pubblica 

4 Via Andegari, Milan, Italy 

Magyar Kozponti Hirado Rt. 
Budapest VIII, Sandor-Utca 5-7, Hungary 

National Opinion Research Center 

4901 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago 15, Illinois 

280 Madison Avenue, New York City 16, New York 



[xii] 

Nederlands Instituut voor dc Publieke Opinie 
Singel 90, Amsterdam, Holland 

Nederlandsche Stichting voor Statistiek 
Gcbouw "Hulp en Heil," Paviljoen 2, Leidschendam, Holland 

New York Herald Tribune 
230 West 41st Street, New York City 18, New York 

Norsk Gallup Institutt A/S* 
Akersgaten 49, Oslo, Norway 

Office of Public Opinion Research 
Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 

Opinion Survey Section of the Intelligence Branch, Office of the Director of Information 

Control, Office of Military Government for Germany (U.S.) 

Mailing address: Opinion Surveys Headquarters — ODIC 

OMGUS (Rear), APO 757, c/o Postmaster, New York City, New York 

Suomen Gallup O/Y* 
Mikaelsgaten 9A, Helsinki, Finland 

Svenska Gallupinstitutet A/B* 
Kungsgatan 48, Stockholm, Sweden 



* Coordinator for the four Scandinavian Institutes is Wahl Asmusscn, Scandinavian 
Institutes of Public Opinion, N0rrc Farimagsgadc 3-5, Copenhagen K, Denmark 



LEGEND 

AIPO (American Institute of Public Opinion — U.S.) 

APOP (Australian Public Opinion Polls — Australia) 

BIPO (British Institute of Public Opinion — Great Britain) 

CIPO (Canadian Institute of Public Opinion — Canada) 

CP (Crossley, Inc. — U.S.) 

CZIPO (Czechoslovak Institute of Public Opinion — Czechoslovakia) 

DGI (Danish Gallup Institute — Denmark) 

DOXA (Institute for Statistical Research and Public Opinion — Italy) 

FGI (Finnish Gallup Institute — Finland) 

FIPO (French Institute of Public Opinion — France) 

FOR CFortum—V.S.y 

GMZFO (Military Government for French Occupation Zone — Germany) 

HIPOR (Hungarian Institute of Public Opinion Research — Hungary) 

IBOPE (Brazilian Institute of Public Opinion — Brazil) 

INSOC (Academic Institute for Social and Economic Information — Belgium) 

NFS (Netherlands Foundation for Statistics — Holland) 

NGI (Norwegian Gallup Institute — Norw^ay) 

NIPO (Netherlands Institute of Public Opinion — Holland) 

NORC (National Opinion Research Center — U.S.) 

NYHT (New York Herald Tribune— U.S.') 

OMGUS (American Military Government — Germany) 

OPOR (Office of Public Opinion Research— U.S.) 

SGI (Swedish Gallup Institute — Sweden) 



* The symbol FOR is used for all m-i.terial from Fortune. Executive surveys are in- 
dicated in the text; all other results come from surveys conducted by Elmo Roper. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



A. A. A. See Agricultural Adjustment Act. 
Ability. See Sex; Success. 
Aborigines. See Indians of South America. 
Abortion. See Birth control. 

ABSENTEEISM (LABOR) 1 

Abstract art. See Art. 

Abyssinia. See Great Britain: Foreign relations. 

Academic freedom. See Education, Higher; Teaching, Freedom 

of. 

ACCIDENTS: PREVENTION 1 

Accidents, Automobile. See Automobiles: Accidents. 

Acting. See Actors and actresses; Theater. 

ACTORS AND ACTRESSES 2 

See also Military service, Compulsory; Newspapers; Thea- 
ter. 
Administration. See Civil service; State governments; see also 

subdivision Politics and government, under names of 

countries. 
Administration of justice. See Courts; Crime and criminals; 

War crimes and trials. 
Administrative ability. See Ability. 

Administrative law. See Civil service; Local government. 
Adult education. See Education of adults. 
"Advance, Australia Fair." See National songs. 
ADVERTISING 3 

See also Newspapers; Nutrition; Posters; Radio advertising; 

Religion; Signs and signboards; World War, 1939-1945: 

U.S. 
Advertising, Pictorial. See Posters. 
Aerial navigation. See Airplanes: Piloting. 
Aerodromes. See Airports. 
AERONAUTICS 4 

See also Air lines; Airplane industry and trade; Airplanes; 

Airplanes, Military. 
Piloting. See Airplanes: Piloting. 
Study and Teaching 4 

See also Airplanes: Piloting. 
Aeronautics, Commercial. See Air lines; Airplane industry and 

trade. 
Aeronautics, Military and Naval. See Air defenses; Air raid 

shelters; Airplanes: Military; War: Aerial operations; 

World War, 1939-1945: Aerial operations. 
Aeroplanes. See Airplanes. 
A.F. of L. See American Federation of Labor. 
Agnosticism. See Atheism. 

Agricultural Adjustment Act. See Agriculture and state; Con- 
trol of crops; Courts; U.S.: Politics and government. 
Agricultural administration. See Agriculture and state. 
Agricultural clubs. See Agricultural societies. 
Agricultural income. See Income, Agricultural. 
Agricultural labor. See Labor supply. Agricultural. 

AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY 4 

Agricultural population. See Population, Agricultural. 
Agricultural prices. See Prices, Agricultural. 
Agricultural problems. See Problems, Agricultural. 
Agricultural production. See Production, Agricultural. 

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES 5 

Agricultural tools. See Agricultural machinery. 



[xv] 



PAGE 

Agricultural wages. See Wages, Agricultural. 

Agriculture. See Agricultural machinery; Agricultural societies; 
Agriculture and state; Commerce; Control of crops; Eco- 
nomic conditions; Farmers; Food supply; Gasoline; Meat; 
Occupations; Republican party; Tires and rubber; U.S.: 
Appropriations and expenditures; Vegetable gardening. 

AGRICULTURE AND STATE 5 

See also Control of crops; Income, Agricultural; Industry 
and state: Canada: U.S.; Labor supply. Agricultural; Prices, 
Agricultural; U.S.: Appropriations and expenditures: Poli- 
tics and government; Wage and price regulation. 

Aid to Britain. See Lend-lease operations; U.S.: Neutrality; 
World War, 1939-1945: Naval operations: Supplies. 

Aid to Canada. See Security: Canada. 

Aid to China. See Lend-lease operations. 

Aid to France. See U.S.: Neutrality; World War, 1939-1945: 
Supplies. 

Aid to Russia. See Lend-lease operations. 

Aiken, George. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940). 

Air conditioning. See Home economics: Equipment and sup- 
plies. 

Air corps. See U.S.: Army air forces. 

AIR DEFENSES 8 

See also Air raid shelters; Blackouts in war. 

Air forces. See Armaments; Canada: Army air forces; U.S.: 
Army air forces. 

AIR LINES 9 

Air pilots. See Airplanes: Piloting; U.S.: Appropriations and 
expenditures: Defenses: Race question. 

Air ports. See Airports. 

AIR RAID SHELTERS 9 

See also Civilian defense. 

Air raid wardens. See Civilian defense. 

Air raid warnings. See Air defenses; Civilian defense. 

Air raids. See Air defenses; Air raid shelters; War; Aerial oper- 
ations; World War, 1939-1945: Aerial operations. 

Air routes. See Airways. 

Aircraft, i'ee Airplanes. 

Airdromes. See Airports. 

AIRPLANE INDUSTRY AND TRADE 10 

See also Airplanes: Military; Brazil: Appropriations and 
expenditures; Industry: U.S. 

AIRPLANES 10 

See also Aeronautics: Study and teaching; Airplane industry 
and trade; Airplanes: Military; Republican party; Trans- 
portation; War: Aerial operations; World War, 1939-1945: 
Aerial operations. 

Military 11 

See also Airplane industry and trade; Industry and state: 
U.S.; U.S.: Defenses: Army air forces; World War, 1939- 
1945: Supplies. 
Operation. See Airplanes: Piloting. 

Piloting 12 

Pilots. See Air pilots. 

Airports. See International cooperation: Great Britain-France; 
Public works; U.S.: Appropriations and expenditures. 

Airways. See Airlines; United Nations. 

Alaska. See Geography; U.S.: Territorial expansion. 



[xvi] 



AlbcTtini. See War crimes and trials. 

Alct)hol. See Liquor problem. 

Alcoholism. See Liquor problem. 

Ale houses. See Hotels, Taverns, etc. 

Aleutian Islands. See Military occupation: U.S. insular posses- 
sions. 

Aliens. See Citizenship; Germans in the U.S.; Immigration and 
emigration; Japanese in Canada; Japanese in the U.S.; Per- 
sons; U.S.: Foreign population; World War, 1939-1945: 
U.S. 
Employment. See Germans in the U.S.; Japanese in the U.S. 
Great Britain 12 

Alimentation. See Nutrition. 

Allen, Gracie. See Persons. 

Allis Chalmers strikes. See Strikes and lockouts. 

Allocations, Industrial. See Priorities, Industrial. 

Allowances, Children's. See Children: Management. 

Allowances for children. See Children and state. 

Aluminum. See World War, 1939-1945; U.S. 

Ambulance driving. See Civilian defense. 

Amendments to Constitution. See Canada: Constitution 
(Amendments); U.S.: Constitution (Amendments). 

America. See Travel. 

American Aborigines. See Indians of South America. 

American Federation of Labor. See Arbitration, Industrial; 
Civil service: U.S.; Labor leaders; Trade unions; Trade 
unions and state; U.S.: Congress (Elections, 1938). 

American Indians. See Indians of South America. 

American Military Government. See Church and state; Local 
government; Military occupation: Germany : Japan; Polit- 
ical parties: Germany. 

American national characteristics. See National characteristics, 
American. 

American Revolution. See U.S. : Foreign relations (Great Brit- 
ain). 

American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers. See 
Radio and music. 

Americanization. See Immigration and emigration; U.S.: For- 
eign population. 

AMUSEMENTS 12 

See also Children: Management; Education; Leisure; Mov- 
ing pictures; Sports; Theater. 

Analysis of food. See Food adulteration and inspection. 

Anderson, Clinton P. See Cabinet officers: U.S. 

Anderson, Marion. See Persons; U.S.: Race question. 

Anderson shelters. See Air raid shelters. 

Anglican church. See Church unity. 

Animal fats and oils. See Oils and fats. 

Animal industry. See Livestock. 

ANIMALS 14 

See also Atomic bomb; Cattle: Diseases; Poultry. 
Cruelty to. See Animals: Treatment. 
Protection. See Animals: Treatment. 
Treatment 14 

Animals, Domestic. See Animals: Treatment; Poultry. 

Annapolis Naval Academy. See Military education. 

Annexations. 

Canada. See Canada: Politics and government. 
U.S. See U.S.: Territorial expansion. 

Annuities. See Pensions. 

Anthracite coal. See Coal. 

Antisemitism. .y^f Jewish question. 

Anxiety. See Worry. 

Anzac Day. See Hotels, taverns, etc.; Moving pictures. 

Appraisal of books. See Books and reading. 

Appropriations and expenditures. See subdivision under names 
of countries. 



PAGE 

Aquatic sports. Set Swimming. 

Arabs in Palestine. See]csv%: Colonization. 

ARBITRATION, INDUSTRIAL 14 

See also Strikes and lockouts; Wages. 

Arbitration, International. See Disarmament; League of Na- 
tions; United Nations; World War, 19391945: Peace. 

Architecture, Domestic. See Housing. 

Arctic ocean. See Geography. 

Argentina. See Central and South America; Geography; United 
Nations. 

ARMAMENTS 17 

See also Australia: Army; Canada: Army: Army air forces; 
Democracy; Disarmament; (lermany: Army; Great Brit- 
ain: Army and navy; Munitions; Presidents: U.S. (Election 
1940); United Nations; U.S.: Army air forces: Army and 
navy; World politics; World War, 1939-1945: U.S.; also 
subdivision Defenses under names of countries. 

Armed forces. See Australia: Army; Canada: Army: Army air 
forces; Germany: Army; Great Britain: Army and navy; 
Soldiers; U.S.: Army air forces: Army and navy. 

Armies. See Armaments; Disarmament; Military service. Com- 
pulsory; Soldiers; War; Woman: Military service, Com- 
pulsory; World War, 1939-1945; see also subdivisions Army 
and Army and navv under names of countries. 

ARMIES AND NAVIES 19 

See also subdivision Recruiting, enlistment, etc., under 
Army or Army and navy of various countries. 

Officers 19 

See also Generals; Japan: Army and navy (Officers); U.S.: 
Army and navy (Officers). 

Recruiting, Enlistment, etc.. 19 

See also subdivision under Army, or Army and navy, of 
various countries. 

Armistice Day. See Holidays. 

Army. See subdivision under names of countries. 

Army — Women's Army Corps. See U.S : Army — Women's army 
corps. 

Army air forces. See subdivision under names of countries 

Army and navy. See subdivision under names of countries. 
Demobilization. See subdivision under names of countries. 
Enlistment. See Armies and navies: Recruiting, enlistment, 

etc.; U.S.; Army and navy (Recruiting, enlistment, etc.) 
Pay, allowances, etc. See subdivision under names of coun- 
tries. 
Recruiting, enlistment, etc. See subdivision under Armies; 

U.S. ; Army and navy. 
Unified command. See Australia: Army and militia (unified 
command); U.S.: Army and navy (unified command). 

Army and navy officers. See subdivision under names of coun- 
tries. 

Army life. See Morale; Soldiers. 

Army nurse corps. See U.S.: Army nurse corps. 

Army relief fund. See World War, 1939-1945: Contributions. 

Arnold, Henry. See Persons. 

Arnold, Thurman W. See Monopolies; Persons; Price regulation. 

ART 19 

See also Culture; Great Britain: Politics and government; 
Posters. 
Galleries and Museums 20 

Art, Commercial. See Posters. 

Artificial butter. See Oleomargarine. 

Artificial rubber. See Tires and rubber. 

Arts, Fine. See Art. 

A.S.C.A.P. See American Society of Composers, Authors, and 
Publishers. 

Asphyxiating gases. See Gases, Asphyxiating and poisonous: 
War use. 



[ xvii ] 



PAGE 

Assessment. See Taxation. 

Associated Press. See News agencies; Newspapers. 

Association and associations, International. See International 

cooperation 
Associations. See Clubs. 
Atheism. See Radio addresses, debates, etc. 
Athenia. See World War, 1939-1945: Propaganda. 
Athletes. See Sports. 

Athletics. See Baseball; Sports; Swimming. 
Atlantic Charter. See World War, 1939-1945; Congresses, con- 
ferences, etc. 
Atlantic Conference, 1941. See World War, 1939-1945: Con- 
gresses, conferences, etc. 

ATOMIC BOMB 20 

See also Atomic energy; Atomic power; Military service. 
Compulsory; U.S.: Politics and government; World poli- 
tics. 

ATOMIC ENERGY 25 

See also Atomic bomb; Atomic power. 

ATOMIC POWER 27 

See also Atomic bomb; Atomic energy. 
Atoms. See Atomic energy. 

Atrocities. See World War, 1939-1945: Atrocities. 
A.T.S. See Auxiliary Territorial Service. 

ATTLEE, CLEMENT 27 

See also Great Britain: Prime ministers; World War, 1939- 
1945: Congresses, conferences, etc. 
Attorneys. See Lawyers. 
Auriol, Vincent. See France: Presidents. 

AUSTRALIA 28 

See also Geography; Military occupation; United Nations; 
World War, 1939-1945: Territorial questions (U.S.) 

Army 28 

Army and Militia (Unified Command) 28 

Banks. See Government ownership: Banks (Australia). 
Cabinet officers. See Cabinet officers: Australia. 
Defenses. See Armaments; Australia: Army. 
Elections. See Elections: Australia. 

Foreign Relations 28 

See also International relations; U.S.; Foreign relations 
(Australia). 
House of Representatives. See Australia: Parliament. 
Industry and state. See Government ownership: Banks (Aus- 
tralia); Industry and state: Australia. 
National problems. See Problems: Australia. 

Parliament 29 

See also Women in public life. 
Political parties. See Political parties: Australia. 
Politics, Practical. See Politics, Practical: Australia. 

Politics and Government 29 

See also Elections: Australia; Problems: Australia; Refer- 
enda: Australia; World politics. 
Problems. See Problems: Australia. 
Referenda. J'fe Referenda : Australia. 
Security. See Security, International. 
Senate. See Australia: Parliament. 
Taxation. See Taxation: Australia. 
Tariff. See Tariff. 

Unemployed. See Unemployed; Australia. 
World War, 1939-1945- See World War, 1939-1945: Australia: 
Territorial questions. 

AUSTRIA 30 

Finance. See Finance: Austria. 

Politics and Government 30 

AUTHORS 30 

AUTOMOBILE DRIVERS 30 



See also Automobiles: Accidents; Laws and regulations; 
Liquor problem. 
Automobile driving. See Automobile drivers. 
Automobile industry and trade. See Commerce; Industry: U.S.; 

Industry and state; LT.S.; Profit; Strikes and lockouts. 
Automobile insurance. See Insurance, Automobile. 
Automobile law. See Automobiles: Laws and regulations. 
Automobile Workers Union, See Trade unions. 

AUTOMOBILES 31 

See also Gasoline; Home economics: Equipment and sup- 
plies; Price regulation; Prices; Roads; Tires and rubber; 
Transportation. 

Accidents 35 

See also Punishment; Tires and rubber. 
Apparatus and supplies. See Automobiles. 
Driving. See Automobile drivers. 
Inspection. See Automobiles: Laws and regulations. 

Laws and Regulations 36 

See also Automobile drivers; Automobiles: Accidents; In- 
surance, Automobile; Tires and rubber; World War, 1939- 
1945: U.S. 
Mileage. See Automobiles. 
Service stations. See Automobiles. 
Speed and speed limit. See Automobiles; Automobiles; Laws 

and regulations. 
Trailers. See Automobiles. 
Automobiling. See Automobiles. 

Auxiliary Territorial Service. See Women as soldiers. 
Aviation. See Aeronautics; Study and teaching; Air lines; Air- 
plane industry and trade; Airplanes; Military; Piloting. 
Aviators. See Air pilots; Airplanes; Piloting. 
Azores. See Security, International; World War, 1939-1945: 
Territorial questions. 



Babies. See Children. 

Baby bonus. See Children and state. 

Badges of honor. See Medals. 

Badoglio, Pietro. See Italy; Politics and government. 

Baking. See Bread; Cookery. 

Balanced budget. See Budget; U.S. 

Ball. See Baseball; Football. 

Ball, Joseph H. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1948). 

Bang's disease. See Cattle; Diseases. 

Bankers. See Character; Liberty of the press; Race; U.S.; Poli- 
tics and government; World War, 1939-1945; Causes. 

Bankhead, John. See Presidents; U.S. (Election 1940). 

Banks and banking. See Government ownership: Banks; Inter- 
est and usury; Investments and savings; Legislation; U.S.; 
Money; Saving and thrift; U.S.: Politics and government. 

Banners. See Flags. 

Bar. See Lawyers. 

Barkley, Alben W. See Persons; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940; 
1944). 

Barristers. See Lawyers. 

Barton, Bruce. See Presidents; U.S. (Term of office). 

Baruch, Bernard. See Atomic energy; Persons. 

Baruch rubber report. See Tires and rubber. 

BASEBALL 38 

Baseball players. See Baseball. 

"Basic seven. The." See Food. 

BATHS 39 

B.B.C. See British Broadcasting Company. 

Beasley, John A. See Political parties: Australia. 

Beasts. See Animals. 

Beel cabinet. See Cabinet officers: Netherlands. 

Behavior. See Conduct of life; Manners and customs. 



[ xviii ] 



Belgium. 

Finance. Sec War crimes and trials. 
Security. See Security, International. 

World War, 1939-1945. See World War, 1939-1945: Territo- 
rial questions (Germany). 

Benazet, Henri. See Radio; News reports. 

Benny, Jack. Set Persons; Radio plays and programs. 

Beraud, Henri. See War crimes and trials. 

Bergman, Ingrid. See Persons. 

Berlin. See Geography. 

Berlin, Irving. See Persons. 

Bethlehem Steel Corporation. See Industrial relations. 

Betting. See Gambling. 

Bevan, Aneurin. See Housing. 

Beverages. See CoiTee; Milk; Tea. 

Beveridge Plan. See Insurance, State and compulsory. 

Bevin, Ernest. See Cabinet officers: Great Britain, Housing. 

BIBLE 39 

Bichelonne, Jean. See War crimes and trials. 

BICYCLES 40 

Bidault, Georges. See Cabinet officers: France; France; Presi- 
dents. 

Biddle, Francis. See Cabinet officers: U.S. 

Billboards. See Signs and signboards. 

BILL OF RIGHTS 41 

Bill of Rights, G.I. See Public Law #346. 

Billoux, Francois. See Cabinet officers: France. 

Bills of credit. See Money. 

Biplanes. See Airplanes. 

BIRTH 41 

BIRTH CONTROL 41 

See also Birth rate. 

BIRTH RATE 43 

See also Birth control; Children and state; Population. 

Bituminous coal. See Coal. 

Black, Hugo. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Judges. 

BLACK MARKET 45 

See also Boots and shoes; Bread; Butter; Clothing and dress; 
Gasoline; Milk; Rationing, Consumer; Tires and rubber. 

BLACKOUTS IN WAR 48 

See also Hours of labor. 

Blasphemy. See Swearing. 

Blood donations. See World War, 1939-1945: Medical and 
sanitary affiiirs. 

Blum, Leon. See Finance: France; France: Presidents. 

B.M.I. See Broadcast Music, Inc. 

Boats, Submarine. i'«« World War, 1939-1945: Naval operations. 

Boats and boating. See Ships. 

Boer, Feike de. See Netherlands; Foreign relations (East Indies). 

Bolshevism. See Communism. 

Bombing of civilians. See War; Aerial operations; World War, 
1939-1945: Aerial operations. 

Bombing of historic monuments. See World War, 1939-1945: 
Aerial operations. 

Bombing of Rome. See World War, 1939-1945: Aerial opera- 
tions. 

Bombing of Tokyo. See World War, 1939-1945: Aerial opera- 
tions. 

Bombs, Incendiary. See Air defenses. 

Bonaparte, Napoleon. See Persons. 

BONDS 48 

See also Investments; Savings and thrift; Stock exchange; 
War bonds and stamps. 

Taxation 48 

See also Income tax: U.S. 

Bonus, Baby. See Children and state. 

Bonus, Soldiers'. See Bounties, Military. 



Book trade. See Culture. 

Books — appraisal. See Books and reading. 

BOOKS AND READING 48 

See also Bible, Education; Liberty of the press; Newspapers; 
Newspapers and radio; Periodicals; U.S.: Foreign relations 
(Great Britain); World War, 1939-1945: U.S. 

BOOTS AND SHOES 54 

See also Buying, Clothing and dress; Commerce. 
Rubber. See Boots and shoes. 

Borah, William E. See Political parties: U.S.; Presidents; U.S. 
(Election 1936; 1940). 

Boss rule. See Corruption (in politics). 

Boston. See United Nations. 

Bounties. See Agriculture and state; Cost and standard of liv- 
ing; Housing; Price regulation. 

BOUNTIES, MILITARY 55 

See also U.S.: Politics and government. 

Bowles, Chester B. See Persons; Price regulation. 

Boxing. See Sports. 

Boycott. See World War, 1939-1945: China and Japan. 

Boys. See Children. 

Employment. See Child labor. 

Bracken, John. See Persons; Political parties; Canada; World 
War, 1939-1945: Peace. 

Bradley, Omar. See Generals; Persons. 

Bravery. See Courage. 

BRAZIL 56 

See also Central and South America; Geography; United 
Nations. 

Appropriations and Expenditures 56 

Finance. See Finance; Brazil. 

Foreign relations — U.S. See U.S.; Foreign relations (Brazil). 

Security. See Security; Brazil. 

Tariff. See Tariff. 

BREAD 57 

See also Price regulation. 

Bresillach, Robert. See War crimes and trials. 

Bretton Woods Plan. See Finance. 

Bricker, John. See Persons; Politics, Practical; U.S.; Presidents: 
U.S. (Election 1940-1948) (Term of office). 

Bridges, Harry. See Labor leaders; Persons; Presidents: U.S. 
(Election 1940). 

British Broadcasting Company. See Radio; Radio plays and 
programs. 

British Empire. See Great Britain. 

British in Egypt. See Egypt: British occupation. 

British in India. See India; British occupation. 

British national characteristics. See National characteristics: 
British. 

British restaurants. See Restaurants, lunch rooms, etc. 

Broadcast Music, Inc. See Radio and music. 

Brooks, Charles Wayland. See Presidents; U.S. (Election 1944). 

Browder, Earl. See Labor and laboring classes. 

Brown, Prentiss. See Questions to government officials. 

Bryan, William Jennings. See Persons. 

Buck, Tim. See Communism. 

BUDGET 58 

U.S 58 

See also Finance; U.S.; Legislation: U.S.; Presidents: U.S. 
(Election 1944); Sales tax: U.S.; U.S.: Politics and govern- 
ment. 

BUDGET, HOUSEHOLD 60 

Building industry and trade. See Housing; Industry: U.S.; In- 
dustry and state: Great Britain. 

Buildings, Prefabricated. See Housing. 

Bullitt, William C. See U.S.; Foreign relations. 

Buriana, E. F. See Radio: News reports. 



[xix] 



Burma road. Sec Security, International. 

Burns, Bob. See Persons. 

Burns, George. See Persons. 

Buses, Motor. See Motor buses. 

Business. See Advertising; Competition; Economic conditions; 
Industry; Installment plan; Occupations; Success; Wealth. 

Business, Choice of. See Occupations. 

Business and government. See Government ownership: Banks; 
Industry and state; Mines and mineral resources: Govern- 
ment ownership; Public utilities and state; Radio and 
state; Railroads and state. 

BUSINESS CYCLES 61 

See also Lend-lease operations; Prices; Roosevelt, Franklin 
D.; Taxation: Canada; U.S.: Appropriations and expendi- 
tures. 

Business depressions. See Business cycles; Economic conditions. 

Business ethics. See Competition; Success. 

Business leaders. See Industrial leaders. 

Butler, Nicholas Murray. See Persons. 

BUTTER 67 

See also Food supply; Rationing, Consumer; Sugar. 

Butter, Artificial. See Butter; Food supply. 

BUYING 68 

See also Black market; Canning and preserving; Children: 
Management; Cookery; Economic conditions; Gasoline; 
Installment plan; Lotteries; Prices; Tires and rubber. 

By-products. See Salvage (Waste, etc.) 

Byrd, Harry F. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940; 1944). 

Byrnes, James. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Persons; Politics, 
Practical: U.S.; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944; 1948); 
Questions to government officials; U.S.: Foreign relations: 
Foreign relations (Russia). 



Cabinet, Beel. See Beel Cabinet. 

CABINET OFFICERS 77 

Australia 77 

See also Political parties: Australia. 

Canada 77 

Denmark. See Denmark: Prime ministers. 

France 77 

See also Gaulle, Charles de; World War, 1939-1945: Con- 
gresses, conferences, etc. 

Great Britain 78 

See also Attlee, Clement; Chamberlain, Neville; Churchill, 
Winston; Great Britain: Prime ministers; World War, 
1939-1945: Congresses, conferences, etc. 

Italy 80 

Netherlands 80 

Russia. See World War, 1939-1945: Congresses, conferences, 
etc. 

Sweden 81 

U.S 81 

See also Medicine, State; Pensions; Roosevelt, Franklin D. 
U.S.: Foreign relations (Russia): Politics and government 
War: U.S.; Women in public life; World War, 1939-1945 
Congresses, conferences, etc. : Peace. 
Cafeterias. See Restaurants, limch rooms, etc. 
Cake. See Bread. 

CALORIES AND VITAMINS 84 

See also Nutrition. 
Cameras. See Buying. 

Campaigns, Presidential. See France: Presidents (Election); 
Presidents: U.S. (Election 1936-1948). 

CANADA 84 

See also Flags; Geography; Travel; United Nations. 

Army 84 

See also Canada: Defenses; French-Canadians. 



page 

Army Air Forces 85 

See also Canada: Defenses. 

Army and Navy (Demobilization) 85 

Army and Navy (Pay, Allowances, etc) 85 

Banks. See Government ownership: Banks (Canada). 
Cabinet officers. See Cabinet officers: Canada. 

Constitution (Amendments) 86 

Cooperation with Australia. See Canada: Defenses. 
Cooperation with Russia. See International cooperation: 

Canada-Russia. 
Cooperation with U.S. See International cooperation: U.S.- 
Canada. 

Defenses 86 

See also Armaments. 
Dominion elections. See Elections: Canada, Dominion. 
Finance. See Finance: Canada. 

Foreign Relations 86 

See also International cooperation: Canada-Russia: U.S.- 
Canada; International relations; U.S.: Foreign relations 
(Canada). 

Foreign Relations (Germany) 86 

Foreign population. See Japanese in Canada. 
Industry. See Industry; Canada. 

Industry and state. See Government ownership: Banks (Can- 
ada); Industry and state (Canada); Railroads and state 
(Canada). 
Legislation. See Legislation: Canada. 

National characteristics. See National characteristics: Can- 
adian. 
National debts. See Debts, Public — Canada. 
National problems. See Problems: Canada. 
Navy. See Canada: Defenses. 

Parliament 86 

See also Wages. 
Political parties. See Political parties: Canada. 
Politics, Practical. See Politics, Practical — Canada. 

Politics and Government 87 

See also Cabinet officers: Canada; Elections: Canada, Do- 
minion: Provincial; Government ownership: Banks (Can- 
ada); Industry and state: Canada; Political parties: Can- 
ada; Problems: Canada; Railroads and State: Canada; 
Security: Canada; Spies; Taxation: Canada; Unemployed: 
Canada; World Politics; World War, 1939-1945: Canada. 
Population. See Population. 
Problems. See Problems: Canada. 

Provincial elections. See Elections; Canada, Provincial. 
Railroads. See Railroads and state: Canada. 
Security. See Security; Canada. 
Senate. See Canada: Parliament. 
Tariff. See Tariff. 
Taxation. See Taxation: Canada. 

Territorial expansion. See Canada: Politics and government. 
Unemployed. See Unemployed: Canada. 
World War, 1939-1945. See World War, 1939-1945: Canada. 
Canada, Aid to. See Security; Canada. 
Canada Day. See Holidays. 
Canadian Broadcasting Company. See Radio. 
Canadian national characteristics. See National characteristics: 

Canadian. 
Canadians. See French-Canadians. 
Canberra. See Geography. 

CANCER 89 

See also Diseases; Moving pictures. 
Canned goods. See Canning and preserving. 

CANNING AND PRESERVING 90 

See also Labor supply; Price regulation. 
Cant. See Swearing. 



[xx] 



Cantor, Eddie. Sie Persons. 

Capital. See Finance: Brazil; Industry: U.S.; Interest and usury; 
Investments and savings; Monopolies; Profit; Wealth. 

Capital, U.S. See U.S.: Capital. 

Capital and labor. See Arbitration, Industrial; Industrial rela- 
tions; Industry; Labor and laboring classes; Strikes and 
lockouts; Trade unions. 

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT 94 

See also Punishment; Spies. 

Capitalism. See International relations; Socialism; U.S.: For- 
eign relations (Russia). 

Capitals (cities). See U.S.: Foreign relations (Great Britain). 

Capone, Al. See Persons. 

Carcinoma. See Cancer. 

Cardiac diseases. See Diseases. 

Cards. See Gambling. 

Carnegie, Dale. See Persons. 

Carver, George Washington. See Persons. 

Case bill. See Labor laws and legislation. 

Casualties of war. See European War, 1914-1918: Casualties; 
World War, 1939-1945: Casualties. 

Caterers and catering. See Industry and state: Great Britain. 

CATHOLIC CHURCH 95 

See also Church and state; Church unity; Coughlin, Charles 
E., Rev.; Jewish question; Jews: Colonization; Minorities; 
Monasticism and religious orders; Papacy; Sermons; World 
War, 1939-1945: U.s!' 

CATTLE 95 

Diseases 95 

See also Diseases. 

Causes of war. See Spain: Civil war, 1936-1939 (Causes); War: 
Causes; World War, 1939-1945: Causes. 

C.B.C. See Canadian Broadcasting Company. 

C.C.C. See Civilian Conservation Corps. 

Censorship. See Free speech; Liberty of the press; Newspapers 
and radio; World War, 1939-1945: News reports. 
Radio. See Radio and state. 

Census. See U.S.: Census. 

Central America. See Central and South America. 

CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA 95 

See also Cities and towns; Geography; Indians of South 
America; Language and languages; Pan-American rela- 
tions; Travel; United Nations; U.S.: Politics and govern- 
ment: Territorial expansion; World War, 1939-1945: In- 
fluence and results: Territorial questions (Germany) (U.S.). 
Finance. See Finance; Central and South America. 
National characteristics. See National characteristics: South 

American. 
Politics and government. See Central and South America. 
Population. See Population. 
Security. See Security, International. 

Ceremonies. See Manners and customs; Rites and ceremonies. 

Chack, Paul. See War crimes and trials. 

CHAIN STORES 95 

CHAMBERLAIN, NEVILLE 96 

See also Great Britain: Foreign relations: Prime ministers; 
Persons. 

Chandler, Albert B. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940). 

Chaplains. See Clergy. 

Chaplin, Charles. See Persons. 

CHARACTER 96 

See also Education; Political parties: Great Britain; World 
War, 1939-1945; Aerial operations. 

Characteristics, National. See subdivision imder names of 
countries. 

CHARITIES 97 

See also Democracy; Horse racing; Hospitals; Lotteries. 



Charities, Contributions to. See Income tax: U.S. 
Charities, Medical. See Hospitals. 
Charities, Public. See Hospitals; Medicine, State. 
Charity organizations. See Charities. 

Charter, Atlantic. See World War, 1939-1945: Congresses, con- 
ferences, etc. 
Chavante Indians. See Indians of South America. 

CHEESE 97 

See also Food supply; Rationing, Consumer. 
Chemical warfare. See Gases, Asphyxiating and poisonous: 

War use. 
Chemistry, Dairy. See Cheese; Milk. 
Chemistry, Organic — Synthesis. See Synthetic products. 
Chemistry, Technical. See Synthetic products. 
Chemurgy. See Synthetic products. 
Chiang Kai-shek. See Persons. 

Chicago — World's Fair, 1933-1934. See Exhibitions. 
Chickens. See Poultry. 
Chief justices. J"« Judges. 

Chifley, Joseph B. See Political parties: Australia. 
Child allowances. See Children and State. 

CHILD LABOR 97 

See also Hours of labor; Labor supply. Agricultural; Wages. 
Child study. See Parents' and teachers' associations. 
Child welfare. See Child labor; Children: Care and hygiene. 
Childbirth. See Birth. 

CHILDREN 99 

See also Birth control; Birth rate; Child labor; Children 
and state; Defective and delinquent classes; Family; Ju- 
venile delinquency; Manners and customs; Medicine, State; 
Milk; National Socialism; Public health; Public worship; 
Woman: Employment; World War, 1939-1945: Children; 
Youth. 
Allowances, etc. See Children: Management. 

Care and Hygiene 99 

See also School children: Food. 
Charities, protection, etc. See Juvenile delinquency. 
Health. See Children: Care and hygiene. 
Employment. See Child labor. 
Law. See Child labor; Juvenile delinquency. 

Management 99 

Nutrition. See School children: Food. 
Training. See Children: Management. 
Children, delinquent. J'ff Juvenile delinquency. 

CHILDREN AND STATE 102 

See also Sweden: defenses; Taxation: Sweden; U.S.: Army 
and navy (Pay, allowances, etc.). 
China. See Geography; Reconstruction; United Nations; World 
War, 1939-1945: Peace. 
Cooperation with U.S. See International cooperation: U.S. 

— Ghina. 
Finance. See Finance: China. 
Foreign relations. See International cooperation: U.S.- China; 

International relations; U.S.; Foreign relations (China). 
National characteristics. See National characteristics: Chi- 
nese. 
Politics and government. See World politics. 
World War, "1939-1945. See World War, 1939-1945: China 
and Japan. 
China, Aid to. See Lend-lease operations. 
Chinese-Japanese conflict, 1937-1945. See World War, 1939- 

1945: China and Japan. 
Chinese in the U.S. See Minorities. 
Chinese national characteristics. See National characteristics: 

Chinese. 
Chocolate. See Food supply. 
Choice of books. See Books and reading. 



xxi] 



PAGE 

Choice of profession. See Occupations. 

Choice of sex. See Sex. 

Christian doctrine. See Immortality; Religion. 

Christian education. See Religious education. 

Christian union. See Church unity. 

Christianity. See Catholic church; Church unity; Religion; 
World War, 1939-1945: Religious aspects. 

Christmas. See Family; Holidays; Manners and customs; Public 
worship; Religion. 

Chungking. See Geography. 

Church. See Church unity; World War, 1939-1945: Prisoners 
and prisons. 

CHURCH AND STATE 104 

Church attendance. See Public worship. 

Chiu-ch festivals. See Lent. 

Church finance. See Gambling; Lotteries. 

Church membership. See Public worship. 

Church of England. See Church unity. 

Church schools. See Parochial schools. 

CHURCH UNITY 105 

Churches, Contributions to. See Income tax; U.S. 

CHURCHILL, WINSTON 106 

See also Dictators; Elections: Great Britain; Great Britain: 
Prime ministers; Persons; U.S.: Foreign relations (Great 
Britain); World War, 1939-1945; World War, 1939-1945: 
Congresses, conferences, etc.: Peace: Refugees. 

Cigars, cigarettes. See Smoking. 

Cinema. See Moving pictures. 

C.I.O. See Congress of Industrial Organizations. 

CITIES AND TOWNS 106 

See also Geography. 
Planning, See Housing; Public works. 

CITIZENSHIP 107 

See also Aliens: Great Britain; Armies: Recruiting, enlist- 
ment, etc.; Germans in the U.S.; Immigration and emigra- 
tion; Persons; Suffrage. 

City dwellers. See National characteristics: American. 

City planning. See Housing; Public works. 

Civil engineering. See Public works; Roads. 

Civil government. See subdivision Politics and government 
under names of countries. 

CIVIL RIGHTS 107 

See also Atomic bomb; Germany: Politics and government. 

CIVIL SERVICE 109 

Examinations. See Civil service reform. 

France 109 

Great Britain 109 

Netherlands 109 

Sweden 109 

U.S 109 

See also Communism; Corruption (in politics); Elections: 
Finance; French-Canadians; Income tax: U.S.; Russia: 
Politics and government; Strikes and lockouts; Wages. 

Civil service reform. See Civil service: U.S.; Corruption (in 
politics). 

Civil war — Spain. See Spain : Civil war, 1936-1939. 

CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS Ill 

See also Legislation: U.S.; U.S.: Appropriations and ex- 
penditures . 

CIVILIAN DEFENSE 112 

See also Air defenses; Air raid shelters; Blackouts in war; 
Industry and state: U.S.; World War, 1939-1945: Evacu- 
ation of civilians: U.S. 

Civilian evacuation, 1939-1945. See World War, 1939-1945: 
Evacuation of civilians. 

Civilian relief. See Food relief; Reconstruction; World War, 
1939-1945: Food question. 



Civilians, Bombing of. See War: Aerial operations; World War, 
1939-1945: Aerial operations. 

CIVILIZATION 116 

See also Art; Culture; Education; Indians of South America; 
Industry; Manners and customs; Monasticism and religious 
orders. 

Clark, Bennet C. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940; 1944). 

Clark, Mark. See Finance: Austria. 

CLASS DISTINCTION 116 

See also Education. 

Class, Social. See Class distinction. 

Classical languages. See Language and languages. 

"Clean Plate Club." See Food supply. 

Cleaning. See Laundry. 

Cleanliness. See Baths. 

CLERGY 117 

See also Liberty of the press; Monasticism and religious 
orders; Physicians; Politics, Practical: Germany; Religious 
education; U.S.: Politics and government; War crimes and 
trials. 

Cleveland, Grover. See Persons. 

Climate. See Vacations. 

Finland. See Finland: Climate. 

Clinics. See Hospitals. 

Closed shop. See Open and closed shop. 

Closing time (saloons, etc.). See Hotels, taverns, etc. 

CLOTHING AND DRESS 117 

See also Boots and shoes; Buying; Installment plan; Price 
regulation; Prices; Rationing, Consumer; U.S.: Army and 
navy (Supplies and stores). 

Clothing materials. See Clothing and dress. 

CLUBS 121 

See also Soldiers' monuments. 

Coal. See Fuel; Mines and mineral resources: Government own- 
ership; Price regulation. 

Coal mines and mining — government ownership. See Industry 
and state: Great Britain; Mines and mineral resources: 
Government ownership. 

Coal miners. See Strikes and lockouts; Food supply; Wages: 
Minimum wage. 

Coal strikes. See Strikes and lockouts. 

COFFEE 122 

See also Commerce; Food supply; Sugar. 

Cold (disease). See Influenza and colds. 

Cold storage. See Canning and preserving. 

Coldwell, M. J. See World War, 1939-1945: IPeace. 

Collective bargaining. See Arbitration, Industrial; Industrial 
relations; Strikes and lockouts; Trade unions. 

Collectivism. See Communism; Socialism. 

College athletics. See Sports. 

Colleges. See Education, Higher. 

Colonies. See Immigration and emigration; Netherlands: For- 
eign relations (East Indies); U.S.: Insular possessions; 
World War, 1939-1945: Causes; see also subdivision under 
names of countries. 

Colonization. See Immigration and emigration; Jews: Coloniza- 
tion. 

Colored people. See Negroes. 

Columbia Broadcasting System. See News agencies. 

Columnists, Newspaper. See Newspaper columnists. 

Comedians. See Actors and actresses. 

Comic strips. See Newspapers. 

Commandments, Ten. See Bible. 

Commentators, Radio. See Radio commentators. 

COMMERCE 122 

See also Advertising; Competition; Finance: Great Britain; 
Interest and usury; Interstate commerce; Money; Monop- 



[ xxii ] 



olics; Neutrality; Pan-American relations; Political par- 
ties: U.S.; Price regulation; Prices; Reconstruction; Spain: 
Foreign relations; Tariff; Transportation; Unemployed: 
Denmark; United Nations; U.S.: Politics and government; 
World politics; World War, 1939-1945: Atrocities: Influ- 
ence and results: U.S.; Territorial questions: U.S. 

Commerce, Interstate. Sec Interstate commerce. 

Commercial aeronautics. See Air lines; Airplane industry and 
trade. 

Commercial ethics. See Competition; Success. 

Commercial products. See Raw materials. 

Communication. See Commerce; Postal service; Radio; Roads; 
Transportation. 

COMMUNISM 130 

See also Dies Committee; Elections: Great Britain; Free 
speech; Germany: Politics and government; International 
cooperation; International relations; Labor leaders; Land, 
Nationalization of; Liberty of the press; Minorities; News- 
papers; Political parties: Great Britain: France; Presidents: 
U.S. (Election 1944); Race; Radio addresses, debates, etc.; 
Religion; Russia: Politics and government; Security: U.S.; 
Socialism; Strikes and lockouts; Sweden: Politics and gov- 
ernment; Totalitarianism; Trade unions; U.S.: Foreign 
relations (Russia): Politics and government; World War, 
1939-1945: Causes. 

Communist party. See Communism; Political parties. 

Company unions. See Employees' representation in manage- 
ment. 

Compensation. See Bounties, Military; Canada: Army and navy 
(Pay, allowances, etc.); Great Britain: Army and navy 
(Pay, allowances, etc.); Pensions; Pensions, Military; 
U.S.: Army and navy (Pay, allowances, etc.); Wages; 
Wages and prices; Woman: Wages. 

COMPETITION 133 

See also Commerce; Industry: U.S.; Industry and state: U.S.; 
Legislation: U.S.; Monopolies. 

Competition, International. See International cooperation; 
U.S.: Insular possessions; see also subdivision Colonies 
under names of countries. 

Competitive examinations. See Civil service reform. 

Compulsory education. See Education, Compulsory. 

Compulsory insurance. See Insurance, State and compulsory. 

Compulsory military service. See Military service. Compulsory; 
Woman: Military service. Compulsory. 

Compulsory service. Non-military, See Service, Compulsory 
non-military. 

Compulsory school attendance. See Education, Compulsory. 

Conant, Gordon. See Political parties: Canada. 

Conant, James B. See Persons. 

Concentration camps. See World War, 1939-1945: Atrocities: 
Prisoners and prisons. 

Conception — prevention. See Birth control. 

Concerts. See Amusements; Music. 

Conciliation, Industrial. See Arbitration, Industrial. 

Conduct of life. See Character; Children; Courage; Culture; 
Justice; Liberty of the press; Manners and customs; Polit- 
ical parties: U.S.; Success; Worry. 

Confectionery. See Sugar. 

Conferences, International. See World War, 1939-1945: Con- 
gresses, conferences, etc. 

Confirmation. See Rites and ceremonies. 

Congress — U.S. See U.S. : Congress. 

Congress of Industrial Organizations. See Arbitration, Indus- 
trial; Civil service: U.S.; Labor leaders; Open and closed 
shop; Political Action Committee; Political parties: U.S ; 
Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944); Trade unions; Trade 
unions and state; U.S.: Congress (Elections, 1938; 1946). 



PAGE 

Congresses, conferences, etc. See Women in public life; World 
War, 1939-1945: Congresses, conferences, etc. 

Congressional committee. See Civil rights; Dies Committee; 
U.S. : Congress. 

Congressional elections. See U.S.: Congress (Elections). 

Congressman's term. See Congressmen; Presidents: U.S. (Term 
of office). 

CONGRESSMEN 133 

See also Gasoline; Income; Income tax: U.S.; Pensions; 
Public opinion; U.S.: Congress. 

Connally-Smith bill. See Labor laws and legislation. 

CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS 135 

Conscription, Military. See Military service, Compulsory; 
Woman: Military service, Compulsory. 

Conservation of the soil. See Soil conservation. 

Constitution — France. See France: Constitution. 

Constitutional amendments. See Canada: Constitution (Amend- 
ments); U.S.: Constitution (Amendments). 

Constitutional assembly — France. See France: National assem- 
blies. 

Constitutional law. See Citizenship; Civil rights; Democracy; 
Habeas corpus; Legislation: U.S.; Referenda; Soldiers: 
Suffrage; Suffrage; Woman: Suffrage. 

Constitutions. See subdivision under names of countries. 

Construction of roads. See Roads. 

Consumer education. See Buying. 

Consumer rationing. See Rationing, Consumer. 

Consumption. See Tuberculosis. 

Contested election. See Elections: Great Britain. 

Continuation schools. See Education of adults. 

Contributions to charities. See Income tax. 

Contributions to churches. See Income tax. 

Contributions to war activities. See World War, 1939-1945: 
Contributions. 

CONTROL OF CROPS 135 

See also Agriculture and state; Legislation: U.S.; Produc- 
tion, Agricultural; U.S.: Appropriations and expenditures. 

Conventions, Political. See Political conventions. 

Convents and nunneries. See Monasticism and religious orders. 

Conversation. See National characteristics: American. 

Convicts. See Crime and criminals; Prisons. 

Convoys in war. See World War, 1939-1945: Naval operations. 

COOKERY 136 

See also Bread; Buying; Canning and preserving; Coffee; 
Diet; Food; Oils and fats. 

Coolidge, Calvin. See Persons. 

Cooling appliances. See Home economics: Equipment and sup- 
plies. 

Cooper, Gary. See Persons. 

Cooperation. See Communism; Socialism; Trade unions. 

Cooperation, International. See International cooperation. 

Copenhagen. See Amusements; Migration, Internal. 

Copyright. See Patent laws and legislation. 

Corcoran, Thomas. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Persons. 

Corners, Commercial. See Monopolies. 

Corporal punishment. See Children: Management; Punishment. 

CORPORATIONS 136 

See also Government ownership: Banks; Industry and state; 
Mines and mineral resources: Government ownership; 
Public utilities; Public utilities and state; Radio and state; 
Railroads and state; Wealth. 
Finance. See Industrial relations. 

Taxation 136 

See also Industrial relations; Taxation: Canada: U.S. 

CORRUPTION (IN POLITICS) 137 

See also Civil service reform; Political parties: U.S. 

COST AND STANDARD OF LIVING 138 



[ xxiii ] 



PAGE 

Sec also Denmark: Defenses; Food; Food prices and price 
regulation; Housing; Immigration and emigration; Polit- 
ical parties; U.S.; President Roosevelt: Radio addresses, 
debates, etc.; Price regulation; Prices; Problems: U.S.; 
Public utilities; Public utilities and state; Reconstruction; 
Rent; Republican party; Sales tax: U.S.; Savings and thrift; 
Wage and price regulation; Wages; Wages and prices; 
World politics; World War, 1939-1945: Finance. 

Cost of medical care. See Medical economics. 

Costume. See Boots and shoes; Clothing and dress. 

Costume, Military. See Uniforms, Military. 

COUGHLIN, CHARLES E., REV 147 

See also Persons; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1936). 

Count of Paris. See War crimes and trials. 

COURAGE 148 

Courses of study. See Education — curricula; Education, Uni- 
versal. 

COURTS 148 

See also ]\iAgc%; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1936); Problems: 
U.S.; U.S.: Congress (Elections, 1938). 

"Cradle to the grave" policy. See Insurance, State and compul- 
sory. 

Credit. See Installment plan; Military service, Compulsory. 

CRIME AND CRIMINALS 151 

See also Black market; Capital punishment; Defective and 
delinquent classes; Gambling; Juvenile delinquency; Pris- 
ons; Punishment; Strikes and lockouts; U.S.: Army and 
navy; War crimes and trials. 

Crime prevention. See Crime and criminals. 

Crimean conference, 1945. See World War, 1939-1945: Con- 
gresses, conferences, etc. 

Criminal law. See Capital punishment; Habeas corpus; Prisons; 
Punishment; Trials. 

Criminals. See Crime and criminals. 

Criminology. See Crime and criminals. 

Cripps, Sir Stafford. See Elections: Great Britain; Persons. 

Crop control. See Control of crops. 

Crosby, Bing. See Persons. 

Cross-examination, See Civil rights. 

Cross-word puzzles. See Newspapers. 

Cruelty to animals. See Animals: Treatment. 

CULTURE 153 

See also Civilization; Education. 

Cummings, Homer S. See Cabinet officers: U.S. 

Curates. See Clergy. 

Curran, Joseph. See Labor leaders. 

Currency. See Money. 

Currency question. See Finance; Inflation (Finance); Money; 
U.S. : Politics and government. 

CURRENT EVENTS I53 

See also Education. 

Curricula (courses of study). See Education — curricula; Educa- 
tion, Universal. 

CURTIN, JOHN 155 

See also Political parties: Australia. 

Customs, Social. See Manners and customs. 

Customs (tariff). See Tariff. 

CZECHOSLOVAKIA r 155 

Cooperation with Great Britain. See International coopera- 
tion: Great Britain-Czechoslovakia. 
Elections. See Elections: Czechoslovakia. 

Foreign Relations 155 

See also International cooperation: Great Britain-Czecho- 
slovakia; International relations; Russia : Foreign relations. 

History I55 

Internal Relations 155 



PAGE 

National characteristics. See National characteristics: Czech- 

oslovakian. 
Political parties. See Political parties: Czechoslovakia. 
Politics and Government 155 

Daily Worker, The. See Newspapers. 

Dairy bacteriology. See Cheese; Milk. 

Dairy chemistry. See Cheese; Milk. 

Dairy products. See Butter; Cheese; Milk; Rationing, Con- 
sumer. 

Dairying. See Butter; Cheese; Milk; Trade unions. 

Dakar. See Security, International; World War, 1939-1945: 
Territorial questions (U.S.) World War, 1939-1945: U.S. 

Daladier, Edouard. See Cabinet officers: France; Persons. 

Dalton, Hugh. See Cabinet officers: Great Britain. 

Dancing. See Amusements; Children: Management; Leisure. 

Dangerous classes. See Crime and criminals. 

Danish language. See Language and languages. 

Dano-Norwegian language. See Language and languages. 

Danzig. See World War, 1939-1945: Territorial questions (Ger- 
many). 

D.A.R. See Daughters of the American Revolution. 

Darlan, Jean Louis X. F. See France: Politics and government. 

Daughters of the American Revolution. See U.S. ; Race question. 

Davis, Bette. See Persons. 

Davis, Chester. See Questions to government officials. 

Davis, Elmer. See Persons; Radio addresses, debates, etc.; 
World War, 1939-1945: News reports. 

DAYLIGHT SAVING 156 

See also Buying. 

Days. See Holidays. 

Death penalty. See Capital punishment. 

Deaths, Mercy. See Defective and delinquent classes. 

de Boer, Fcike. See Netherlands: Foreign relations (East Indies). 

Debt. See Military service. Compulsory. 

Debts, Public. 

Canada. See Unemployed: Canada. 
Great Britain. See Great Britain: Defenses. 
U.S. See Budget: U.S.; Income tax: U.S.; Industry and state: 
U.S.; Taxation: U.S.; War bonds and stamps. 

Decalogue. See Bible. 

Decoration and ornament. See House decoration. 

Decoration Day. See Holidays. 

Decorations of honor. See Medals. 

Decorative arts. See House decoration. 

DEFECTIVE AND DELINQUENT CLASSES 158 

See also Crime and criminals; Juvenile delinquency. 

Defectives. See Defective and delinquent classes. 

Defense, Civil. See Civilian defense. 

Defense bonds and stamps. See War bonds and stamps. 

Defense industry. See Industry; Strikes and lockouts; World 
War, 1939-1945; Manpower. 

Defenses. See subdivision under names of countries. 

Defenses, Air. See Air defenses. 

Defenses, National. See subdivision National defenses under 
names of countries. 

de Gasperi, Alcide. See Cabinet officers; Italy. 

de Gaulle, Charles. See Gaulle, Charles de. 

Dehydrated foods. See Food; Canning and preserving. 

Delano, Frederick. See Questions to government officials. 

Delbos, Yvon. See France; Presidents. 

Delinquency, Juvenile. i"ee Juvenile delinquency. 

Delinquent classes. See Defective and delinquent classes. 

Delusions. See Superstition. 

DeMille, Cecil B. See Persons. 

Demobilization. See subdivision Army and navy (Demobiliza- 
tion) under names of countries. 



[ xxiv ] 



PAGE 

DEMOCRACY 159 

See also Cost and standard of living; Germany: Politics and 
government; National characteristics: German: Japanese; 
National Socialism; Referenda; Socialism; Soldiers: Suf- 
frage; Suffrage; Totalitarianism; U.S.: Politics and gov- 
ernment; Woman: Suffrage; World War, 1939-1945: Influ- 
ence and results (Germany): Propaganda. 

DEMOCRATIC PARTY 160 

See also Budget: U.S.; Congressmen; Elections: State gov- 
ernments; Persons; Political parties: U.S.; Presidents: U.S. 
(Election) (Term of office); Taxation: U.S.; U.S. : Congress 
(Elections): Foreign relations. 
Dempsey, Jack. See Persons. 
Denazification. See National Socialism. 

DENMARK 161 

Cabinet officers. See Denmark: Prime ministers. 

Defenses 161 

See also Armaments. 
Elections. See Elections: Denmark. 

Foreign Relations 161 

Industry and state. See Unemployed: Denmark. 

Money. See Money. 

National problems. See Problems: Denmark. 

Parliament 161 

Police. See War crimes and trials. 

Political parties. See Political parties: Denmark. 

Politics, Practical. See Politics, Practical: Denmark. 

Politics and Government 161 

Population. See Population. 

Prime Ministers 162 

Problems. See Problems: Denmark. 
Sales tax. See Sales tax: Denmark. 
Taxation. See Taxation: Denmark. 
Unemployed. See Unemployed: Denmark. 
World War, 1939-1945. Jef World War, 1939-1945: Denmark: 
Influence and results (Denmark). 
Dentists. See Physicians. 
Dentz. See War crimes and trials. 

Department of State — U.S. See U.S. : Department of State. 
Department of the Interior — U.S. See U.S. : Department of the 

Interior. 
Department stores. See Occupations. 
Dependencies. See Colonies; Colonization. 

Depressions, Business. See Business cycles; Economic conditions. 
Desertion and non-support. See Divorce. 
Destitution. See Poverty. 
Detectives. See Secret Service. 

DEWEY, THOMAS 162 

See also Housing; Income, Agricultural; Persons; Political 
parties: U.S.; Politics, Practical: U.S.; Presidents: U.S. 
(Election 1940-1948) (Term of office); Problems: U.S.; 
Strikes and lockouts; Taxation: U.S.; Unemployed: U.S.; 
U.S.: Foreign relations; Wages: Minimum wages. 
Dickinson, Lester J. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1936). 
Dickinson, Luren D. See Liquor problem; Moral conditions. 

DICTATORS 163 

See also Hitler, Adolf; Totalitarianism. 
Dictatorship. See Totalitarianism. 
Diefenbaker, John. See Political parties: Canada. 

DIES COMMITTEE 163 

DIET 165 

See also Calories and vitamins; Cookery; Food; Food relief; 
Meat; Nutrition; Public health; School children: Food; 
Vegetarianism; World War, 1939-1945: Food question. 
Dimouts. See Blackouts in war. 

Dinners and dining. See Calories and vitamins; Cookery; Diet; 
Food; Nutrition; Restaurants, lunch rooms, etc. 



Diplomacy. See International relations. See also subdivision 
Foreign relations under names of countries. 

Dipsomania. See Liquor problem. 

Direct legislation. See Referenda: Australia: France. 

Direct taxation. See Income tax; U.S.: U.S. (Ruml plan); In- 
come tax vs. sales tax: U.S.; Taxation. 

Dirksen, Everett M. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944). 

DISARMAMENT 169 

See also Arbitration, International; Atomic bomb; Peace; 
President Roosevelt: Powers and duties; World War, 1939- 
1945: Influences and results (Germany): Territorial ques- 
tions (Germany). 

Disasters. See Automobiles: Accidents. 

DISEASES 171 

See also Cancer; Cattle: Diseases; Influenza and colds; In- 
fantile paralysis; Public health; Tuberculosis; Venereal 
diseases. 

Dishonesty. See Honesty. 

Disney, Walt. See Persons. 

Displaced persons. World War, 1939-1945. See World War, 
1939-1945: Displaced persons. 

Distribution of wealth. See Economics; Wealth. 

Diving. See Swimming. 

DIVORCE 171 

See also Liberty of the press; Marriage. 

Dix, Dorothy. See Persons. 

"Doctor Helium." See Radio plays and programs. 

Doctors. See Physicians. 

Doenitz, Karl. See War crimes and trials. 

Dog-racing. See Horse-racing. 

Domestic animals. See Animals: Treatment; Poultry. 

Domestic appliances. See Home economics: Equipment and 
supplies. 

Domestic economy. See Home economics. 

Domestic finance. See Budget, Household. 

Domestic relations. See Divorce; Family; Marriage. 

Domestic science. See Home economics. 

Domestic service. See Servants. 

Dominion Day. See Holidays. 

Dominion elections — Canada. See Elections: Canada, Dominion. 

Donations, Blood. See World War, 1939-1945: Medical and 
sanitary affairs. 

Donovan, Col William O. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944). 

Doolittle, Jimmy. See Persons. 

Doriot, Jacques. See War crimes and trials. 

Dorscy, Tommy. See Persons. 

Double feature moving pictures. See Moving pictures. 

Douglas, Lloyd. See Persons. 

Douglas, William O. See Persons; Politics, Practical: U.S.; 
Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940; 1944). 

Drafting, Military. See Military service, Compulsory; Woman: 
Military service. Compulsory. 

Drainage, House. See Plumbing. 

Drama. See Actors and actresses; Radio plays and programs; 
Theater. 

Dress. See Clothing and dress. 

Drew, George. See Political parties: Canada. 

Drink question. See Liquor problem. 

Drinks. See Beverages. 

Drivers, Automobile. See Automobile drivers. 

Drunkenness. See Liquor problem. 

Dry cleaning. See Laundry. 

"Du gamla Du fria." See National songs. 

Dubinsky, David. See Labor leaders. 

Duchess of Windsor. See Kings and rulers. 

Duke of Windsor. See Kings and rulers. 

duPont Company. See Strikes and lockouts. 



[xxv] 



duPont family. See U.S.: Politics and government. 

Duration of war. See World War, 1939-1945: Duration (Europe) 

(Europe and Japan) (Japan). 
Dutch East Indies. See East Indies. 
Duties. See Tariff; Taxation. 
Dwellings. See Housing. 

Earle, George H. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940). 

East (Near East). See Eastern question. 

East Indies. See Geography; Great Britain: Politics and govern- 
ment; Java: Politics and government; Military occupation; 
Netherlands: Foreign relations (East Indies); Security, 
International; World War, 1939-1945: Causes: Territorial 
questions (Japan) (U.S.). 

Easter. See Amusements; Holidays; Religion. 

EASTERN QUESTION 173 

See also World politics. 

Eastman, Joseph. See Persons. 

Eating. See Calories and vitamins; Cookery; Diet; Food; Res- 
taurants, lunch rooms, etc. 

Ecclesiastical fasts and feasts. See Easter; Lent. 

ECONOMIC CONDITIONS 173 

See also Business cycles; Cost and standard of living; Labor 
and laboring classes; Labor supply; Occupations; Political 
parties: U.S.; Price regulation; Prices; Reconstruction; 
Religion; U.S.: Defenses; Wages; World War, 1939-1945: 
Influence and results (U.S.). 

Economic cycles. See Business cycles. 

Economic planning. See Economic policy. 

Economic policy. See Government ownership: Banks (Australia; 
Canada; France; Great Britain; U.S.); Industry and state: 
Australia: Canada: France: Great Britain: Netherlands: 
U.S.; Mines and mineral resources: Government owner- 
ship; Priorities, Industrial; Public utilities and state; Rail- 
roads and state: Canada: Great Britain: U.S.; Tariff. 

Economics. See Bonds: Taxation; Canada: Army and navy (Pay, 
allowances, etc.); Commerce; Communism; Competition; 
Corporations: Taxation; Cost and standard of living; 
Debts, Public; Excess profits tax: U.S.; Finance; Food sup- 
ply; Government ownership: Banks; Great Britain: Army 
and navy (Pay, allowances, etc.); Income; Income, Agri- 
cultural; Income regulation; Income tax: U.S.: U.S. (Rum! 
plan); Income tax vs. sales tax: U.S.; Industry; Industry 
and state; Interest and usury; Investments and savings; 
Labor and laboring classes; Mines and mineral resources: 
Government ownership; Money; Monopolies; Price regu- 
lation; Prices; Prices, Agricultural; Property; Profit; Rent; 
Roosevelt, Franklin D.; Sales tax: U.S.; Saving and thrift; 
Socialism; Tariff; Taxation; Transportation; U.S.: Army 
and navy (Pay, allowances, etc.); Wage and price regula- 
tion; Wage regulation; Wages; Wages: Agricultural: Mini- 
mum wages; Wages and hours; Wages and prices; Wealth. 

Economics, Agricultural. See Production, Agricultural. 

Economics, Medical. See Medical economics. 

Economics of war. See Munitions; Priorities, Industrial; Profit; 
Rationing, Consumer; World War, 1939-1945: Economic 
aspects; Manpower. 

Economy. See Cost and standard of living; Insurance, Life; In- 
vestments and savings; Old age pensions; Saving and 
thrift. 

Eden, Anthony. See Cabinet officers: Great Britain; Persons. 

Edison, Charles. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944). 

EDUCATION 178 

See also Books and reading; Children: Management; Cul- 
ture; Education, Higher; Education, Universal; Education 
and state; Education of adults; Education of women; Medi- 



PAGE 

cine. State; Military education; Military service, Compul- 
sory; National Socialism; Negroes: Education; Political 
parties: U.S.; Radio; Religious education; Teachers; Teach- 
ing, Freedom of; Veterans; Education; World War, 1939- 
1945: Influence and results (Germany). 
Curricula. See Education; Education of adults; Language and 
languages; Swimming. 

Education, Adult. See Education of Adults. 

Education, Christian. See Religious education. 

Education, Compulsory. See Child labor; Education; Religious 
education. 

Education, Ethical. See Religious education 

EDUCATION, HIGHER.- 185 

See also Education; Education and state; Army and navy: 
Recruiting, enlistment, etc. 

Education, Industrial. See Technical education. 

Education, Military. See Great Britain: Army and navy; Mili- 
tary education. 

Education, Naval. See Military education. 

Education, Professional. See Aeronautics: Study and teaching. 

Education, Religious. See Religious education. 

Education, Sexual. See Sex instruction. 

Education, Technical. See Technical education. 

EDUCATION, UNIVERSAL 187 

Education and radio. See Radio addresses, debates, etc. 

EDUCATION AND STATE 187 

See also Education; Teaching, Freedom of. 

EDUCATION OF ADULTS 188 

Education of children. See Education; School children: Food. 

Education of girls. See Education of women. 

Education of negroes. See Negroes: Education. 

Education of veterans. See Veterans: Education. 

EDUCATION OF WOMEN 189 

Educators, i'e^ Teachers. 

Edward VIII of England. See Kings and rulers. 

Efficiency, Industrial. See Office management. 

Eggs. See Meat. 

EGYPT 189 

British Occupation 189 

Eight-hour day. See Hours of labor. 

Einstein, Albert. See Persons. 

Eisenhower, Dwight D. See Generals; Persons; Politics, Prac- 
tical: U.S.; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1948). 

ELECTION LAW 189 

See also Soldiers: Suffrage; Suffrage; Woman: Suffrage. 
France. See Election law. 

ELECTIONS 190 

See also Civil rights; France: Presidents (Elections); Presi- 
dents: U.S. (Election 1936-1948); Referenda: Australia: 
France; Soldiers: Suffrage; Suffrage; U.S.: Congress (Elec- 
tions, 1936-1946); Woman: Suffrage. 

Australia 190 

See also Elections: State governments (1942); Referenda: 
Australia. 

Canada, Dominion 191 

Canada, Provincial 191 

Corrupt practices. See Corruption (in politics). 

Czechoslovakia 192 

Denmark 19^ 

Finance 192 

See also Political parties: Canada. 

France 193 

See also Elections: Finance; Referenda: France; Woman: 
Suffrage. 

Germany 194 

See also Germany: Politics and government; Local govern- 
ment. 



[ xxvi ] 



PAGE 

Great Britain 195 

Greece 198 

Hungary 198 

Netherlands 198 

State Governments (1936) 199 

State Governments (1940) 199 

State Governments (1942) 199 

See also U.S. : Congress (Elections, 1942). 

State Governments (1946) 199 

Sweden 199 

U.S. See Elections: State governments (1936-1946); Presi- 
dents: U.S. (Election 1936-1948); U.S.: Congress (Elec- 
tions, 1936-1946). 

Elections, Congressional. See U.S.: Congress (Elections, 1936- 
1946). 

Elections, Contested. See Elections: Great Britain. 

Elections, Presidential. See France: Presidents (Election); 
Presidents: U.S. (Election, 1936-1948). 

Electoral college. See Election law. 

Electric apparatus and appliances. Domestic. See Home eco- 
nomics: Equipment and supplies; Prices. 

Electric industries. See Public utilities; Public utilities and 
state; Trade unions and state. 

Electric power rates. See Public utilities. 

Electric railroads. See Street railroads. 

Electric refrigerators. See Electric apparatus and appliances. 
Domestic. 

Electric utilities. See Public utilities; Public utilities and state. 

Electricity. See Public utilities; Saving and thrift. 

Electricity in the home. See Home economics: Equipment and 
supplies; Public utilities. 

Elementary education. See Education. 

Elizabeth, Queen of England (present day). See Kings and 
rulers. 

Emancipation of women. See Woman; Suffrage. 

Emigration. See Immigration and emigration. 

Emperor of Japan. See Hirohito, Emperor. 

Emperors. See Kings and rulers. 

Empire Council. See World politics. 

Employee absenteeism. See Absenteeism (Labor). 

EMPLOYEES' REPRESENTATION IN MANAGEMENT 200 

Employment. See Occupations. 

Employment management. See Absenteeism (Labor); Employ- 
ees' representation in management; Foremen; Office man- 
agement. 

Employment of aliens. See Aliens — employment. 

Employment of children. See Child labor. 

Employment of negroes. See Negroes: Employment. 

Employment of veterans. See Veterans: Employment. 

Employment of women. See Woman: Employment 

Endowed charities. See Charities; Endowments. 

Endowments. See Charities; Education and state. 

Enemy aliens. See Aliens — Employment, Aliens — Great Britain. 

Engineering. See Roads. 

England. See Great Britain. 

England, Church of. See Church unity. 

English in Egypt. See Egypt: British occupation. 

English in India. See India; British occupation. 

English language. See Language and languages. 

Enlistment. See Armies and navies: Recruiting, enlistment, 
etc.; U.S.: Army and navy (Recruiting, enlistment, etc.). 

Ensigns. See Flags. 

Entertaining and entertainment. See Amusements. 

Episcopal church. See Church unity. 

Equality. See Class distinction; Democracy; Socialism. 

Erosion. See Soil conservation. 

Espionage. See Spies. 



"Esso reporter." See News agencies. 

Estcva. See War crimes and trials. 

Esthetics. See Art. 

Eternal life. See Immortality. 

Ethical education. See Religious education. 

Ethics. See Animals: Treatment; Character; Courage; Crime 

and criminals; Divorce; Gambling; Happiness; Justice; 

Success; Swearing; War; Woman: Social and moral ques- 
tions. 
Ethics, Commercial. See Competition; Success. 
Ethics, Political. See Citizenship; Corruption (in politics). 
Ethics, Practical. See Conduct of life; Ethics. 
Ethics, Social. See Citizenship; Corruption (in politics); Crime 

and criminals; Social conditions; Social problems. 
Ethnology. See Civilization; Folklore; Language and languages; 

Manners and customs; Race. 
Ethnopsychology. See National characteristics (all nationali- 
ties). 
Etiquette. See Manners and customs. 
Europe. See Travel. 
EUROPEAN WAR, 1914-1918 201 

See also U.S.: Foreign relations (Great Britain). 
Casualties 202 

See also World War, 1939-1945: Casualties. 
Causes. See European War, 1914-1918. 
Finance ; 202 

See also U.S.: Territorial expansion; World War, 1939- 

1945: Finance. 

Peace 203 

Pensions. See Pensions, Military. 

Territorial Questions 203 

European War, 1939-1945. See World War, 1939-1945. 

Euthanasia. See Defective and delinquent classes. 

Evacuation of civilians, 1939-1945. See World War, 1939-1945: 

Evacuation of civilians. 
Evaluation of literature. See Books and reading. 
Evatt, Herbert V. See Political parties: Australia. 
Evening and continuation schools. See Education of adults. 
"Ever Normal Granary Plan." See Control of crops. 
Evidence. See Witnesses. 
Examinations. See Civil service reform. 

EXCESS-PROFITS TAX 203 

U.S 203 

See also Taxation: U.S. 
Exchange. See Commerce; Money. 
Executions. See Capital punishment. 
Executive ability. See Ability. 
EXERCISE 204 

See also Baseball; Sports; Swimming. 

EXHIBITIONS 204 

Exports. See Commerce; Tariff. 
Expositions. See Exhibitions. 
Ex-service men. See Veterans. 

Fables. See Folklore. 

Factories — management. See Employees' representation in 
management; Office management. 

Factory system. See Child labor; Woman: Employment. 

Fadden, Arthur W. See Political parties: Australia. 

Fadiman, Clifton. See Persons. 

Fair trade. See Competition. 

Fair trade (tariff). See Tariff. 

FAMILY 206 

See also Children; Divorce; Education; Happiness; Mar- 
riage; Venereal diseases; Woman: Wages. 

Family budget. See Budget, Household. 

Farge, Yves. See Cabinet officers: France; Meat. 



[ xxvii ] 



Farley, James A. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Persons; Political 
parties: U.S.; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940; 1944). 

Farm Bureau. See Agricultural societies. 

Farm hours. See Hours of labor. 

Farm income. See Income: Agricultural. 

Farm labor. See Labor supply, Agricultural. 

Farm machinery. See Agricultural machinery. 

Farm organizations. See Agricultural societies. 

Farm population. See Population, Agricultural. 

Farm prices. See Prices, Agricultural. 

Farm problems. See Problems, Agricultural. 

Farm produce. See Raw materials. 

Farm production. See Production, Agricultural. 

Farm profit. See Income, Agricultural; Prices, Agricultural. 

Farm program. See Agriculture and state. 

Farm subsidies. See Agriculture and state. 

Farm wages. See Wages: Agricultural. 

FARMERS 207 

See also Agricultural societies; Agriculture and state; Can- 
ada: Politics and government; Economic conditions; Hos- 
pitals; Insurance, State and compulsory; Military service. 
Compulsory; National characteristics: American: French; 
Political parties: Canada: U.S.; Population, Agricultural; 
Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944); Strikes and lockouts; 
Trade unions; U.S.: Congress: Politics and government; 
World War, 1939-1945: U.S. 

Farmers Union. See Agricultural societies. 

Farms. See Prices. 

FASCISM 208 

See also Free speech; National Socialism; Newspapers; 
Strikes and lockouts; Teaching, Freedom of; Totalitari- 
anism; U.S. : Politics and government. 
Germany. See National Socialism. 

Fascist leaders. See Fascism; Nazi leaders. 

Fashion. See Clothing and dress. 

Fasts and feasts. See Holidays; Lent. 

Fats. See Oils and fats. 

Favorite author. See Authors. 

Favorite book. See Books and reading. 

Favorite magazine. See Periodicals. 

Favorite movie star. See Actors and actresses. 

Favorite radio commentator. See Radio commentators. 

Favorite radio program. See Radio plays and programs. 

Favorite sport. See Sports. 

F.B.I. See Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

Fear. See Courage. 

Feasts. See Holidays. 

"Feather bedding." See Trade unions. 

Federal aid for agriculture. See Agriculture and state. 

Federal aid for children. See Children and state. 

Federal aid for education. See Education and state. 

Federal aid for farmers. See Agriculture and state. 

Federal aid for marriage. See Marriage and state. 

Federal aid for unemployed. See Unemployed: Canada: Den- 
mark: Great Britain: U.S.; Works Progress Administration. 

Federal Bureau of Investigation. See Spies. 

Federal courts. See Courts. 

Federal government. See Canada: Constitution (Amendments); 
Democracy; France: Constitution; U.S.: Constitution 
(Amendments); see also subdivision Politics and govern- 
ment under names of countries. 

Federal income tax. See Income tax: U.S.: U.S. (Ruml plan); 
Income tax vs. sales tax: U.S.; Taxation. 

Federation, International. See International organization. 

Felony. See Crime and criminals. 

Feminism. See Monastic and religious orders; Physicians; 



PAGE 

Woman: Employment: Social and moral questions; Women 
in public life. 
Ferber, Edna. See Persons. 
Festivals. See Holidays. 
Fetishism. See Superstition. 
F.F.I. See French Forces of the Interior. 
Fibber McGee and Molly. See Persons. 
Fiction. See Books and reading; Folklore. 
Field, Marshall. See Persons. 
Field sports. See Sports. 
"Fifth column." See Security: U.S.; Spies. 
Fifth term. Presidential. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944) 

(Term of office). 
Fighting. See Sports; War. 
Films. See Moving pictures. 

FINANCE 209 

See also Bonds; Taxation; Budget: U.S.; Commerce; Cor- 
porations: Taxation; Elections: Finance; Excess-profits 
tax: U.S.; European War, 1914-1918: Finance; Income; 
Income, Agricultural; Income tax: U.S. (Ruml plan); In- 
come tax vs. sales tax: U.S.; Inflation (Finance); Interest 
and usury; International cooperation; Investments and 
savings; Lend-lease operations; Money; Prices; Prices: 
Agricultural; Profit; Railroads: Rates; Sales tax: U.S.; 
Tariff; Taxation; Trade unions: Finance; U.S.: Politics and 
government; War bonds and stamps; Wealth; World War, 
1939-1945: Finance. 

Austria 209 

Belgium. See War crimes and trials. 

Brazil 209 

Canada 209 

Central and South America 210 

China. See World War, 1939-1945: Finance. 
Corporations. See Corporations: Finance. 
Finland. See World War, 1939-1945: Finance. 

France 210 

See also European War, 1914-1918: Finance; U.S.: Foreign 
relations (France); World War, 1939-1945: Finance. 

Germany 210 

Great Britain 210 

See also European War, 1914-1918: Finance; Finance: Can- 
ada; Security: U.S.; World War, 1939-1945: Finance. 
Greece. See World War, 1939-1945: Finance. 

Hungary 213 

See also Manners and customs. 
Japan. See World War, 1939-1945: Finance. 

Netherlands 213 

Norway. See World War, 1939-1945: Finance. 
Railroads. See Railroads: Rates. 

Russia 213 

See also World War, 1939-1945: Finance. 
Spain. See Totalitarianism. 
Sweden. See World War, 1939-1945: Finance. 
Trade unions. See Trade unions: Finance. 

U.S 214 

See also Budget: U.S.; Commerce; Debts, Public: U.S.; 
European War, 1914-1918: Finance; Finance: Central and 
South America: France: Great Britain: Russia; Income; 
Income, Agricultural; Income tax: U.S. : U.S. (Ruml plan); 
Income tax vs. sales tax: U.S.; Lotteries; Money; Old age 
pensions; Prices; Sales tax: U.S.; Taxation: U.S.; U.S.: 
Politics and government; Wealth; World War, 1939-1945: 
Finance. 
World War, 1939-1945. See World War, 1939-1945: Finance. 
Finance, Church. See Church finance. 
Fine arts. See Art. 



[ xxviii ] 



PAGE 

Finger prints. See Industry and state; U.S.; National registra- 
tion; U.S.: Foreign population. 

FINLAND 214 

See also Geography. 

Climate 214 

Finance. See Finance: Finland. 

National problems. See Problems: Finland. 

World War, 19391945. See World War, 1939-1945: Finland. 

Finland, Population of. See Population. 

Fire. See Heating. 

FIREARMS 214 

Fireside chats. See President Roosevelt: Radio addresses, de- 
bates, etc. 

First aid. See Civilian defense. 

FISH AS FOOD 214 

Five-day work week. See Hours of labor. 

FLAGS 215 

See also Civil rights. 

Flame throwers. Set Gases, Asphyxiating and poisonous: War 
use. 

Flogging. See Corporal punishment 

Floods. See Public works; U.S.: Appropriations and e.xpcndi- 
tures. 

Floriculture. See Vegetable gardening. 

Florida ship canal. See Public works. 

Flour. See Bread. 

Flower gardening. See Vegetable gardening. 

Fiynn, Errol. See Persons. 

Folk songs. See Folklore; Music. 

FOLKLORE 215 

See also Superstition. 

Folkways. See Manners and customs. 

FOOD 215 

See also Black market; Bread; Butter; Calories and vita- 
mins; Canning and preserving; Cheese; Coffee; Cookery; 
Diet; Fish as food; Food adulteration and inspection; Food 
prices and price regulation; Food relief; Food supply; Meat; 
Milk; Nutrition; Oils and fats; Poultry; Production, Agri- 
cultural; Radio plays and programs; Rationing, Consumer; 
Sugar; Tea; U.S.: Army and navy (Supplies and stores); 
Vegetable gardening; Vegetarianism; World War, 1939- 
1945: Food question 
Preservation. See Canning and preserving. 

Food, Cost of. See Cost and standard of living; Food prices and 
price regulation; Price regulation. 

FOOD ADULTERATION AND INSPECTION 215 

Food control. See Food supply. 

Food for school children. See School children: Food. 

Food inspection. See Food adulteration and inspection. 

FOOD PRICES AND PRICE REGULATION 216 

See also Meat; Price regulation; Prices. 

FOOD RELIEF 218 

See also Reconstruction; World War, 1939-1945: Food 
question. 

Food stamp plan. See U.S.: Appropriations and expenditures. 

FOOD SUPPLY 221 

See also Black Market; Bread; Butter; Canning and preserv- 
ing; Cheese; Coffee; Diet; Fish as food; Food relief; Holi- 
days; Housing; Industry and state: Sweden; Meat; Milk; 
Poultry; Production, Agricultural; Public health; Radio 
addresses, debates, etc.; Rationing, Consumer; Reconstruc- 
tion; Restaurants, lunch rooms, etc.; Strikes and lockouts; 
Sugar; Tea; US.: Army and navy (Supplies and stores); 
Vegetable gardening; World War, 1939-1945: Displaced 
persons: Food question: U.S. 

Football. See Sports. 

Football pools. See Gambling. 



PAGE 

Ford, Henry. See Industrial relations; Labor and laboring 
classes; Persons; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940); Trade 
unions. 
Ford Motor Company. See Trade unions. 
Ford Motor strikes. See Strikes and lockouts. 
Forde, Francis M. See Political parties: Australia. 
Forecasting, Weather. See Weather forecasting. 
Foreign correspondents. See News correspondents. 
Foreign languages. See Language and languages. 
Foreign population. See Aliens: Great Britain; Germans in the 
U.S.; Immigration and emigration; Japanc-se in Canada; 
Japanese in the U.S.; U.S.: Foreign population. 
Foreign relations. Set International cooperation; International 
relations; Pan-American relations; see also subdivision 
under names of countries. 
Foreign trade. See Commerce. 
Foreign travel. See Travel. 

Foreigners. See Aliens: Great Britain; Citizenship; Germans in 
the U.S.; Japanese in Canada; Japanese in the U.S.; U.S.: 
Foreign population. 
Foremen. See Trade unions. 
Forest products. See Raw materials. 
Forrestal, James V. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Persons. 
Fortune. See Success. 

Fortune poll. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944). 
Fortunes. See Income; Income, Agricultural; Income regulation; 

Wealth. 
Fosdick, Harry Emerson. See Persons. 
"Foundation of labor." See Industrial relations. 
Foundations (endowments). See Endowments. 
"Four freedoms." See World War, 1939-1945: Congresses, con- 
ferences, etc. 
Fourth of July. See Holidays. 
Fourth term, Presidential. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944) 

(Term of office). 
Fowls. See Poultry. 

FRANCE 236 

See also Gaulle, Charles de; Security, International; United 
Nations; World War, 1949-55: Territorial questions (Ger- 
many). 
Appropriations and expenditures. See France: Defenses. 
Army — recruiting, enlistment, etc. See Armies and navies: 

Recruiting, enlistment, etc. 
Banks. See Government ownership: Banks (France). 
Cabinet officers. See Cabinet officers: France. 
Civil service. See Civil service: France. 

Colonies 236 

Constitution 236 

See also Referenda: France. 
Cooperation with Great Britain. See International coopera- 
tion: Great Britain-France. 
Cooperation with Russia. See International cooperation: 

France-Russia. 
Cooperation with U.S. See International cooperation: U.S.- 
France. 

Defenses 238 

See also Armaments; U.S.: Foreign relations (France). 
Elections. See Elections: France. 
Finance. See Finance: France. 

Foreign Relations 238 

See also Canada: Foreign relations; France: Foreign rela- 
tions (Spain); Great Britain: Foreign relations (France); 
International cooperation: France-Russia: Great Britain- 
France: US. -France; International relations; U.S.: Foreign 
relations (France). 

Foreign Relations (Russia) 239 

See also Gaulle, Charles de. 



[ xxix ] 



' PAGE 

Foreign Relations (Spain) 239 

German occupation. See Military occupation: France. 
Industry and state. See Government ownership; Banks 

(France); Industry and state: France. 
Military occupation. See Military occupation: France. 
Money. See Money. 

National Assemblies 239 

See also Referenda: France. 
National characteristics. See National characteristics: French. 
National problems. See Problems: France. 
Navy. See France: Politics and government. 
Neutrality. See U.S. : Foreign relations (Russia). 
Political parties. See Political parties: France. 

Politics and Government 241 

See also Imperialism; World politics. 

Presidents (Election) 242 

Presidents (Powers and Duties) 243 

Problems. See Problems: France. 
Railroads. See Railroads: Rates (France). 
Referenda. See Referenda; France. 
Security. See Security: France. 
Taxation. See Taxation: France. 

World War, 1939-1945. See World War, 1939-1945: France: 
Territorial questions (France). 
France, Aid to. See U.S.: Neutrality; World War, 1939-1945: 

Supplies . 
Franchise. See Citizenship; Elections; Presidents: U.S. (Election 
1936-1948); Soldiers: Suffrage; Suffrage; U.S : Congress 
(Elections, 1936-1946); Woman: Suffrage. 
Franco, Francisco. See Dictators; Security, International. 
Frank, Glenn. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940). 
Frankfurter, Felix. J"« Judges. 
Free enterprise. See Industry and state. 
Free French. Sie French Forces of the Interior. 
Free institutions. See Democracy. 

FREE SPEECH 244 

See also Civil rights; Liberty of the press. 
Free trade and protection. See Tariff. 
Freedom of speech. See Free speech. 
Freedom of teaching. See Teaching, Freedom of. 
Freedom of the press. See Liberty of the press. 
Freedom of worship. See Religious liberty. 
Freedom to live. See Civil rights. 

Freedom to vote. See Soldiers: Suffrage; Suffrage; Woman: Suf- 
frage. 
Freedom to work. See Civil rights. 

Freedoms, Four. See World War, 1939-1945: Congresses, con- 
ferences, etc. 
Freight and freightage. See Railroads: Rates; Roads. 
Freight rates. See Railroads: Rates. 

FRENCH-CANADIANS 245 

French, Free. See French Forces of the Interior. 
French Forces of the Interior. See France: Foreign relations: 
Politics and government; Lend-lease operations; United 
Nations; U.S.: Foreign relations (France); World War, 
1939-1945: Underground movements. 
French Indo-China. See Military occupation. 
French language. See Language and languages. 
French national characteristics. See National characteristics: 

French. 
French (people). See Germany: Politics and government. 
Friendship. See Sex. 
Fruit. See Food supply. 
Fruit — canning. See Canning and preserving. 

FUEL 245 

See also Heating. 
Fuel, liquid. See Gasoline. 



Fund raising. See Moving pictures. 
Funds. See Finance; Trade unions: Finance. 
Furniture. See House decoration. 
Future life. See Immortality. 
Future wars. See Security, International. 

Gable, Clark. See Persons. 

Galleries (art). See Art: Galleries and museums. 

Gallup poll. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944). 

GAMBLING 248 

See also Horse-racing; Lotteries. 

Games. See Amusements; Baseball; Sports. 

Games, Olympic. See Sports. 

Gaming. See Gambling. 

Gandhi, Mohandas K. See India: British occupation. 

Gannett, Frank. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940). 

Gaols. See Prisons. 

Gardening. See Vegetable gardening. 

Garner, John N. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Persons; Political 
parties: U.S.; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940). 

Garson, Greer. See Persons. 

Gas. See Fuel; Public utilities; Public utilities and state; Saving 
and thrift. 

Gas masks. See Gases, Asphyxiating and poisonous: War use. 

GASES, ASPHYXIATING AND POISONOUS: WAR USE 248 
See also World War, 1939-1945- 

GASOLINE 249 

See also Automobiles; Economic conditions; Industry: U.S.; 
Liberty; Ratipning, Consumer; Sugar; Tires and rubber; 
World War, 1939-1945: U.S. 

Gasperi, Alcide de. See Cabinet officers: Italy. 

Gastronomy. See Cookery; Food. 

GAULLE, CHARLES DE 260 

See also Cabinet officers: France; France: Constitution: 
Politics and Government: Presidents; International co- 
operation: France-Russia: Great Britain-France: U.S.- 
France; Persons; Truman, Harry S.; U.S.: Foreign relations 
(France). 

General Motors. See Industrial relations. 

General Motors strikes. See Strikes and lockouts. 

GENERALS 263 

See also Gaulle, Charles dc; Germany: Army; Hitler, Adolf; 
MacArthur, Douglas. 

Geneva. See United Nations. 

GEOGRAPHY 264 

George VI of England. See Kings and rulers. 

German language. See Language and languages. 

German music. See Music. 

German national characteristics. See National characteristics: 
German. 

German occupation — France. See Military occupation: France. 

German occupation — Netherlands. See Military occupation: 
Netherlands. 

German occupation — Poland. See Military occupation: Poland. 

Germans (people). See Birth control; European War, 1914-1918: 
Peace; Germans in the U.S.; Germany: Politics and gov- 
ernment; Hours of labor; Moving pictures; National So- 
cialism; Security, International; U.S.: Foreign relations 
(Germany); World War, 1939-1945: Atrocities: Causes: 
Food question; Influences and results (Germany): Peace: 
Prisoners and prisons. 

Germans in Brazil. See Minorities. 

Germans in Great Britain. See Aliens: Great Britain. 

GERMANS IN THE U.S 266 

See also Minorities; Spies; U.S : Foreign population. 

GERMANY 266 

See also Dictators; National Socialism; Roosevelt, Frank- 



[ XXX ] 



PAGE 

lin D.; Security: Great Britain: U.S.; Security, Interna- 
tional; Totalitarianism; United Nations; U.S.: Politics 
and government. 

Army 266 

Set also Armaments; Germany: Defenses; National Social- 
ism; Security: U.S.; World War, 1939-1945: Peace: Terri- 
torial questions (Germany). 
Army — Recruiting, enlistment, etc. Ste Armies and navies: 
Recruiting, enlistment, etc. 

Census 266 

Colonies 266 

Set also European War, 1914-1918: Territorial questions. 
Cooperation with Italy. See International cooperation: Italy- 
Germany. 

Defenses 267 

See also Armaments. 
Elections. See Elections: Germany. 
European War, 1914-1918. See European War, 1914-1918: 

Territorial questions. 
Finance. See Finance: Germany. 

Foreign Relations 267 

See also International cooperation: Italy-Germany; Inter- 
national relations; U.S.: Foreign relations. 
Foreign relations — Canada. See Canada: Foreign relations 

(Germany). 
Foreign relations — Great Britain See Great Britain; Foreign 

relations (Germany). 
Industry. See Industry: Germany. 
Legislation. See Legislation: Germany. 
Legislative bodies. See Legislative bodies: Germany. 
Local government. See Local government. 
Military occupation See Military occupation: Germany. 
National characteristics. See National characteristics: Ger- 
man. 
Police. See Police — Germany. 
Political parties. See Political parties: Germany. 
Politics, Practical. See Politics, Practical: Germany. 

Politics and Government 268 

See also Totalitarianism; U.S.: Politics and government; 
World politics; World War, 1939-1945: Causes: Influence 
and results (Germany). 
Security See Security: Germany. 
Taxation. See Taxation: Germany. 

Territorial Expansion 271 

Unemployed. See Unemployed: Germany. 
World War, 1939-1945. See War crimes and trials; World 
War, 1939-1945: Atrocities: Causes: Germany: Influence 
and results (Germany): Peace: Reparations: Reparations 
(Germany): Reparations (Russia): Territorial questions 
(Germany). 
Gestapo. See Police — Germany. 
Ghosts. See Superstition. 
■■G.I. Bill of Rights. •■ See Public law #346. 
Gibraltar See Geography. 
Giraud, Henri. See Generals; France: Politics and government: 

Presidents. 
Girdler, Tom. See Persons. 
Girls. See Children. 

Education. See Education; Education of women. 
Employment. J'« Child labor; Woman: Employment. 
Gladness. See Happiness. 
God. See Immortality; Religion. 
'■God Save the King." See National songs. 
Goebbels, Joseph. See Persons; World War, 1939-1945: Influ- 
ence and results (Germany). 
Goering, Herman. See National Socialism; War crimes and 



trials; World War, 1939-1945: Influence and results (Ger- 
many). 

Goldwyn, Samuel. See Persons. 

Golf. See Sports. 

Goodman, Benny. See Persons. 

Gouin, Felix. See France: Presidents. 

Government. See State governments; see also subdivision Politics 
and government under names of countries. 

Government, Local. See Local government. 

Government aid. See Federal aid. 

Government and business. See Government ownership: Banks; 
Industry and state; Mines and mineral resources: Govern- 
ment ownership; Public utilities and state; Radio and 
state; Railroads and state. 

Government appropriations and expenditures. See subdivision 
Appropriations and expenditures under names of countries. 

Government bonds. See Bonds; War bonds and stamps. 

Government competition. See Competition. 

Government employees. See Civil service; U.S. — Officials and 
employees. 

Government finance. See Finance. 

Government insurance. See Insurance, State and compulsory. 

Government officials, Letters to. See Questions to government 
officials. 

GOVERNMENT OWNERSHIP 271 

Banks (Australia) 271 

Banks (Canada) 272 

Banks (France) 272 

Banks (Great Britain) 272 

Banks (U.S.) 272 

Government ownership of business. See Industry and state. 

Government ownership of industry. See Industry and state. 

Government ownership of insurance companies. See Insurance, 
Life. 

Government ownership of mines. See Mines and mineral re- 
sources: Government ownership. 

Government ownership of newspapers. See Liberty of the press. 

Government ownership of public utilities. See Public utilities 
and state. 

Government ownership of radio. See Radio and state. 

Government ownership of railroads. See Railroads and state. 

Government price control. See Food prices and price regulation; 
Price regulation; Wage and price regulation. 

Government regulation of agriculture. See Agriculture and state. 

Government regulation of banks and banking. See Government 
ownership: Banks. 

Government regulation of business. See Industry and state. 

Government regulation of buying. See Buying; Rationing, 
Consumer. 

Government regulation of commerce. See Interstate commerce; 
Tariff. 

Government regulation of education. See Education and state. 

Government regulation of income. See Income regulation. 

Government regulation of industry. See Industry and state. 

Government regulation of insurance companies. See Insurance, 
Life. 

Government regulation of labor. See Labor laws and legislation. 

Government regulation of mines. See Mines and mineral re- 
sources: Government ownership. 

Government regulation of newspapers. See Liberty of the press. 

Government regulation of prices. See Food prices and price 
regulation; Price regulation; Wage and price regulation. 

Government regulation of public utilities. See Public utilities 
and state. 

Government regulation of radio. See Radio and state. 

Government regulation of railroads. See Interstate commerce; 
Railroads and state. 



[ xxxi ] 



PAGE 

Government regulation of rent. See Rent. 

Government regulation of trade unions. See Trade unions and 

state. 
Government regulation of wages. See Labor laws and legisla- 
tion; Wage and price regulation; Wage regulation. 

GOVERNORS 273 

See also Women in public life. 
Grable, Betty. See Persons. 

Graft (in politics). See Corruption (in politics). 
Grange. See Agricultural societies. 
Gratuities. See Tipping. 
Grease. See Oils and fats. 

GREAT BRITAIN 273 

See also Geography; Newspapers; Security: U.S.; Security, 
International; Travel; United Nations. 

Aliens. See Aliens: Great Britain. 

Appropriations and expenditures. See Great Britain: Politics 
and government: Defenses. 

Army — military life. See Soldiers. 

Army and Navy 273 

See also Armaments. 

Army and Navy (Demobilization) 273 

Army and Navy (Pay, Allowances, etc) 274 

Army and navy — recruiting, enlistment, etc. See Armies and 
navies: Recruiting, enlistment, etc.; Great Britain: Army 
and navy. 

Banks. See Government ownership: Banks (Great Britain). 

Cabinet officers. See Cabinet officers; Great Britain; Great 
Britain: Prime ministers. 

Civil service. See Civil service: Great Britain. 

Colonies 274 

See also India: British occupation. 

Cooperation with Czechoslovakia. See International cooper- 
ation: Great Britain-Czechoslovakia. 

Cooperation with France. See International cooperation: 
Great Britain-France. 

Cooperation with Poland. See International cooperation: 
Great Britain-Poland. 

Cooperation with Russia. See International cooperation: 
Great Britain-Russia. 

Cooperation with Spain. See International cooperation: 
Great Britain-Spain. 

Cooperation with U.S. See International cooperation: U.S.- 
Great Britain. 

Defenses 274 

See also Armaments; Security: U.S. 

Dominions — neutrality. See Neutrality. 

Elections. See Elections: Great Britain. 

Finance. See Finance: Great Britain. 

Foreign population. See Aliens: Great Britain. 

Foreign Relations 274 

See also Canada: Foreign relations; Great Britain: Politics 
and government; International cooperation: Great Britain- 
Czechoslovakia: -Poland: -Spain: U.S. -Great Britain; In- 
ternational relations; International relations: U.S. -Great 
Britain; U.S.: Foreign relations (Great Britain); World 
War, 1939-1945: Influence and results. 

Foreign Relations (France) 275 

See also International cooperation: Great Britain-France. 

Foreign Relations (Germany) 275 

Foreign Relations (Russia) 276 

See also Great Britain: Foreign relations; International co- 
operation: Great Britain-Russia. 

Industry. See Industry: Great Britain; Railroads: Rates 
(Great Britain). 

Industry and state. See Government ownership: Banks (Great 



PAGE 

Britain); Industry and state: Great Britain; Railroads and 
state: Great Britain. 
National characteristics. See National characteristics: British. 
National debts. See Great Britain: Defenses. 
National problems. See Problems: Great Britain. 
Navy. See Great Britain: Army and navy. 
Neutrality. See Neutrality. 

Parliament 276 

See also Elections: Great Britain; Wages. 
Political parties. See Political parties: Great Britain. 

Politics and Government 277 

See also Egypt: British occupation; India: British occupa- 
tion; Imperialism; Liquor problem; Unemployed: Great 
Britain; U.S.: Politics and government; World politics. 

Prime Ministers 279 

See also Attlee, Clement; Chamberlain, Neville; Churchill, 
Winston. 
Problems. See Problems: Great Britain. 
Railroads. See Railroads; Rates (Great Britain); Railroads 

and state (Great Britain). 
Security. See Security: Great Britain. 
Taxation. See Taxation: Great Britain. 
Unemployed. See Unemployed: Great Britain. 
World War, 1939-1945. See World War, 1939-1945: Great 
Britain: Influence and results (Great Britain): Territorial 
questions (Great Britain). 
Great Britain, Aid to. See Lend-lease operations; U.S.: Neu- 
trality; World War, 1939-1945; Naval operations: Supplies. 
Greece. See Churchill, Winston; Geography; Russia: Politics 
and government; United Nations. 
Elections. See Elections; Greece. 
Finance. See Finance; Greece. 

Politics and government. See World War, 1939-1945: Influ- 
ence and results. 
Green, Howard. See Political parties; Canada. 
Green, William. See American Federation of Labor; Labor and 
laboring classes; Labor leaders; Persons; Politics, Practi- 
cal; U.S.; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940; 1944); Trade 
unions. 
Greer (U.S. destroyer). See World War, 1939-1945: Naval oper- 
ations. 
Grippe. See Influenza and colds. 

Group hospitalization. See Medical economics; Medicine, State. 
Gfocery trade. See Industry and state. 
Guadalcanal. See World War, 1939-1945; Territorial questions 

(U.S.). 
Guam. See Geography. 

GufFey Coal Act. See U.S.; Politics and government. 
Guilds. See Labor and laboring classes: Trade unions; Trade 

unions and state. 
Guitry, Sacha. See War crimes and trials. 
Guns. See Firearms. 

HABEAS CORPUS 280 

Habitations, Human. See Housing. 

Hagg, Gunder. See Sports. 

Hague, The. See Geography; United Nations. 

Hague, Frank. See Free speech; Persons. 

Halsey, William. See Persons. 

Hamilton, John D. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940). 

Hanging. See Capital punishment. 

Hansson, Albin. See Cabinet officers: Sweden. 

HAPPINESS 280 

See also Indians of South America; Leisvu-e. 

Hatch bill. See Corruption (in politics). 

Hawaiian Islands. See Geography; Travel; U.S.: Insular pos- 
sessions: Territorial expansion. 



[ xxxii ] 

PAGE PAGE 

Health. See Hygiene. Hoover, J. Edgar. See Persons. 

Health, Public. See Public health. Hope, Bob. See Persons. 

Health of children. J"« Children: Care and hygiene. Hopkins, Harry L, See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Industry: U.S.; 

Health insurance. See Medicine, State. Persons; Political parties: U.S.; Presidents: U.S. (Election 

Hearst, William Randolph. See Persons. 1940; 1944). 

Heart — diseases. See Diseases. Hopper, Hedda. See Persons. 

Heat. See Heating. HORSE-RACING 287 

HEATING 281 See also Gambling. 

See also Fuel; Temperature. Hosiery. See Clothing and dress. 

Heatter, Gabriel. See Persons. HOSPITALS 288 

Hebrews. J"« Jewish question; Jews: Colonization. See also Cancer; Medical economics; Medicine, State; Sol- 

Heenan, Peter. See Political parties: Canada. diets' monuments. 

Height. See National characteristics: American. HOTELS, TA\'ERNS, ETC 289 

"Helium, Dr." See Radio plays and programs. See also Restaurants, lunch rooms, etc.; Wage regulation. 

Henderson, Leon. See Persons; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944). HOURS OF LABOR 290 

Hens. See Poultry. See also Buying; Child labor; Daylight saving; Family; 

Heredity. See Defective and delinquent classes. Industrial relations; Labor laws and legislation; Servants; 

Heroes, heroism. i'« Courage. Strikes and lockouts; Unemployed: U.S.; U.S.: Politics 

Herriot, Edward. See France: Presidents. and government; Wages and hours; Woman: Employment; 

Hershcy, Lewis Blaine. See Questions to government officials. World War, 1939-1945: U.S. 

Hess, Rudolph. See War crimes and trials. HOUSE DECORATION 296 

Higher education. See Education, Higher. House drainage. See Plumbing. 

Highway law. See Automobiles: Laws and regulations. House furnishing. See Home economics: Equipment and suf>- 

Highways. See Roads. plies; House decoration. 

Hillman, Sidney. See Persons. House of Representatives — Australia. See Australia: Parliament. 

Himmler, Heinrich. See National Socialism; World War, 1939- House of Representatives — U.S. See U.S.: Congress. 

1945: Influence and results (Germany). House sanitation. See Plumbing. 

Hirohito, Emperor, j'ff Kings and rulers; War crimes and trials. Household appliances. See Home economics: Equipment and 

HISTORIC HOUSES, ETC 283 supplies. 

Historic monuments, Bombing of. See World War, 1939-1945: Household budget. See Budget, Household. 

Aerial operations. Household expenses. See Budget, Household; Cost and standard 

History — Czechoslovakia. .Jee Czechoslovakia: History. of living. 

Histrionics. See Theater. Household sanitation. See Heating; Plumbing. 

Hitch-hikers. See Automobiles: Laws and regulations. Housemaids. See Servants. 

HITLER, ADOLF ' 283 Houses. See Housing. 

See also Dictators; Germany: Army: Politics and govern- Houses, Historic. See Historic houses, etc. 

ment; National Socialism; Persons; U.S.: Politics and gov- Houses, Portable and prefabricated. See Housing. 

ernment; War crimes and trials; World War, 1939-1945: HOUSING 296 

Germany: Influence and results (Germany): Refugees: See also Legislation: U.S.; Migration, Internal; Political 

Territorial questions (Germany). parties: U.S.; Prices; Problems: U.S.; Public works; Rent; 

Hodges, Courtney H. See Generals. Unemployed: U.S.; U.S.: Appropriations and expenditures: 

Holding companies. See Monopolies; Public utilities; Public Congress: Politics and government: Race question; World 

utilities and state. War, 1939-'1945: Displaced persons. 

HOLIDAYS 284 Howard, Roy. See Persons. 

See also Amusements; Hours of labor; Roads. Hughes, Charles Evans. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940). 

Holland. See Netherlands. Hughes, William Morris. See Political parties: Australia. 

Holy scriptures. See B'ih\c. Hull, Cordcll. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Commerce; Persons; 

Holy See. J'«f Catholic church; Papacy. Political parties: U.S.; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940; 

Home. See Family; Marriage. 1944); Questions to government officials; Radio addresses. 

Home decorations. See House decoration. debates, etc.; U.S.: Foreign relations. 

HOME ECONOMICS 286 HUNGARY 305 

See also Cookery; Cost and standard of living; Food; Fuel; Defenses 305 

Heating; House decoration; Laundry; Price regulation; Elections. See Elections: Hungary. 

Prices; Servants. Finance. See Finance: Hungary. 

Accounting. See Budget, Household. Foreign Relations 305 

Equipment and Supplies 286 Industry, See Industry: Hungary. 

See also Buying; Canning and preserving. Industry and state. See Industry and state: Hungary. 

Home guard. See Civilian defense. Politics and Government 305 

Home rule — Ireland. See Irish question. Security. See Security: Hungary. 

HOMEOPATHY 287 Unemployed. See Unemployed: Hungary. 

Homes (institutions). J'« Charities. World War, 1939-1945. See World War, 1939-1945: Repara- 

Honesty. See Character; Taxation: Denmark. tions (Hungary): Territorial questions (Hungary). 

Honorary titles. See Titles of honor and nobility. Hus, John. See Religion. 

Hoover, Herbert. See Food supply; Persons; Political parties: Hutchins, Robert. See Persons. 

U.S.; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1936-1944) (Term of Hutton, Barbara. i"«« Persons. 

office); Republican party; Uncmploy-ed: U.S.; U.S.: Foreign Hyde Park, New York. See United Nations. 

relations. Hygiene. See Baths; Children: Care and hygiene; Clothing and 



[ xxxiii ] 



dress; Diet; Exercise; Food; Mental physiology and hy- 
giene; Sleep. 

Hygiene, Mental. See Mental physiology and hygiene. 

Hygiene, Public. See Public health. 

Hygiene, Sexual. See Sex instruction. 

Hygiene, Social. See Public health; Venereal diseases. 

Iceland. See Geography; World War, 1939-1943: Territorial 
questions (U.S.); World War, 1939-1945: U.S. 

Ickes, Harold L. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Industry: U.S.; Per- 
sons; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944); Radio addresses, 
debates, etc. 

Identity cards. See National registration. 

Idiocy, idiots. See Defective and delinquent classes. 

Imbecility. See Defective and delinquent classes. 

Illuminating gas. See Gas. 

Immigrants. See Aliens: Great Britain; Germans in the U.S.; 
Japanese in the U.S.; Japanese in Canada; Jews: Coloniza- 
tion; Success; U.S.: Foreign population; World War, 1939- 
1945: Displaced persons; Prisoners and prisons: Refugees. 

IMMORTALITY 310 

IMPERIALISM 311 

See also U.S. : Territorial expansion. 

Imports. See Commerce; Tariff. 

Imprisonment. See Prisons. 

Incendiary bombs. See Air defenses. 

Incentive pay. See Wages. 

INCOME 311 

See also Buying; Class distinction; Cost and standard of 
living; Economic conditions; Education; Immigration and 
emigration; Income, Agricultural; Income regulation; In- 
come tax; Income tax: U.S. (Ruml plan); Income tax vs. 
sales tax; Marriage; Profit; Taxation: Sweden; Wage regu- 
lation; Wages; Wages; Agricultural: Military; Minimum 
wages; Wages and hours; Wages and prices; Wealth; World 
War, 1939-1945: Influence and results (Great Britain). 

INCOME, AGRICULTURAL 313 

See also Political parties; U.S.; Prices, Agricultural; Prob- 
lems; U.S. 

Income publicity. See Income tax; U.S. 

INCOME REGULATION 313 

See also Wage regulation; Wealth. 

INCOME TAX 314 

Australia, i'ee Taxation; Australia. 
Canada. See Taxation; Canada. 
Denmark. See Taxation; Denmark. 
France. See Taxation; France. 
Great Britain. i'e« Taxation; Great Britain. 
Netherlands. See Taxation; Netherlands. 
Sweden. See Taxation; Sweden. 

U.S 314 

See also Budget; U.S.; Excess-profits tax; U.S.; Income; 
Income tax vs. sales tax; U.S.; Prices; Taxation; U.S.; 
U.S.: Defenses; War bonds and stamps; World War, 1939- 
1945: U.S. 

U.S. (Ruml Plan) 324 

See also Income tax: U.S.; Taxation; U.S. 

Income tax deductions. See Income tax; U.S. 

INCOME TAX VS. SALES TAX; U.S 325 

See also Budget; U.S.; Income tax; U.S.; Sales tax: U.S.; 
U.S.: Defenses. 

Independence Day. See Holidays. 

INDIA 326 

See also Geography. 

British Occupation 326 

Politics and government. See India; British occupation. 

India-rubber. See Tires and rubber. 



PAGE 

INDIANS OF SOUTH AMERICA 328 

Individualism. See Communism; Socialism 

Indo-China. See France; Colonics. 

Industrial arbitration and conciliation. See Arbitration, Indus- 
trial. 

Industrial councils. See Employees' representation in manage- 
ment. 

Industrial education. See Technical education. 

Industrial efficiency. See Office management. 

Industrial exhibitions. See Exhibitions. 

Industrial insurance. See Insurance, Health; Insurance, State 
and compulsory; Insurance, Unemployment; Old age pen- 
sions. 

Industrial leaders. See Dewey, Thomas; Economic conditions; 
Industry; Canada; Industry and state; U.S.; Newspapers; 
Political parties; Canada; Roosevelt, Franklin D.; U.S.; 
Congress; Defenses; Politics and government; Wages; 
Willkie, Wendell Lewis; World War, 1939-1945: U.S. 

Industrial management. See Office management. 

Industrial priorities. See Priorities, Industrial. 

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 328 

See also Arbitration, Industrial; Employees' representation 
in management; Labor and laboring classes; Labor laws 
and legislation; Labor leaders; Liberty of the press; Open 
and closed shop; Presidents; U.S. (Election 1944); Strikes 
and lockouts; Trade unions; Roosevelt, Franklin D. 

Industrial schools. See Technical education. 

Industrial trusts. See Trusts, Industrial. 

INDUSTRY 332 

Canada 332 

See also Canada; Politics and government; French-Cana- 
dians. 

Germany 332 

See also Cost and standard of living; Reconstruction; World 
War, 1939-1945: Influence and results (Germany). 

Great Britain 334 

See also Finance; Great Britain. 

Hungary 335 

Japan. See Reconstruction. 

Netherlands 335 

US 335 

See also Atomic power; Business cycles; Corporations; Tax- 
ation; Economic conditions; Elections; Finance; Farmers; 
Hours of labor; Income tax; U.S.; Industrial relations; 
Industry and state: U.S.; Jewish question; Labor supply: 
Agricultural; Legislation; U.S.; Liberty of the press; Mili- 
tary service. Compulsory; Monopolies; Newspapers; Old 
age pensions; Pan-American relations; Persons; Political 
parties; U.S.; Presidents; U.S. (Election 1940; 1944); Price 
regulation; Prices; Problems; U.S.; Reconstruction; Roose- 
velt, Franklin D.; Signs and signboards; Strikes and lock- 
outs; Tariff; Trade unions; Truman, Harry S.; Unemployed; 
U.S.; United Nations; U.S.; Appropriations and expendi- 
tures; Congress; Congress (Elections, 1942); Politics and 
government; Wages; Wages; Minimum wages; Wages and 
hours; Wages and prices; World War, 1939-1945: Atroci- 
ties; Influence and results (U.S.); Manpower; U.S. 

INDUSTRY AND STATE 341 

See also Government ownership; Banks; Mines and mineral 
resources; Government ownership; Priorities, Industrial; 
Public utilities and state; Radio and state; Railroads and 
state. 

Australia 341 

See also Government ownership: Banks (Australia). 

Canada 342 

Denmark. See Unemployed: Denmark. 

France 342 



[ xxxiv ] 



PAGE 

Great Britain 343 

Set also Great Britain: Politics and government. 

Hungary 343 

Netherlands 343 

Sweden 344 

U.S 344 

See also Airlines; Airplane industry and trade; Airplanes: 
Military; Arbitration, Industrial; Atomic power; Business 
cycles; Finance: Russia; Government ownership; Hours of 
labor; Housing; Insurance, Automobile; Interstate com- 
merce; Labor laws and legislation; Milk; Moving pictures; 
Munitions; Occupations; Political parties: U.S.; Politics, 
Practical: U.S.; Price regulation; Priorities, Industrial; 
Ships; Strikes and lockouts; Trade unions; U.S.: Politics 
and government; Veterans: Emgloyment; Wages; Wages: 
Minimum; Wages and hours; Wages and prices. 

Industry and war. See Munitions; Priorities, Industrial; Profit; 
World War, 1939^1945: Economic aspects: Manpower. 

Inebriates, inebriety. See Liquor problem. 

INFANTILE PARALYSIS 351 

See also Diseases; Moving pictures. 

Infants. See Children. 

Infirmaries. See Hospitals. 

INFLATION (FINANCE) 352 

See also Food prices and price regulation; Money; Price 
regulation; Prices, Agricultural; Sales tax: U.S.; U.S.: 
Politics and government. 

Influence of war. See World War, 1939-1945: Influence and re- 
sults. 

Influenza. See Influenza and colds. 

INFLUENZA AND COLDS 354 

Inheritance and transfer tax. See Taxation: U.S.; Wealth. 

Inns. See Hotels, taverns, etc. 

Inoculation. See Public health. 

Insignia. See Medals. 

Insomnia. See Sleep. 

Inspection of food. See Food adulteration and inspection. 

INSTALLMENT PLAN 358 

Institutions, Charitable and philanthropic. See Charities; Hos- 
pitals. 

Instruction. See Education. 

Instruction, Sex. See Sex instruction. 

Instruments, Musical. See Musical instruments. 

Insular possessions — U.S. See U.S.: Insular possessions. 

Insurance. See Investments and savings. 

INSURANCE, AUTOMOBILE 359 

See also Automobiles: Accidents. 

Insurance, Compulsory, See Insurance, State and compulsory. 

Insurance, Health. See Insurance, State and compulsory; Medi- 
cine, State. 

Insurance, Industrial. See Insurance, Unemployment; Old age 
pensions. 

Insurance, Invalid. See Insurance, State and compulsory; Medi- 
cine, State; Old age pensions. 

INSURANCE, LIFE. ' 359 

See also Insurance, State and compulsory; Investments and 
savings. 

Insurance, Old age. See Old age pensions. 

Insurance, Sickness. See Medicine, State. 

Insurance, Social. See Insurance, State and compulsory; Insur- 
ance, Unemployment; Medicine, State; Old age pensions. 

INSURANCE, STATE AND COMPULSORY 360 

See also Industry and state: Sweden; Insurance, Health; 
Insurance, Unemployment; Legislation; U.S.; Medicine, 
State; Newspapers; Old age pensions; Presidents: U.S. 
(Election 1944); Sweden: Defenses; Taxation: Australia: 
Sweden, 



PAGE 

INSURANCE, UNEMPLOYMENT 363 

See also Medicine, State; Sweden: Defenses; Taxation: Swe- 
den; Veterans: Employment. 
Insurance, Workingmen's. See Insurance, Health; Insurance, 
State and compulsory; Insurance, Unemployment; Old 
age pensions. 
Insurance companies. See Insurance, Life; Medicine, State; Per- 
sons. 
Intellectual life. See Culture. 
Intemperance. See Liquor problem. 

INTEREST AND USURY 365 

See also U.S.: Politics and government. 
Interior decoration. See House decoration. 
Interior department — U.S. See U.S. : Department of the Interior. 
Internal arbitration. See Disarmament; League of Nations; 

United Nations; World War, 1939-1945: Peace. 
Internal migration. See Migration, Internal. 
Internal relations — Czechoslovakia. See Czechoslovakia: In- 
ternal relations. 
Internal revenue. See Income tax: U.S.; U.S. (Ruml plan); In- 
come vs. sales tax: U.S.; Taxation. 
International competition. See International cooperation; U.S.: 
Insular possessions; see also subdivision Colonies under 
names of countries. 
International conferences. See World War, 1939-1945: Con- 
gresses, conferences, etc. 

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 365 

See also Food relief; Germany: Politics and government; 
International organization; International police; League 
of Nations; Lend-lease operations; Pan-American relations; 
Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940; 1944); Reconstruction; 
United Nations; War: Aerial operations; World War, 1939- 
1945: Congresses, conferences, etc.: Food question. 
Australia -Canada. See International cooperation: Canada- 
Australia. 
Canada-Australia. See Canada: Defenses. 

Canada-Russia 369 

See also International cooperation. 
Canada-U.S. See International cooperation: U.S. -Canada. 
China-U.S. See International cooperation: U.S. -China. 
Czechoslovakia-Great Britain. See International cooperation: 

Great Britain-Czechoslovakia. 
France-Great Britain. See International cooperation: Great 
Britain-France. 

France-Russia 369 

See also International cooperation. 
France-U.S. See International cooperation: U.S. -France. 
Germany-Italy. See International cooperation: Italy-Ger- 
many. 

Great Britain-Czechoslovakia 369 

See also International cooperation. 

Great Britain-France 369 

See also International cooperation. 

Great Britain-Poland 369 

See also International cooperation. 

Great Britain-Russia 369 

See also International cooperation; International coopera- 
tion: U.S. -Russia. 

Great Britain-Spain 369 

See also International cooperation. 
Great Britain-U.S. See International cooperation: U.S.- 
Great Britain. 

Italy-Germany 369 

See also International cooperation. 
Poland-Great Britain. See International cooperation: Great 
Britain-Poland. 



[ XXXV ] 



PAGE 

Russia-Canada. See International cooperation: Canada- 
Russia. 
Russia-France. See International cooperation: France-Russia. 
Russia-Great Britain. See International cooperation: Great 

Britain-Russia. 
Russia-U.S. See International cooperation: U.S. -Russia. 
Spain-Great Britain. See International cooperation: Great 
Britain-Spain. 

U.S. -Canada 369 

See also International cooperation. 

U.S. -China 369 

See also International cooperation; Problems: U.S. 

U.S.-France 369 

See also International cooperation; Problems: U.S. 

U.S. -Great Britain 369 

See also International cooperation; Problems: U.S. 

U.S.-RussiA 370 

See also International cooperation; Problems: U.S. 

International exhibitions. See Exhibitions. 

International federation. See International organization. 

International finance. See Finance. 

International language. See Language, Universal. 

International law. See Aliens: Great Britain; International co- 
operation; International organization; League of Nations; 
Nationalism and nationality; Neutrality; Peace treaties; 
United Nations; War. 

International loans. See Finance. 

International News Service. See News agencies. 

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION 372 

See also Commerce; International cooperation; Interna- 
tional police; League of Nations; Problems: U.S.; United 
Nations; World politics. 

INTERNATIONAL POLICE 373 

See also Security, International; United Nations. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 375 

See also Business cycles; Disarmament; Elections: Greece; 
European War, 1914-1918: Peace; International coopera- 
tion; International organization; International police; 
Munitions; Nationalism and nationality; Neutrality; 
Newspapers; Pan-American relations; Roosevelt, Franklin 
D.; Security; Security, International; Truman, Harry S.; 
U.S.: Politics and government; World politics; World 
War, 1939-1945: Peace; also subdivisions Foreign relations 
and Neutrality under names of countries. 

International security. See Security, International. 

Internationalism. See International cooperation; Nationalism 
and nationality. 

INTERSTATE COMMERCE 367 

See also Railroads and state. 

Interurban railroads. See Public utilities and state. 

Intolerance. See Conscientious objectors; Public opinion; Reli- 
gious liberty; Teaching, Freedom of. 

Intoxicants, intoxication. See Liquor problem. 

Inundations. See Floods. 

Invalid insurance. See Insurance, State and compulsory; Medi- 
cine, State; Old age pensions. 

"Invasion from Mars, The." See Radio plays and programs. 

Inventions. See Industry: U.S.; Sex; Unemployed: U.S. 

INVESTMENTS 377 

See also Income tax: U.S.; Saving and thrift; War bonds 
and stamps. 

IRELAND 377 

Neutrality 377 

Irish in the U.S. See Minorities. 

IRISH QUESTION 378 

Iron industry and trade. See Brazil: Appropriations and expendi- 
tures. 



Ironing. See Laundry. 

Isolationism. See Coughlin, Charles E. Rev.; France: Neutral- 
ity; International cooperation; Ireland: Neutrality; Neu- 
trality; U.S.: Neutrality: Politics and government. 
Israelites. i"ee Jewish question; Jews: Colonization. 
Italians (people). See Fascism; Germany: Politics and govern- 
ment; World War, 1939-1945: Peace. 
Italians in Brazil. See Minorities. 
Italians in the U.S. See U.S.: Foreign population. 
Italians in Tunisia. See Minorities. 

ITALY 379 

See also Geography; Security: U.S.; United Nations; World 
War, 1939-1945: Food question: Peace: Reparations. 
Cabinet officers. See Cabinet officers: Italy. 
Cooperation with Germany. See International cooperation: 

Italy-Germany. 
Defenses. See Armaments. 

Foreign relations. See Great Britain: Foreign relations; In- 
ternational cooperation: Italy-Germany; International 
relations; Russia: Foreign relations; U.S.: Foreign rela- 
tions (Italy). 
Political parties. See Political parties: Italy. 

Politics and Government 379 

See also Fascism; Totalitarianism; World politics; World 
War, 1939-1945: Influence and results: Peace. 
Referendum. See Referendum: Italy. 

World War, 1939-1945. See World War, 1939-1945: Italy; 
Territorial questions: Italy. 
Iran. See Eastern question. 

Jackson, Robert H. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940; 1944). 

Jails. See Prisons. 

James, Arthur. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940). 

JAPAN 379 

See also Security: Great Britain: U.S.; Security, Interna- 
tional; United Nations. 
Army and navy. See Armaments; Security: U.S. 

Army and Navy (Officers) 379 

See also World War, 1939-1945: Atrocities: Influence and 
results (Japan). 
Defenses. See Armaments. 
Finance. See Finance: Japan. 
Foreign relations. See International relations; U.S.: Foreign 

relations (Japan). 
Industry. See Industry : Japan. 

Military occupation. See Military occupation: Japan. 
National characteristics. See National characteristics: Japa- 
nese. 

Politics and Government 379 

See also Truman, Harry S.; World politics; World War, 
1939-1945: Causes. 
World War, 1939-1945. See World War, 1939-1945: Causes: 
China and Japan: Influence and results (Japan): Repara- 
tions (Japan): Territorial questions (Japan). 
Japan, Population of. See Population; United Nations. 
Japanese (people). See Birth control; Germany: Politics and 
government; Japanese in Canada; Japanese in the U.S.; 
World War, 1939-1945: Atrocities: Causes; Food question: 
Prisoners and prisons. 
Japanese Emperor. See Hirohito, Emperor. 
Japanese in Brazil. See Minorities. 

JAPANESE IN CANADA 379 

JAPANESE IN THE U.S 380 

See also Minorities; U.S.: Foreign population. 
Japanese language. See Language and languages. 
Japanese national characteristics. See National characteristics: 
Japanese. 



[ xxxvi ] 



PAOB 

JAVA 381 

See also Geography. 

Politics and Government 381 

See also Netherlands; Foreign relations (East Indies). 

Jazz music. See Music. 

Jeffcrs, William M. See Persons; Questions to government offi- 
cials; Radio addresses, debates, etc. 

Jehovah's Witnesses. See Minorities. 

JEWISH QUESTION 381 

See also Jews: Colonization; Minorities; Music; Race; War 
crimes and trials; World War, 1939-1945: Atrocities. 

JEWS 385 

See also Church unity; Jewish question; Minorities; World 
War, 1939-1945: Children: U.S. 

Colonization 385 

See also International cooperation: U.S. -Great Britain; 
Jewish question; World War, 1939-1945: Displaced per- 
sons. 
Persecutions. i'« Jewish question. 

Jews in Palestine. See}ews,: Colonization. 

Jobs. See Occupations. 

Johnson act. See World War, 1939-1945: Finance. 

Johnson, Byron L. See Persons. 

Johnson, Hugh S. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940). 

Johnson, Van. See Persons. 

Johnston, Eric. See Persons; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944). 

Joliot-Curie, Frederic. See France: Presidents. 

Jolson, Al. See Persons. 

Jones, Jesse. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Persons; Presidents: U.S. 
(Election 1944). 

Jouhaux. See Gaulle, Charles de. 

Journalism. See Liberty of the press; Newspapers; Newspapers 
and radio; Periodicals. 

JUDGES 388 

See also Courts; Liberty of the press; Women in public life. 

July fourth. See Holidays. 

Jurisprudence. See Automobiles: Laws and regulations; Courts; 
Election law; Habeas corpus; Judges; Justice; Labor laws 
and legislation; Legislation: U.S.; Patent laws and legisla- 
tion; Peace treaties. 

Jurists. See Lawyers. 

Jury. See Civil rights; Justice; Women in public life. 

JUSTICE ^ 390 

See also Russia: Politics and government. 

Justice, Administration of. See Courts; Crime and criminals; 
War crimes and trials. 

Justices, Supreme Court. i'«f Judges. 

JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 391 

See also Children; Management; Defective and delinquent 
classes. 

Kaiser, Henry. See Persons; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944). 

Kalmus, Natalie. See Persons. 

Kaltenborn, H. V. See Persons. 

Kayser, Kay. See Persons. 

Keitel, Wilhelm. See War crimes and trials. 

Kennedy, Edward. See Newspapers. 

Kennedy, Joseph P. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Presidents: U.S. 

(Election 1940). 
Kenny, Sister. See Infantile paralysis. 
Kettering, Charles F. See Persons. 
Kidnapping. See Crime and criminals. 
Kindness to animals. See Animals: Treatment. 
King, Ernest Joseph. See Persons. 
King, Mackenzie. See Questions to government officials; World 

War, 1939-1945: Peace. 
KINGS AND RULERS 391 



See also Dictators; France: Presidents; Italy: Politics and 

government; Presidents: U.S.; Roosevelt, Franklin D.; 

Truman, Harry S. 
Kitchen gardens. See Vegetable gardening. 
Knox, Frank. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Persons; Presidents: 

U.S. (Election 1936-1944); Questions to government 

officials. 
Knudsen, William S. See Persons; Pre-sidents: U.S. (Election 

1944). 
Korea. See Military occupation. 
Kraft, Ole Bj0rn. See Persons. 
Kristensen, Knud. See Persons. 
Krug, J. A. See Persons. 
KU KLUX KLAN 392 

See «/j» Judges. 
Kyushu. See Geography. 

Labor, Hours of. See Hours of labor. 

Labor absenteeism. See Absenteeism (Labor). 

Labor and capital. See Arbitration, Industrial; Industrial rela- 
tions; Industry; Labor and laboring classes; Strikes and 
lockouts; Trade unions. 

LABOR AND LABORING CLASSES 393 

See also Absenteeism (Labor); Arbitration, Industrial; 
Business cycles; Canada; Politics and government; Child 
labor; Citizenship; Communism; Cost and standard of liv- 
ing; Dewey, Thomas; Economic conditions; Employees' 
representation in management; Farmers; Hours of labor; 
Industrial relations; Industry and state; Australia; Canada; 
Insurance, State and compulsory; Insurance, Unemploy- 
ment; Labor laws and legislation; Labor leaders; Labor 
supply; Labor supply; Agricultural; Legislation; U.S.; 
Newspapers; Occupations; Old age pensions; Open and 
closed shop; Political parties; Canada; Politics, Practical: 
U.S.; Presidents; U.S. (Election 1940; 1944); Prices; Pun- 
ishment; Reconstruction; Republican party; Servants 
Social conditions; Socialism; Strikes and lockouts; Success 
Trade unions; Trade unions and state; Truman, Harry S. 
Unemployed; U.S.: Appropriations and expenditures; U.S. 
Congress: Defenses; Politics and government; Wages 
Wages: Agricultural: Minimum wages; Wages and hours 
Wages and prices; Willkie, Wendell Lewis; Woman; Em- 
ployment; World War, 1939-1945: Manpower: Propa- 
ganda: U.S. 
Dwellings. Sx Housing. 

Labor camps. See Service, Compulsory non-military. 

Labor contract. See Open and closed shop; Wages. 

Labor, Foundation of. See Industrial relations. 

LABOR LAWS AND LEGISLATION 394 

See also Arbitration, Industrial; Hours of labor; Industry 
and state; Legislation: U.S.; Strikes and lockouts; Trade 
unions; U.S.; Politics and govcrtmient; Wages; Wages: 
Minimum wages; Wages and hours; Wages and prices; 
World War, 1939-1945: Manpower. 

LABOR LEADERS 396 

See also Arbitration, Industrial; Dewey, Thomas; Green, 
William; Hillman, Sidney; Industrial relations; Industry 
and state; U.S.; Labor laws and legislation; Lewis, John 
L.; Open and closed shop; Roosevelt, Franklin D.; Russia: 
Politics and government; Social conditions; Strikes and 
lockouts; Trade unions; Trade unions and state; U.S.: 
Politics and government; Wages; Willkie, Wendell Lewis; 
World War, 1939-1945: U.S. 

Labor organizations. See Trade unions. 

Labor relations. See Industrial relations. 

Labor representation in regulation of industry. See Employees" 
representation in management. 



[ xxxvii ] 



Labor-saving devices, Household. See Home economics: Equip- 
ment and supplies. 

LABOR SUPPLY 398 

See also Absenteeism (Labor); Child labor; Industry and 
state: Sweden; Labor and laboring classes; Labor supply, 
Agricultural; Population; President Roosevelt: Radio ad- 
dresses, debates, etc.; Unemployed; U.S.: Defenses; Wages; 
Woman: Employment; World War, 1939-1945: Manpower. 

LABOR SUPPLY, AGRICULTURAL 398 

See also Military service. Compulsory; Population; Presi- 
dent Roosevelt: Radio addresses, debates, etc.; Production, 
Agricultural; Wages; Agricultural. 

Labor unions. See Trade unions. 

Laborers. See Labor and laboring classes. 

La Follette, Philip F. See Political parties: U.S.; Presidents: 
U.S. (Election 1940). 

La Follette, Robert M., Jr. See Labor and laboring classes; Per- 
sons; Political parties: U.S.; Presidents: U.S. (Election 
1940). 

La Follette Committee. See Civil rights. 

La Follette party. See Political parties: U.S. 

La Guardia, Fiorello. See Persons; Political parties: U.S.; 
Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940; 1944). 

LAND, NATIONALIZATION OF 399 

See also Communism; Production, Agricultural; Socialism. 

Land tenure. See Land, Nationalization of. 

Landlord and tenant. See Housing; Rent. 

Landon, Alfred. See Persons; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1936- 
1944) (Term of office); Republican party; U.S.: Foreign 
relations. 

Language, Universal. See Language and languages. 

LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGES 400 

Laski, Harold. See Political parties: Great Britain. 

Latin America. See Central and South America. 

Latin language. See Language and languages. 

LAUNDRY 403 

Lausche, Frank. See Persons. 

Lauzanne, Stephane. See War crimes and trials. 

Laval, Pierre. See Persons; War crimes and trials; World War, 
1939-1945: Refugees. 

Law. See Automobiles: Laws and regulations; Courts; Election 
law; Habeas corpus; Judges; Justice; Labor laws and legis- 
lation; Legislation: U.S.; Patent laws and legislation; 
Peace treaties; Property. 

Law, Administrative. See Civil service: France: Great Britain: 
Netherlands: U.S. 

Law, Constitutional. See Citizenship; Civil rights; Democracy; 
Habeas corpus; Legislation: U.S.; Referenda: Australia: 

»'• France; Soldiers: Suffrage; Suffrage. 

Law, Criminal. See Capital punishment; Habeas corpus; Pris- 
ons; Punishment; Trials. 

Law, International. See Aliens: Great Britain; International 
cooperation; International organization; League of Na- 
tions; Nationalism and nationality; Neutrality; Peace 
treaties; United Nations; War. 

Law of nations. See Aliens; Great Britain; International coop- 
eration; International organization; League of Nations; 
Nationalism and nationality; Neutrality; Peace treaties; 
United Nations; War. 

Lawn tennis. See Sports. 

Laws. See Automobiles: Laws and regulations; Labor laws and 
legislation; Legislation; U.S.; Patent laws and legislation. 

Lawyers. J'«e Judges; Occupations; Strikes and lockouts. 

LEAGUE OF NATIONS 403 

Lease-lend bill. See Lend-lease bill. 

Lease-lend operations. See Lend-lease operations. 



, PAGE 

Leclerc, de Hauteclogue, Jacques-Philippe. See France: Presi- 
dents. 

Legal holidays. See Holidays. 

Legal profession. See Lawyers. 

Legal tender. See Money. 

Legends. See Folklore. 

LEGISLATION 404 

Canada. See Canada; Politics and government. 

France 404 

Germany 404 

U.S 404 

See also Automobiles; Laws and regulations; Courts; Labor 
laws and legislation; Patent laws and legislation; War 
bonds and stamps. 

Legislation, Direct. See Referenda: Australia: France. 

Legislation, Social. See Child labor; Insurance, Health; Insur- 
ance, State and compulsory; Insurance, Unemployment; 
Labor laws and legislation; Old age pensions; Woman: 
Suffrage. 

LEGISLATIVE BODIES 407 

See also Australia: Parliament; Canada: Parliament; Con- 
gressmen; Denmark: Parliament; France: National assem- 
blies; Great Britain: Parliament; Legislative bodies: Ger- 
many; Senators; U.S.; Congress. 
Germany 407 

Lehman, Herbert. See Presidents; U.S. (Election 1940). 

LEISURE 407 

See also Education. 

LEND-LEASE BILL 409 

See also Lend-lease operations. 

LEND-LEASE OPERATIONS 410 

See also Lend-lease bill; United Nations; U.S.; Army and 
navy (Supplies and stores). 

LENT 415 

Letters to Congressmen. See Questions to government officials. 

Letters to government officials. See Questions to government 
officials. 

Lewis, John L. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Congress of Industrial 
Organizations; Industrial relations; Labor and laboring 
classes; Labor leaders; Open and closed shop; Persons; 
Politics, Practical: U.S.; Presidents; U.S. (Election 1940; 
1944); Strikes and lockouts; Trade unions. 

Lewis, Sinclair. See Persons. 

Liberty. See Democracy. 

Liberty, Religious. See Religious liberty. 

Liberty of conscience. See Conscientious objectors; Public opin- 
ion. 

Liberty of speech. See Free speech. 

LIBERTY OF THE PRESS 416 

See also Civil rights; Communism. 

Lieftinck, Pieter. See Finance; Netherlands. 

Life, Future. See Immortality. 

Life insurance. See Insurance, Life. 

Limitation of armament. See Disarmament. 

Limitation of fortunes and income. See Income regulation. 

Lincoln, Abraham. See Persons; Presidents: U.S. 

Lindbergh, Charles Augustus. See Persons; Presidents: U.S. 
(Election 1940; 1944); U.S.; Congress (Elections, 1942): 
Foreign relations; World War, 1939-1945: Supplies. 

Linguistics. See Language and languages. 

Lippmann, Walter. See Persons. 

Lipton, Sir Thomas. See Persons. 

Liquid fuel. See Fuel; Gasoline. 

Liquor laws. See Liquor problem; Prohibition. 

LIQUOR PROBLEM 418 

See also Advertising; Automobile drivers; Automobiles: 
Accidents; Hotels, taverns, etc.; Moral conditions; Mov- 



[ xxxviii ] 

PAGE PAGE 

ing pictures; Prohibition; Woman: Social and moral ques- ing and dress; Commerce; Home economics: Equipment 

tions. and supplies; Musical instruments; Prices; Radio; Sewing 

Liquor traffic. See Industry and state: Canada. machines; Smoking; Tin; Tires and rubber. 

Literary Digtst poll. See Public opinion. Manus Island. See World War, 1939-1945: Territorial questions: 
Literature — evaluation. See Books and reading. U.S. 

Little Steel Formula. See Wage regulation. Margarine. See Oleomargarine. 

Livestock. See Vegetable gardening. Marine corps — U.S. See U.S. — Marine Corps. 

Living, cost and standard of. See Cost and standard of living. Market, Black. See Black market. 

Loans. See Income tax: U.S.; Interest and usury; Saving and Marketing (domestic economy). See Buying. 

thrift; U.S. : Appropriations and expenditures. MARRIAGE 430 

Loans, International. See Finance. See also Civil service: U.S.; Divorce; Education; Family; 

Lobbying. See Corruption (in politics); Trade unions. Moral conditions; Public health; Race; Soldiers; Sex; Tax- 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT 424 ation: Denmark; Venereal diseases; Woman: Employment: 

See also Public works; State governments; Taxation: U.S.; Social and moral questions: Wages. 

Unemployed: U.S.; U.S.: Appropriations and expenditures. MARRIAGE AND STATE 433 

Germany. See Local government; Newspapers. Marriage law. See Divorce; Marriage. 

Sweden. See Local government. Mars, The invasion from. See Radio plays and programs. 

Local option. See Liquor problem; Prohibition. Marshall, George Catlett. See Generals; Persons; Presidents: 
Lockouts. See Strikes and lockouts. U.S. (Election 1944). 

Locomotion. See Airplanes; Automobiles; Bicycles; Transpor- Martial law. See Habeas corpus. 

ration. Martin, Joseph W., Jr. See Persons; Presidents: U.S. (Election 
Lodge, Henry C, Jr. See Persons; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940). 

1940; 1944). Masks, Gas. See Gases, Asphyxiating and poisonous: War use. 

Lombardo, Guy. See Persons. Matrimony. See Marriage. 

London. See Geography; United Nations. Maugham, Somerset. See Persons. 

London Conference, 1945- See World War, 1939-1945: Con- Maxwell, Elsa. See Persons. 

gresses, conferences, etc. Mayer, Louis. See Persons. 

Lord's day. See Sunday. "McCarthy, Charlie." See Persons. 

LOTTERIES 426 McCormick, Robert Rutherford. See Persons. 

See also Bounties, Military; Gambling; Horse-racing. McGee, Fibber and Molly. See Persons. 

Louis, Joe. See Persons. McNary, Charles L. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940). 

Luce, Clare Boothe. See Persons. McNutt, Paul V. See Persons; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940- 
Luce, Henry. See Persons. 1948); Questions to government officials. 

Lunch rooms. See Restaurants, lunch rooms, etc. McQuesten, T. B. See Political parties: Canada. 

Luxury. See Cost and standard of living; Leisure; Wealth. Meals. See Calories and vitamins; Cookery; Diet; Food; Nutri- 
Lynch law. See Crime and criminals. tion; Restaurants, lunch rooms, etc. 

Lynching. See Crime and criminals. Meals for school children. See School children: Food. 

Means test. See Insurance, Unemployment. 

MAC ARTHUR, DOUGLAS 428 MEAT 434 

See also Generals; Persons; Politics, Practical: U.S.; Prcsi- See also Black market; Buying; Food supply; Price regula- 

dents: U.S. (Election 1944; 1948). tion; Rationing, Consumer; Sugar. 

Machine guns. See Firearms. Meat industry and trade. See Industry and state: U.S.; Meat; 
Machinery. See Agricultural machinery. Strikes and lockouts. 

Machinery in industry. See Unemployed : U.S. MEDALS 437 

MacKay, Hugh. See Political parties: Canada. Medical care, Cost of. See Medical economics. 

MacPherson, Murdock. See Political parties: Canada. Medical charities. See Hospitals. 

Magazines. See Periodicals. MEDICAL ECONOMICS 438 

MAGNA CHARTA 428 See also Income tax: U.S.; Medicine, State. 

Mail service. See Postal service; Postal service: Rates. Medical profession. See Physicians. 

Malnutrition. See Nutrition. Medical research. See Research. 

Malta fever. See Diseases. Medicine. See Homeopathy; Hospitals; World War, 1939-1945: 

Man power. See Manpower. Medical and sanitary affairs. 

Management, Employees' representation in. See Employees' Cost of medical care, i'ff Medical economics. 

representation in management. Practice. See Cancer; Cattle: Diseases; Diseases; Homeopathy; 

Management, Industrial. See Office management. Infantile paralysis; Influenza and colds; Physicians; Public 

Management, Scientific. See Office management. health; Tuberculosis; Venereal diseases. 

Management of children. See Children: Management. Medicine, Socialized. See Medical economics; Medicine, State. 

Manila. See Geography. '^ MEDICINE, STATE 439 

Mannerheim. See World War, 1939-1945: Refugees. See also Hospitals; Public health; Taxation: Sweden. 

MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 429 MEDICINES, SPECIFIC 444 

See also Class distinction; Clothing and dress; Birth; Holi- Meighen, Arthur. See Political parties: Canada. 

days; Kings and rulers; Liquor problem; Rites and cere- Members of Parliament. See subdivision Parliament under 

monies; Sports; Tipping; Travel. names of countries. 

Manpower. See Labor supply; Labor supply: Agricultural; Memorial Day. See Holidays. 

World War, 1939-1945: Manpower. Memorials. See Soldiers' monuments. 

Manufacturers. See Airplane industry and trade; Airplanes; Mendes-France. i"« Cabinet officers: France. 

Airplanes, Military; Automobiles; Boots and shoes; Cloth- Mental hygiene. See Mental physiology and hygiene. 



[ xxxix ] 



PAGE 

MENTAL PHYSIOLOGY AND HYGIENE 444 

See also Worry. 
Menus. See Diet. 

Menzies, Robert G. See Political parties: Australia. 
Mercantile Marine. See U.S.; Merchant Marine. 
Merchant Marine. See U.S. : Merchant Marine. 
Mercy deaths. See Defective and delinquent classes. 
Merit system. See Civil service reform. 
METALS 445 

See also Automobiles; Salvage (Waste, etc.); Tin. 
Meteorology. See Weather forecasting. 
Mexico. See Central and South America; Geography. 
Michelet, Edmond. See Cabinet officers: France. 

MIDDLE AGE 446 

Middle classes. See Economic conditions; Labor and laboring 

classes; Political parties: Canada: U.S.; Presidents: U.S. 

(Election 1944). 
MIGRATION, INTERNAL 450 

See also Agriculture and state; Housing. 
Militarism. See Military service. Compulsory; War; Woman: 

Military service. Compulsory. 
Military aeronautics. See Air defenses; Air raid shelters; Air- 
planes, Military; War: Aerial operations; World War, 

1939-1945: Aerial operations. 
Military airplanes. See Airplanes: Military. 
Military art and science. See Civilian defense; Disarmament; 

Military education; Military occupation; Military service. 

Compulsory; Morale; Russia: Politics and government; 

Soldiers; Spies; United Nations; War; Woman: Military 

Service, Compulsory. 
Military awards. See Medals. 
Military bounties. See Bounties, Military. 
MILITARY CEREMONIES, HONORS, AND SALUTES 450 
Military costume. See Uniforms, Military. 
Military drafting. See Military service. Compulsory; Woman: 

Military service, Compulsory. 
MILITARY EDUCATION 450 

See also Civilian Conservation Corps; Soldiers. 
Military honors. See Military ceremonies, honors, and salutes. 
Military life. See Soldiers. 
MILITARY OCCUPATION 450 

See also Military service. Compulsory; United Nations. 

France 451 

Germany 451 

See also Food relief; Military occupation; Problems: U.S.; 
%.' World War, 1939-1945: Influences and results (Germany); 

U.S.: Politics and government. 
Japan 457 

See also Military occupation; Problems: U.S.; U.S.: Politics 

and government; World War, 1939-1945: Peace. 

Netherlands 458 

Poland 458 

See also World War, 1939-1945: Atrocities. 

U.S. Insular Possessions 458 

Military pay, allowances, etc. See Canada: Army and navy 

(Pay, allowances, etc.); Great Britain: Army and navy 

(Pay, allowances, etc.); U.S.; Army and navy (Pay, allow- 
ances, etc.). 
Military pensions. See Pensions, Military. 
Military power. See Armaments; Disarmament. 
Military salutes. See Military ceremonies, honors, and salutes. 
Military schools. See Military education. 
Military science. See Military art and science. 
MILITARY SERVICE, COMPULSORY 458 

See also Baseball; Conscientious objectors; Disarmament; 

Education, Higher; Industry and state: U.S.; Labor supply. 

Agricultural; Morale; Physicians; Public law #346; Se- 



curity: U.S.; Strikes and lockouts; U.S.: Politics and gov- 
ernment: Army nurse corps; Woman: Military Service, 
Compulsory; World War, 1939-1945: U.S. 

Military training. Universal. See Military service. Compulsory; 
Woman: Military service. Compulsory. 

Military training camps. See Food supply. 

Military uniforms. See Uniforms, Military. 

Militia — Australia. See Australia: Army and militia (Unified 
command). 

Militia — U.S. See Military service. Compulsory. 

MILK. 473 

See also Bread; Butter; Cheese. 

Millionaires. See Wealth. 

Mills, Ogden. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1936). 

Milncr, H. R. See Political parties: Canada. 

Mind and body. See Mental physiology and hygiene. 

Mineral lands and resources. See Mines and mineral resources; 
Government ownership. 

Miners. See Coal miners. 

MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES 475 

See also Raw materials; Sweden: Neutrality. 
Government Ownership 475 

Minimum wage. See Wages; Minimum wages. 

Mining. See Mines and mineral resources: Government owner- 
ship. 

Ministers of state. See Cabinet officers. 

Ministers of the Gospel. See Clergy. 

MINORITIES 476 

See also Catholic church; French-Canadians; Germans in 
the U.S.; Germany; Territorial expansion; Japanese in 
Canada; Japanese in the U.S.; Jewish question; Jews: Col- 
onization; Nationalism and nationality; Negroes; Educa- 
tion: Employment; Problems: U.S.; Totalitarianism; U.S.: 
Race question; World War, 1939-1945: Causes. 

Misdemeanors (law). See Capital punishment; Habeas corpus; 
Prisons; Punishment; Trials. 

Missouri Valley Authority. See Public works. 

Modern art. See Art. 

Modern languages. See Language and languages. 

Molotov, V. M. See Persons. 

Monachism. See Monasticism and religious orders. 

Monarchs. See Kings and rulers. 

Monarchy. See Democracy; Germany: Politics and government; 
Kings and rulers. 

MONASTICISM AND RELIGIOUS ORDERS 478 

Monetary question. See Finance; Inflation (finance); Money. 

MONEY 478 

See also Finance: Netherlands; International relations; 
Prices; U.S.: Foreign relations (Great Britain); Wealth. 

Money raising. See Moving pictures. 

Monnet, Jean. See Cabinet officers: France. 

Monoplanes. See Airplanes. 

MONOPOLIES 480 

See also Competition; U.S.: Politics and government; 
Wealth. 

Montgomery Ward strike. See Strikes and lockouts. 

Montreal. See Migration, Internal; U.S.: Foreign relations 
(Great Britain). 

Monuments. See Soldiers' monuments. 

Monuments, Historical. See Bombing of historical monuments. 

Mook, Hubertus J. van. See van Mook, Hubertus J. 

Moonev, Tom. See Persons. 

MORAL CONDITIONS 481 

See also Indians of South America; Politics, Practical: U.S.; 
Radio plays and programs. 

Moral philosophy. See Ethics. 

MORALE 483 



[xl] 



See also Radio plays and programs; Security: U.S.; Soldiers; 
United Nations; World War, 1939-1945: U.S.: Victory. 

Morality. See Ethics. 

Morals. See Conduct of life; Moral conditions. 

Morals and war. See World War, 1939-1945: Moral aspects. 

Morgenthau, Henry, Jr. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Persons; 
Questions to government officials. 

Morrison, Herbert. See Cabinet officers: Great Britain; Civil 
rights. 

Moscow. See United Nations. 

Moscow Conference, 1943 and 1945. See World War, 1939 1945: 
Congresses, conferences, etc. 

Motion pictures. See Moving pictures. 

Motor buses. See Public utilities and state; Transportation. 

Motor cars. See Automobiles. 

Moving picture actors and actresses. See Actors and actresses. 

Moving picture industry and trade. See Industry: U.S. 

MOVING PICTURE PLAYS 485 

MOVING PICTURES 485 

See also Advertising; Amusements; Cost and standard of 
living; Culture; Liberty of the press; Radio; Smoking; 
Soldiers; Television; Theater; U.S.: Foreign relations 
(Great Britain); World War, 1939-1945: U.S. 

Munich. See Geography. 

Municipalities. See Cities and towns. 

MUNITIONS 491 

See also Roosevelt, Franklin D.; U.S.: Defenses: Army and 
navy (Supplies and stores); World War, 1939-1945: Propa- 
ganda: Supplies: U.S. 

Murder. See Capital punishment. 

Murphy, Frank. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940). 

Murray, Philip. See Labor leaders; Persons; Presidents: U.S. 
(Election 1944). 

Museums. See Art: Galleries and museums. 

MUSIC 494 

See also Great Britain: Politics and government; Musical 
instruments; National songs; Radio and music; Trade 
unions. 
Instruction and study. See Music; Musical instruments. 

Music and radio. See Radio and music. 

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 495 

Mussolini, Benito. See Dictators; Persons; War crimes and 
trials; World War, 1939-1945: Refugees. 

M.V.A. See Missouri Valley Authority. 

Mythology. See Folklore. 

N.A.M. See National Association of Manufacturers. 

Nanking. See Military occupation. 

Napoleon Bonaparte. See Persons. 

Narratives, Personal — war. See World War, 1939-1945: Per- 
sonal narratives. 

National assemblies — France. See France: National assemblies. 

National Association of Manufacturers. See Presidents: U.S. 
(Election 1944). 

NATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS 496 

American 496 

British 499 

Canadian 499 

Chinese 499 

czechoslovakian 499 

French 499 

German 5OO 

Japanese 5OI 

See also National characteristics: German. 

Russian 502 

South American 502 

National debts. 



Canada. See Debts, Public: Canada. 

Great Britain. See Debts, Public: Great Britain. 

U.S. See Debts, Public: U.S.; War bonds and stamps. 

National defenses. See Subdivision Defenses under names of 
countries. 

National Editorial Association. See News agencies. 

National Guard — U.S. See Military Service, Compulsory. 

National holidays. See Holidays. 

National hymns. See National songs. 

National Labor Relations Board. See Arbitration, Industrial. 

National planning. See Economic policy. 

National problems. See Problems. 

National Progressive party. See Political parties: U.S. 

National psychology. See National characteristics. 

National Recovery Administration. See Industry and state: 
U.S.; Price regulation; U.S.: Politics and government. 

National registration. See Civil rights; Security: Great Britain. 

National Resistance Council. See France: Politics and govern- 
ment. 

National Resources Board plan. See Insurance, State and com- 
pulsory. 

National Service Act. See World War, 1939-1945: Manpower. 

NATIONAL SOCIALISM 502 

See also Birth rate; Catholic church; Clergy; Dies commit- 
tee; Fascism; Germans in the U.S.; Liberty of the press; 
Monopolies; Newspapers; Occupations; Property; Punish- 
ment; Security, International; Socialism; Sports; Totali- 
tarianism; U.S.: Politics and government; World War, 
1939-1945: Influence and results (Germany): Territorial 
questions (Germany). 

National Socialist Association. See National Socialism. 

NATIONAL SONGS 508 

See also Civil rights. 

National wire service. See News agencies. 

National Youth Administration. See Public works; U.S.: Ap- 
propriations and expenditures. 

NATIONALISM AND NATIONALITY 508 

See also International cooperation; Jewish question; Na- 
tional characteristics. 

Nationalization of banks. See Government ownership: Banks. 

Nationalization of industry. See Industry and state. 

Nationalization of land. See Land, Nationalization of. 

Nationalization of mines. See Mines and mineral resources: Gov- 
ernment ownership. 

Nationalization of newspapers. See Liberty of the press. 

Nationalization of public utilities. See Public utilities and state. 

Nationalization of radio. See Radio and state. 

Nationalization of railroads. See Railroads and state. 

Nations, Law of. See Aliens: Great Britain; International co- 
operation; International organization; League of Nations; 
Nationalism and nationality; Neutrality; Peace treaties; 
United Nations; War. 

Nations, League of. See League of Nations. 

Nations, United. See United Nations. 

Natural resources. See Mines and mineral resources: Govern- 
ment ownership; Soil conservation. 

Naturalization. See Aliens: Great Britain; Citizenship. 

Naval aeronautics. See Aeronautics, Military and naval. 

Naval education. See Military education. 

Naval officers. See Japan: Army and navy (Officers); U.S.: 
Army and navy (Naval officers): Foreign relations (Great 
Britain). 

Naval operation in war. See World War, 1939-1945: Naval oper- 
ations. 

Naval schools. See Military education. 

Naval uniforms. See Uniforms, Military. ■ 



i 



[xli] 



PAGE 

Navies. See Armaments; Great Britain: Army and navy; U.S.: 

Army and navy; World War, 1939-1945. 
Navigation (aeronautics). See Airplanes: Piloting. 
Navy. 

France. See France: Politics and government. 

Japan. i'« Japan: Army and navy. 

Great Britain. See Great Britain: Army and navy. 

Netherlands. See Netherlands: Foreign relations (East 

Indies). 
Recruiting, enlistment, etc. See U.S.: Army and navy (Re- 
cruiting, enlistment, etc.). 
U.S. See U.S. : Army and navy. 
Navy relief fund. See World War, 1939-1945: Contributions. 
Nazi leaders. See National Socialism; Sectirity: U.S.; War crimes 
and trials; World War, 1939-1945: Atrocities: Influences 
and results (Germany). 
Nazi movement. See National Socialism. 

NEGROES 508 

See also Minorities; Negroes: Education: Employment; 
Population; Race; Soldiers: Suffrage; Trade unions and 
state; U.S.: Race question; World War, 1939-1945: U.S. 

Education 508 

See also U.S. : Race question. 

Employment 509 

Negroes as soldiers. See U.S.: Race question. 
Nelson, Donald. See Persons; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944); 
Questions to government officials; Radio addresses, de- 
bates, etc. 
Nervous system — diseases. See Worry. 
Nervous system — hygiene. See Mental physiology and hygiene. 

NETHERLANDS 511 

Army and navy. See Netherlands: Foreign relations (East 

Indies). 
Cabinet officers. See Cabinet officers: Netherlands. 
Civil service. See Civil service: Netherlands. 
Elections. See Elections: Netherlands. 
Finance. See Finance: Netherlands. 

Foreign relations. See International cooperation; Interna- 
tional relations. 

Foreign Relations (East Indies) 511 

German occupation. See Military occupation: Netherlands. 
Industry. See Industry: Netherlands. 
Industry and state. See Industry and state: Netherlands. 
Military occupation. See Military occupation: Netherlands. 
Political parties. See Political parties: Netherlands. 

Politics and Government 512. 

See also Cabinet officers: Netherlands; Elections: Nether- 
lands; Political parties: Netherlands; World politics. 
Taxation. See Taxation: Netherlands. 
Territorial questions. See World War, 1933-1945: Territorial 

questions (Netherlands). 
Unemployed. See Unemployed: Netherlands. 
World War, 1939-1945. See World War, 1939-1945: Nether- 
lands: Territorial questions (Netherlands). 

NEUTRALITY 512 

See also World War, 1939-1945: Propaganda; and subdivi- 
sion Neutrality under names of countries. 
Neutrality law. See Spain: Civil War, 1936-1939 (Supplies); 
U.S.: Neutrality; World War, 1939-1945: Finance: Food 
question: Naval operations: Supplies. 
Nevada, Population of. See Population. 
"New Deal." See U.S.: Politics and government; World War, 

1939-1945: Influence and results (U.S.). 
New Year. See Holidays. 

New Year's resolutions. See Manners and customs. 
New York City. See United Nations; U.S.: Foreign relations 
(Great Britain). 



PAGE 

New York— World's Fair, 1939. See Exhibitions. 

New Zealand. See World War, 1-939-1945: Territorial questions 
(U.S.). 

News. See News reports. 

NEWS AGENCIES 512 

News commentators. See Radio commentators. 

News correspondents. See Russia: Politics and government. 

News reports. See Newspapers; Newspapers and radio; Radio: 
News reports; World War, 1939-1945: News reports. 

Newsboys. See Child labor. 

Newspaper columnists. See Newspapers; Newspapers and radio. 

NEWSPAPERS 514 

See also Advertising; Cost and standard of living; Culture; 
Democratic party; Food supply; Gasoline; Industrial rela- 
tions; Liberty of the press; Moving pictures; Newspapers 
and radio; Periodicals; Republican party; Security, Inter- 
national; Sex instruction; Spies; U.S.: Politics and govern- 
ment; War crimes and trials; World War, 1939-1945: 
News reports: U.S. 

Newspapers and politics. See Politics and newspapers. 

NEWSPAPERS AND RADIO 523 ' 

See also Newspapers; Radio; Sports; Venereal diseases; 
World War, 1939-1945: News reports. 

Newsreels. See Moving pictures. 

Night schools. See Education of adults. 

Nihilism. See Communism. 

Nimitz, Chester. See Persons. 

Nixon, Harry C. See Political parties: Canada. 

N.L.R.B. See National Labor Relations Board. 

NOBEL PRIZES 526 

Nominations for president — U.S. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 
1936-1948). 

Non-support. See Divorce. 

Norris, Kathleen. See Persons. 

North America. See World War, 1939-1945; Influence and re- 
sults. 

North American Aviation strikes. See Strikes and lockouts. 

NORWAY 526 

See also United Nations; World War, 1939-1945: Territorial 
questions (Germany). 

Defenses 526 

See also Armaments. 
Finance. See World War, 1939-1945: Finance. 
Political parties. See Political parties: Norway. 

Politics and Government 527 

See also Women in public life. 
Tariff. See Tariff. 
World War, 1939-1945. See World War, 1939-1945: Norway. 

Norway, Population of. See Population. 

Norwegian language. See Language and languages. 

N.R.A. See National Recovery Administration. 

Nuns. See Monasticism and religious orders. 

Nuremberg trials. See War crimes and trials. 

Nurses and nursing. See Children: Care and hygiene; Civilian 
defense; Hospitals; Negroes: Employment; U.S.: Army 
nurse corps. 

NUTRITION 527 

See also Calories and vitamins; Diet; Food; Milk; Oils and 
fats. 

N.Y.A. See National Youth Administration. 

Nye, Gerald P. See Political parties: U.S.; Presidents: U.S. 
(Election 1940-1948); U.S.: Congress (Elections, 1942). 



Occupation, Military. See Military occupation; World War, 

1939-1945: (names of occupied territories). 
Occupation, Choice of. See Occupations. 



[ xlii ] 

PAGE PAGE 

Occupational questionnaire. See World War, 1939-1945: Man- Paris Conference, 1946. See World War, 1939-1945: Congresses, 

power. conferences, etc. 

OCCUPATIONS 527 Parks. See Amusements. 

See also Civil rights; Education; Employees' representation Parliament. See subdivision under names of countries. 

in management; Happiness; Immigration and emigration; Parliament, Members of. See subdivision Parliament under 

Influenza and colds; Japanese in the U.S.; Munitions; Swe- names of countries. 

den: Foreign relations; U.S.: Race question; World War, Parochial schools. See Education; Education and state. 

1939-1945: Displaced persons: Manpower. Parole. See Persons; Prisons. 

Office of Price Administration. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Per- Parsons, Louella. See Persons. 

sons; Price regulation; Wages and prices; World War, Parties, Political. See Political parties. 

1939-1945: U.S. Passamaquoddy Power Project. See Public works. 

Office of War Information. J'ec Persons; World War, 1939-1945: Pastimes. Set Amusements; Baseball; Leisure; Sports; Swim- 
News reports: Propaganda: U.S. ming. 

OFFICE MANAGEMENT 538 Pastors. See Clergy. 

See also Employees' representation in management. PATENT LAWS AND LEGISLATION 552 

Oil. See Fuel; Heating; Oils and fats; Petroleum. Paternalism. See Government ownership: Banks; Industry and 

OILS AND FATS 538 state; Insurance, Life; Mines and mineral resources: Gov- 

See also Rationing, Consumer; Salvage (Waste, etc.) ernment ownership; Public utilities and state; Radio and 

Okinawa. See Geography. state; Railroads and state; Socialism. 

Old Age. See Cost and standard of living; Judges; Labor and Patriotic songs. See National songs. 

laboring classes; Migration, Internal; Old age pensions; Patriotism. See U.S.: Race question; World War, 1939-1945: 

Presidents: U.S. Supplies. 

OLD AGE PENSIONS 541 Patrons of husbandry. See Agricultural societies. 

See also Insurance, State and compulsory; Insurance, Un- Patton, George. See Generals; Persons. 

employment; Lotteries; Medicine, State; Unemployed: Paul, Marcel, i'cf Cabinet officers: France. 

U.S.; U.S.: Appropriations and expenditures: Politics and Paulson. See Spies. 

government. "Pay-as-you-earn" plan. See Taxation: Australia: Great Brit- 
Oleomargarine. See Butter; Food supply. ain. 

Oliver, Farquhar. See Political parties: Canada. "Pay-as-you-go" plan. See Income tax: U.S. (Ruml plan). 

Olympic games. See Sports. Pauperism. See Poor. 

O.P.A. See Office of Price Administration. Pavements. See Roads. 

OPEN AND CLOSED SHOP 546 Peace. See Church unity; Disarmament; European War, 1914- 

See also Strikes and lockouts. 1918: Peace; Holidays; Language and languages; League 

Opinion, Public. See Public opinion. of Nations; Military service. Compulsory; Problems: U.S.; 

Opportunity. i'«e Success: U.S.: Race question. Reconstruction; Security; Security, International; Strikes 

Orders, Monastic. See Monasticism and religious orders. and lockouts; United Nations; U.S.: Politics and govern- 

Organization, International. See International organization. ment; War; World War, 1939-1945: Influence and results 

Organization and management. See Office management. (Germany): Peace: Territorial questions (Germany). 

Organizations, Agricultural. See Agricultural societies. PEACE TREATIES 552 

Organized labor. See Trade unions. See also World War, 1939-1945: Peace. 

Orthography. Xw Spelling reform. Pearl Harbor, Battle of. See World War, 1939-1945: Pearl 

Osaka. See Geography. Harbor. 

Oslo. See Geography. Pearson, Drew. See Person:;. 

Ott, Mel. See Persons. Pedagogy. See Education. 

Outdoor life. See Sports. Pediatrics. See Children: Care and hygiene. 

O.W.I. See Office of War Information. Pegler, Westbrook. See Persons. 

Ownership. See Property. Penal codes. See Capital punishment; Habeas corpus; Prisons; 

Punishment; Trials. 

P.A.C. See Political Action Committee. Penitentiaries. See Prisons. 

Pacifism. .Tef Conscientious objectors. Penology. See Prisons; Punishment. 

Packing industry. See Meat industry and trade. PENSIONS 552 

Page, Earle. See Political parties: Australia. See also Insurance, State and compulsory; Old age pensions; 

Painting. See Art. Taxation: Sweden; U.S.: Appropriations and expenditures. 

Palestine question. See Jews: Colonization. PENSIONS, MILITARY 552 

Pan-American conference, 1942. See World War, 1939-1945: j'ee <j/j-o U.S. : Appropriations and expenditures; Veterans. 

Congresses, conferences, etc. Pensions, Naval. See Pensions, Military. 

PAN-AMERICAN RELATIONS 548 Pentecost festival. See Amusements. 

Panama. See Central and South America. Pepper, Claude. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944); Political 

PAPACY 550 parties: U.S. 

See also Catholic church. PERIODICALS 553 

PAPER 550 See also Advertising; Cost and standard of living; Gasoline; 

See also Radio plays and programs; Salvage (Waste, etc.) Liberty of the press; Newspapers; Newspapers and radio; 

Paper money. i"«f Money. Sex instruction; Smoking; World War, 1939-1945: News 

Paralysis, Infantile. See Infantile paralysis. reports: U.S. 

PARENTS' AND TEACHERS' ASSOCIATIONS 552 Perkins, Frances. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Labor and laboring 

Paris. See United Nations. classes; Persons. 

Paris, Count of. See War crimes and trials. Persecution. j"ef Jewish question. 



[ xliii ] 



PAGE 

Personal narratives in war. See World War, 1939-1945: Personal 
narratives. 

Personal problems. See Worry. 

PERSONS 554 

Persons, Displaced. See World War, 1939-1945: Displaced per- 
sons. 

Peru, See Geography. 

Petain, Henri. See Elections: France; France: Politics and gov- 
ernment; Persons; War crimes and trials. 

Petrillo, James C. See Labor leaders; Trade unions. 

Petrol. See Gasoline. 

Petroleum. See Fuel; Gasoline; World War, 1939-1945: Supplies. 

Petroleum industry and trade. See Industry and state: U.S. 

Philadelphia. See United Nations. 

Philanthropy, i'ee Charities; Endowments. 

Philippine Islands. See U.S.: Insular possessions. 

Philippine Islands, Independence of. See U.S. : Insular posses- 
sions. 

Philology. See Language and languages. 

Philosophy, Moral. See Ethics. 

Phonetic spelling. See Spelling reform. 

Photoplays See Moving picture plays. 

Phthisis. See Tuberculosis. 

Physical culture. See Baseball; Exercise; Sports; Swimming. 

Physical education and training. See Baseball; Exercise; Sports; 
Swimming. 

PHYSICIANS 567 

See also Influenza and colds; Medical economics; Medicine, 
State; Medicines, Specific; Strikes and lockouts. 

Piano. See Musical instruments. 

Picketing (in strikes). See Actors and actresses; Industrial rela- 
tions; Strikes and lockouts. 

Pickling. See Canning and preserving. 

Picture posters. See Posters. 

Pictures. See Liberty of the press. 

Pictures, Moving. See Moving pictures; Moving picture plays. 

Pierlot. See World War, 1939-1945: Underground movements. 

Piloting (aeronautics). See Airplanes: Piloting. 

Pilots, Airplane. See Air pilots. 

Pipe fitting. See Plumbing. 

Pipes. See Smoking. 

Place of residence. See Migration, Internal. 

Planned economy. See Economic policy. 

Planning, City. See City planning. 

Planning, Economic. See Economic policy. 

Planning, National. See Economic policy. 

Plastic materials. See Rubber, Artificial; Synthetic products. 

Play. See Amusements; Baseball; Sports; Swimming. 

Players. See Actors and actresses. 

Playgrounds. See Soldiers' monuments. 

Playhouses. See Theater. 

Playing cards. See Gambling. 

Pleasure. See Happiness. 

Pleven, Rene. See Cabinet officers; France; Finance: France. 

PLUMBING 568 

Pneumatic tires. See Tires and rubber. 

Pneumonia, See Diseases. 

Pocket money for children. See Children: Allowances, etc. 

Poison gases. See Gases, Asphyxiating and poisonous: War use. 

POLAND 568 

See also Reconstruction; Russia: Politics and government; 
World War, 1939-1945: Territorial questions (Germany) 
(Russia). 
Cooperation with Great Britain. See International coopera- 
tion: Great Britain-Poland. 
Foreign relations. See International cooperation: Great Brit- 
ain-Poland. 



PAGE 

German occupation. See Military occupation: Poland. 
Military occupation. See Military occupation: Poland. 

Politics and Government 568 

See also World politics. 
World War, 1939-1945. See World War, 1939-1945: Territo- 
rial questions (Poland) (Russia). 
Police. See Crime and criminals; Secret service; Strikes and lock- 
outs. 
Denmark. See War crimes and trials. 

Germany. See National Socialism; War crimes and trials; 
World War, 1939-1945: Influence and results (Germany). 
Sweden. See Totalitarianism. 
Police, International. See International police. 
Poliomyelitis, Anterior. See Infantile paralysis. 
Polish in Great Britain, See Aliens: Great Britain. 
Politeness. See Etiquette, 

POLITICAL ACTION COMMITTEE 568 

See also U.S.: Congress (Elections, 1946). 
Political columnists. See Newspaper columnists. 
Political conventions. See Democratic party; Political parties: 
U.S.; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940; 1944); Republican 
party; U.S.: Congress (Elections, 1938). 
Political corruption. See Corruption (in politics). 
Political crimes and offences. See Corruption (in politics); War 

crimes and trials. 
Political ethics. See Citizenship; Corruption (in politics). 
Political news. See Politics and newspapers; Politics and radio. 

POLITICAL PARTIES 569 

Australia 569 

See also Australia: Politics and government; Elections; 
Australia. 

Canada 570 

See also Canada: Army; Elections; Canada, Dominion: 
Provincial; World War, 1939^1945: Canada. 

Czechoslovakia 570 

See also Elections: Czechoslovakia. 

Denmark 571 

See also Denmark: Politics and government; Elections: 
Denmark; Politics, Practical; Denmark. 

France 572 

See also Elections; France; France: Constitution, 

Germany 573 

See also Church unity; Elections: Germany. 

Great Britain 573 

See also Elections: Great Britain. 

Italy 574 

Netherlands, See Cabinet officers: Netherlands; Elections; 
Netherlands, 

Norway 575 

Sweden ^ 575 

See also Elections: Sweden; Sweden; Politics and govern- 
ment, 

U,S 575 

See also Communism; Congressmen; Corruption (in poli- 
tics); Democratic party; Elections: State governments 
(1936-1946); Newspapers; Politics, Practical; U,S,; Presi- 
dents: U,S.: U.S. (Election 1936-1948); Problems; U.S.; 
Republican party; Socialism; Soldiers: Suffrage; Southern 
states; Suffrage; Trade unions; U.S.: Congress: Congress 
(Elections, 1936-1946): Politics and government; Veterans; 
Veterans: Employment. 
Political science. See Church and state; Citizenship; Civil rights; 
Civil service; Civilization; Communism; Democracy; 
Democratic party; Education; Elections; France: Presi- 
dents (Election); Government ownership (Banks); Impe- 
rialism; Industry and state; Judges; Kings and rulers; Labor 
laws and legislation; Legislation: U.S.; Local government; 



[ xliv ] 



Mines and mineral resources: Government ownership; Na- 
tionalism and nationality; Political parties; Politics, Prac- 
tical; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1936-1948); Public opin- 
ion; Public utilities and state; Radio and state; Railroads 
and state; Referenda; Republican party; Socialism; State 
governments; Suffrage; Taxation; U.S.: Congress (Elec- 
tions, 1936-1946); World politics; ^/.ro subdivisions Con- 
stitution and Politics and government under names of 
countries. 

Politics. See Politics, Practical. 

Politics, Corruption in. See Corruption (in politics). 

POLITICS, PRACTICAL 582 

Australia. See Elections: Australia; Sermons. 
Canada. See Elections: Canada, Dominion: Canada, Provin- 
cial; Sermons. 

Denmark 582 

See also Elections: Denmark. 

Germany 582 

See also Clergy; Occupations. 

Sweden 584 

U.S 584 

See also Corruption (in politics); Elections: State govern- 
ments (1936-1946); Occupations; Persons; Political Action 
Committee; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1936-1948); Sol- 
diers: Suffrage; Suffrage; U.S.; Congress (Elections, 1936- 
1946); U.S.: Politics and government; Women in public 
life; World politics. 

Politics and government. See United Nations; see also subdivi- 
sion under names of countries. 

Politics and newspapers. See Newspapers; Newspapers and 
radio. 

Politics and radio. See Newspapers and radio; Radio; Radio: 
News reports; Radio addresses, debates, etc. 

Poll, Maximiliaan J. M. van. J^e Netherlands: Foreign relations 
(East Indies). 

Poll tax. See Southern states. 

Pons, Lily. See Persons. 

Poor. See Charities; Cost and standard of living; Justice; Labor 
and laboring classes; Medical economics; Old age pensions; 
Political parties: U.S.; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944); 
Saving and thrift; Unemployed; U.S.: Appropriations and 
expenditures: Politics and government; World War, 1939- 
1945: U.S. 

Popes. See Papacy. 

Popular government. See Democracy. 

POPULATION 585 

See also Birth rate; Foreign population; U.S.; Census. 

POPULATION, AGRICULTURAL 586 

Population, Foreign. See Aliens: Great Britain; Germans in the 
U.S.; Immigration and emigration; Japanese in Canada; 
Japanese in the U.S.; U.S.: Foreign population. 

Portable houses. See Housing. 

"Portal-to-portal" pay. See Wages. 

Portugal. See Geography. 

Portuguese in Brazil. See Minorities. 

Post Office. See Postal service; Postal service: Rates. 

POSTAL SERVICE 586 

See also Industry and state: U.S.; Strikes and lockouts. 
Rates 586 

POSTERS • 586 

See also Accidents: Prevention; Nutrition; Signs and sign- 
boards; World War, 1939-1945: U.S. 

Potsdam Conference, 1945. See World War, 1939-1945: Con- 
gresses, conferences, etc. 

POULTRY 587 

Poverty See Charities; Economic conditions; Poor; Social con- 
ditions; U.S.: Appropriations and expenditures. 



Practical ethics. See Conduct of life; Ethics. 

Practical [xditics. See Politics, Practical. 

Prayers. See Religion. 

Preachers. See Clergy. 

Preaching. See Sermons. 

Prefabricated houses. See Housing. 

Preservation of food. See Canning and preserving; Food: Pres- 
ervation. 

PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT 587 

See also Roosevelt, Franklin D. 

Powers and Duties 587 

See also Budget: U.S.; Commerce; Lend-lease bill; Money; 
U.S.: Appropriations and expenditures: Congress: Neu- 
trality; World War, 1939-1945: Supplies. 

Radio Addresses, Debates, etc 587 

See also Political parties: U.S.; Presidents: U.S. (Election 
1944). 

President Truman. See Truman, Harry S. 

Presidential campaigns. See France: Presidents (Election); 
Presidents: U.S. (Election 1936-1948). 

Presidential candidates. See France; Presidents (Election); 
Presidents: U.S. (Election 1936-1948); Senators. 

Presidential succession. See Presidents: U.S. 

Presidential term. See Presidents: U.S. (Term of office). 

PRESIDENTS 589 

France. See France: Presidents (Election) (Powers and duties); 
Gaulle, Charles de. 

U.S 589 

See also Catholic church; Jewish question; Newspapers; 
Pensions; President Roosevelt: Powers and duties: Radio 
addresses, debates, etc.; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1936- 
1948) (Term of office); Roosevelt, Franklin D.; Senators; 
Truman, Harry S.; War: U.S.; Women in public life. 
U.S., Election. See Election law. 

U.S. (Election 1936) 590 

See also Coughlin, Charles E. Rev.; Roosevelt, Franklin D. 

U.S. (Election 1940) 600 

See also Presidents: U.S. (Term of office); Roosevelt, Frank- 
lin D.; Willkie, Wendell Lewis. 

U.S. (Election 1944) 621 

See also Dewey, Thomas E.; Roosevelt, Franklin D.; Trade 
unions; U.S.: Congress; World War, 1939-1945: Influence 
and results (Germany). 

U.S. (Election 1948) 643 

U.S. (Term of Office) 647 

See also Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940; 1944). 

Press. See Liberty of the press; News agencies; Newspapers; 
Newspapers and radio; Periodicals. 

Prevention of accidents. See Accidents: Prevention. 

Prevention of cruelty to animals. See Animals: Treatment. 

Price ceilings. See Price regulation; Wage and price regulation. 

Price control. See Price regulation; Wage and price regulation. 

PRICE REGULATION . .". ^ . . 654 

See also Agriculture and state; Buying; Clothing and dress; 
Cost and standard of living; Food prices and price regula- 
tion; Home economics: Equipment and supplies; Laundry; 
Meat; Monopolies; President Roosevelt; Radio addresses, 
debates, etc.; Prices; Prices, Agricultural; Radio plays and 
programs; Rationing, Consumer; Rent; Restaurants, lunch 
rooms, etc.; U.S.: Politics and government; Wage and 
price regulation. 

PRICES 664 

See also Black market; Boots and shoes; Bread; Butter; 
Buying; Canning and preserving; Clothing and dress; Cost 
and standard of living; Food prices and price regulation; 
Food supply; Home economics: Equipment and supplies; 
Hours of labor; Industry and state: U.S.; Installment plan; 



[xlv] 



PAGE 

Laundry; Liquor problem; Meat; Milk; Monopolies; Mov- 
ing pictures; Newspapers; Occupations; Political parties: 
U.S.; Price regulation; Problems: U.S.; Profit; Public util- 
ities; Public utilities and state; Radio plays and programs; 
Rationing, Consumer; Rent; Restaurants, lunch rooms, 
etc.; Smoking; Sugar; Taxation: Sweden; Tires and rubber; 
Transportation; Vacations; Wages; Wages and prices; War 
bonds and stamps; World War, 1939-1945: U.S. 

PRICES, AGRICULTURAL 672 

See also Control of crops; Cost and standard of living; Price 
regulation; U.S.: Appropriations and expenditures; Wage 
and price regulation. 

Priests. See Clergy. 

Prime ministers, Denmark. See Denmark: Prime ministers. 

Prime ministers, Great Britain. See Attlee, Clement; Chamber- 
lain, Neville; Churchill, Winston; Great Britain: Prime 
ministers. 

PRIORITIES, INDUSTRIAL 674 

See also Rationing, Consimier. 

Prisoners and prisons. See Prisons; World War, 1939-1945: 
Prisoners and prisons. 

PRISONS 675 

See also Civil rights; Crime and criminals; Property; World 
War, 1939-1945: Prisoners and prisons. , 

Private secretaries. See Office management. 

Prize fighting. See Boxing. 

Prizes. See Nobel prizes. 

PROBLEMS 676 

Australia 676 

Canada 676 

See also Questions to government officials. 

Denmark 676 

Finland 676 

France 676 

Germany. See Books and reading. 

Great Britain 677 

See also Great Britain: Politics and government. 

U.S 678 

See also Dewey, Thomas; National Socialism; Political 
_ parties: U.S.; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940) Problems, 
'' Agricultural; Roosevelt, Franklin D.; Truman, Harry S.; 
U.S.: Politics and government; Willkie, Wendell Lewis. 

PROBLEMS, AGRICULTURAL 683 

See also U.S.: Congress. 

Problems, Personal. See Worry. 

Problems, Social. See Social problems. 

Production. See Industry. 

PRODUCTION, AGRICULTURAL 683 

See also Agricultural machinery; Control of crops; Price 
regulation; Prices, Agricultural. 

Production, War. See Munitions. 

Profanity. See Swearing. 

Profession, Choice of. See Occupations. 

Professional education. See Aeronautics: Study and teaching. 

PROFIT 684 

See also Arbitration, Industrial; Commerce; Excess profits 
tax: U.S.; Income; Income regulation; Jewish question; 
Legislation: U.S.; Munitions; Occupations; Political par- 
ties: U.S.; Politics, practical: U.S.; Price regulation; Prices; 
Strikes and lockouts; Taxation: U.S.; Wage and price regu- 
lation; Wages; World War, 1939-1945: U.S. 

Profit, Agricultural. See Income, Agricultural; Prices, Agri- 
cultural. 

Profit sharing. See Trade unions. 

Profiteering. See Black market; Prices; Profit. 

Progress. See Civilization. 



PROHIBITION 687 

See also Liquor problem; World War, 1939-1945: U.S. 

Projectiles, Incendiary. See Air defenses. 

Promotions (in industry). See Success. 

Proof. See Witnesses. 

Propaganda. See Advertising; Radio plays and programs; U.S.: 
Politics and government; World War, 1939-1945: Propa- 
ganda. 

Propaganda, Religious. See Religion. 

PROPERTY 689 

See also Income; Income regulation; Taxation; Wealth. 

Prosperity. See Business cycles. 

Prostitution. See Venereal diseases. 

Protestants. See Church unity; Minorities; World War, 1939- 
1945: U.S. 

Provincial elections — Canada. See Elections: Canada, Provincial. 

Psychology, National. See National characteristics. 

Psychology, Physiological. See Sleep. 

Psychology, Social. See National characteristics. 

Public charities. See Hospitals; Medicine, State. 

Public debts. 

Canada. See Unemployed: Canada. 

Great Britain. See Great Britain: Defenses. 

U.S. See Debts, Public — U.S.; War bonds and stamps. 

Public figures (people). See Persons. 

Public finance. See Finance. 

PUBLIC HEALTH 689 

See also Cancer; Diet; Diseases; Exercise; Food; Food adul- 
teration and inspection; Food supply; Hospitals; Infantile 
paralysis; Influenza and colds; Medical economics; Medi- 
cine, State; Nutrition; Physicians; Political parties: U.S.; 
Servants; Sleep; Tuberculosis; Unemployed: U.S.; Venereal 
diseases. 

PUBLIC LAW #346 692 

PUBLIC OPINION 692 

See also Russia: Politics and government. 

Public opinion on questioning government officials. See Ques- 
tions to Government officials. 

Public ownership. See Government ownership: Banks; Industry 
and state; Insurance, Life; Mines and mineral resources: 
Government ownership; Public utilities and state; Radio 
and state; Railroads and state. 

Public playgrounds. See Soldiers' monuments. 

Public schools. See Education; Education and state. 

Public service corporations. See Public utilities. 

PUBLIC UTILITIES 693 

See also Investments and savings; Legislation: U.S.; Prob- 
lems: U.S.; Public utilities and state; Railroads and state; 
Strikes and lockouts; Willkie, Wendell Lewis. 

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND STATE 694 

See also Industry and state: Great Britain; Legislation: 
U.S.; Missouri Valley Authority; Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority; U.S.: Politics and government. 

Public welfare. See Charities; Hospitals; Medicine, State. 

PUBLIC WORKS 696 

See also Business cycles; Legislation: U.S.; Unemployed: 
Denmark: U.S.; U.S.: Appropriations and expenditures: 
Foreign population; Works Progress Administration. 

Public Works Administration. See U.S.: Politics and govern- 
ment. 

PUBLIC WORSHIP 699 

See also World War, 1939-1945 : Religious aspects. 

Publicity. See Advertising. 

Publicity, Income. See Income publicity. 

Publishers and publishing. See Culture. 

Pucheu, Pierre. See War crimes and trials. 

Pugilism. See Boxing. 



[ xlvi ] 



PAGE 

PUNISHMENT 701 

See also Automobile drivers; Automobiles: Accidents; 
Blaclc market; Capital punishment; Children: Manage- 
ment; Crime and criminals; Gasoline; Hitler, Adolph; 
Kings and rulers; Liquor problem; Price regulation; Pris- 
ons; Profit; Rationing, Consumer; Spies; Taxation: Den- 
mark; Venereal diseases; War crimes and trials; World 
War, 1939 -1945: Atrocities: Moral aspects. 

Purchasing. See Buying. 

Pure food. See Food adulteration and inspection. 

Puzzles. See Newspapers. 

P.W.A. See Public Works Administration. 

Quebec. See United Nations. 
Queens. See Kings and rulers. 

QUESTIONS TO GO\'ERNMENT OFFICIALS 702 

See also Gasoline; Military service. Compulsory. 
Quisling, Vidkun. See World War, 1939-1943: Refugees. 

Rabaul. See World War, 1939 1945: Territorial questions. 

RACE 7C3 

See (t/jo Jewish question; Music; U.S.: Race question. 

Race characteristics. See National characteristics. 

Race problems. See Immigration and emigration; Minorities; 
Race question; U.S.: Race question. 

Race question. See Education; Free speech; Immigration and 
emigration; Japanese in Canada; Japanese in the U.S.; Jew- 
ish question; Jews: Colonization; Minorities; Negroes: 
Education: Employment; Newspapers; Presidents: U.S. 
(Election 1944); U.S.: Race question. 

Racing. See Horse racing. 

RADIO 703 

See also Cost and standard of living; Culture; Food supply; 
Gasoline; Home economics: Equipment and supplies; Lib- 
erty of the press; Newspapers and radio; President Roose- 
velt: Radio addresses, debates, etc.; Price regulat^pn; 
Prices; Public worship; Radio: News reports: Short Wave; 
Radio addresses, debates, etc.; Radio advertising; Radio 
and music; Radio and state; Radio plays and programs; 
Television; U.S.: Politics and government; World War, 
1939-1945: U.S. 
Censorship. See Radio and state. 

News Reports 706 

See also War crimes and trials; World War, 1939-1945: 
News reports: U.S. 
Short Wave 709 

RADIO ADDRESSES, DEBATES, ETC 710 

See also Coughlin, Charles E., Rev.; Gaulle, Charles de; 
Judges; Labor leaders; Persons; President Roosevelt: Radio 
addresses, debates, etc.; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944) 
Radio: News reports; Willkie, Wendell Lewis; World War, 
1939-1945: U.S. 

RADIO ADVERTISING 713 

See also Advertising; Radio and state. 

RADIO AND MUSIC 713 

See also Radio: News reports; Radio plays and programs. 

Radio and newspapers. See Newspapers and radio. 

RADIO AND STATE 714 

Radio commentators. See Newspapers and radio; Radio: News 
reports; Russia: Politics and government. 

Radio communication. See Radio. 

Radio in education. See Radio addresses, debates, etc. 

Radio industry and trade. See Industry: U.S.; Radio; Radio ad- 
vertising. 

Radio lectures. See Radio addresses, debates, etc. 

Radio licenses. See Radio and state. 

Radio news agencies. See News agencies. 



PAGE 

RADIO PLAYS AND PROGRAMS 716 

See also Newspapers; Nutrition; Public worship; World 
War, 1939-1945: U.S. 

Radio stars. See Actors and actresses. 

Radio vision. See Television. 

Railroad rates. See Railroads: Rates. 

RAILROADS 727 

See also Negroes: Employment; Railroads and state; Strikes 
and lockouts; Trade unions and state; Transportation; 
Wages. 
Employees. See Strikes and lockouts. 
Finance. See Railroads: Rates. 
Freight. See Railroads: Rates. 
Government ownership. See Railroads and state. 

Rates (France) 727 

Rates (Great Britain) 727 

Rates (U.S.) 728 

See also Vacations. 

Railroads, Electric. See Public utilities and state. 

Railroads, Nationalization of. See Pv.ailroads and state. 

Railroads, Street. See Public utilities and state. 

RAILROADS AND STATE 728 

Canada 728 

Great IJritain 728 

See also Railroads: Rates (Great Britain). 

U.S 728 

See also Interstate commerce; Railroads: Rates (U.S.). 

Railway mail service. See Postal scnvice; Postal service: Rates; 
Railroads and state. 

Railways. See Railroad*. 

Randolph, Philip. See Labor leaders. 

Rank. See Class distinction. 

RATIONING, CONSUMER 729 

See also Boots and shoes; Bread; Butter; Buying; Canning 
and preserving; Cheese; Clothing and dress; Coffee; Cost 
and standard of living; Economic conditions; Food relief; 
Food supply; Fuel; Gasoline; Industry and state: U.S.; 
Liquor problem; Meat; Milk; Prices; Priorities, Industrial; 
Public health; Radio: News reports; Reconstruction; Res- 
taurants, lunch rooms, etc.; Smoking; Sugar; Tea; Tires 
and rubber; World War, 1939-1945: Food question: U.S. 

RAW MATERIALS 735 

See also Priorities, Industrial; Russia: Politics and govern- 
ment; U.S.: Defenses: Politics and government; Wage and 
price regulation. 

Rayburn, Sam. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944). 

Reading. See Books and reading. 

Real estate. See Investment and savings; Prices. 

RECONSTRUCTION 735 

See also Food relief; International cooperation; Political 
parties: Germany: U.S.; Strikes and lockouts; Taxation: 
U.S.; Veterans: Education: Employment; World War, 
1939-1945: Civilian relief: Food question: Peace: Repara- 
tion. 

Reconstruction Finance Corporation. See U.S.: Appropriations 
and expenditures. 

Reconversion. See Reconstruction. 

Recreation. See Amusements; Baseball; Education; Leisure; 
Sports; Swimming. 

Recruiting. See Armies: Recruiting, enlistment, etc.; U.S.: 
Army and navy (Recruiting, enlistment, etc.). 

Rectors. See Clergy. 

Red Cross. See Civilian defense; Moving pictures; Occupations; 
World War, 1939-1945: Civilian relief: Medical and sani- 
tary affairs: U.S. 

Redistribution of wealth. See Wealth. 

REFERENDA. 740 



[ xlvii ] 



Australia 740 

See also Australia: Politics and government. 

France 741 

See also Sermons. 

Referendum — Italy. See Italy: Politics and government. 

Reform, Social. See Social problems. 

Refrigeration and refrigerating machinery. See Home eco- 
nomics: Equipment and supplies. 

Refugees. See World War, 1939-1945: Refugees. 

Registration, National. See National registration. 

Registration law. See Election law. 

Reichstag. See Germany: Politics and government. 

Relations, International. See International relations. 

Relief for unemployed. See Unemployed: Canada: Denmark: 
Great Britain: U.S.; Works Progress Administration. 

RELIGION 742 

See also Bible; Church unity; Immortality; Public worship; 
Sermons; Superstition; World War, 1939-1945: Religious 
aspects. 

Religions. See Catholic church; Church unity; Jewish question; 
Minorities. 

Religious ceremonies. See Rites and ceremonies. 

RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 745 

Religious festivals. See Lent. 

Religious groups. See World War, 1939-1945; Atrocities. 

Religious liberty. See Civil rights; Church and state; News- 
papers; Religion. 

Religious orders. See Monasticism and religious orders. 

Rembrandt van Rijn. See Persons. 

Remembrance day. See Holidays. 

RENT 747 

See also Occupations; Rationing, Consumer; Wage and 
price regulation. 

Reorganization bill. See Legislation: U.S.; Roosevelt, Frank- 
lin D. 

Reparations (World War, 1939-1945). See World War, 1939- 
1945: Reparations. 

Repatriation. See World War, 1939-1945: Displaced persons. 

Representative government and representation. See Australia: 
Parliament; Canada: Parliament; Democracy; Denmark: 
Parliament; France: Constitution: Constitution (Amend- 
ments): National assemblies: Presidents (Election); Great 
Britain: Parliament; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1936-1948); 
Referenda; Suffrage; Soldiers: Suffrage; U.S.: Congress: 
Congress (Elections, 1936-1946): Constitution (Amend- 
ments). 

Representatives — U.S. See Congressmen; Senators; U.S.: Con- 
gress; Congress (Elections, 1936-1946). 

REPUBLICAN PARTY 749 

See also Budget: U.S.; Business cycles; Cabinet officers: 
U.S.; Elections: State governments (1936-1946); League 
of Nations; Political parties; U.S.; Presidents: U.S. (Elec- 
tion 1936-1948); Strikes and lockouts; Taxation: U.S.; 
United Nations; U.S.: Congress (Elections, 1936-1946): 
Foreign relations; Willkie, Wendell Lewis . 

Republics. See Democracy. 

Research. See Cancer. 

Residence. See Migration, Internal. 

Residences. See Housing. 

Resistance movements (World War, 1939-1945). See World 
War, 1939-1945: Underground movements. 

Resolutions, New Year's. See Manners and customs. 

Rest. See Sleep. 

RESTAURANTS, LUNCH ROOMS, ETC 752 

See also Amusements; Hotels, taverns, etc.; Jewish ques- 
tion; U.S.: Race question; Wage regulation. 



Results of war. See World War, 1939-1945: Influence and re- 
sults. 

Retail trade. See Advertising; Chain stores; Price regulation. 

Retirement system. See Insurance, Life; Old age pensions; Pen- 
sions; Pensions, Military. 

Reuters News Service. See News agencies. 

Reuther, Walter. See Labor leaders. 

Revenue. See Tariff; Taxation. 

Revenue, Internal. See Income tax: U.S.; U.S. (Ruml plan); 
Income tax vs. sales tax: U.S.; Taxation. 

Revolution, American. See American Revolution. 

Rewards (prizes, etc.). See Nobel prizes. 

Reynaud, Paul, j'ee Cabinet officers: France; Persons. 

R.F.C. See Reconstruction Finance Corporation. 

Rheumatism. See Diseases. 

Rhineland industry. See Industry: Germany. 

Ribbentrop, Joachim von. See War crimes and trials. 

Riches. See Wealth. 

Rickenbacker, Edward V. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944). 

Right to live. See Civil rights. 

Right to trial by jury. i'f^Jury. 

Right to vote. See Soldiers; Suffrage; Woman: Suffrage. 

Right to work. See Civil rights. 

Rights, Civil. See Civil rights. 

Rights of women. See Woman: Suffrage. 

Ripley, Robert (Bob). See Persons. 

RITES AND CEREMONIES 753 

See also Manners and customs. 

Ritual, ritualism. See Rites and ceremonies. 

Road signs. See Signs and signboards. 

ROADS 754 

See also Bicycles; Public works; U.S.: Appropriations and 
expenditures. 

Roberts, Owen J. i'ee Judges; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944). 

Roberts, A. D. See Political parties; Canada. 

Robot bombs. See World War, 1939-1945; Aerial operations. 

Rockefeller, John D., Jr. See Persons; Presidents; U.S. (Election 
1940; 1944). 

Roebuck, Arthur W. See Political parties: Canada. 

RoUand, Remain. See Persons. 

Roman Catholic church. See Catholic church. 

Romance languages. See Language and languages. 

Rome, Bombing of. See World War, 1939-1945; Aerial opera- 
tions. 

Rommel, Ervvin. See National Socialism. 

Roosevelt, Eleanor. See Persons; Presidents: U.S. (Election 
1940); U.S.: Race question. 

ROOSEVELT, FRANKLIN D 754 

See also Dictators; Gaulle, Charles de; Industrial relations; 
Persons; Political parties: U.S.; President Roosevelt: 
Powers and duties: Radio addresses, debates, etc.; Presi- 
dents: U.S.: U.S. (Election 1936-1944) (Term of office); 
Problems: U.S.; U.S.: Congress (Elections, 1938): De- 
fenses: Foreign relations: Foreign relations (France); 
Wages: Minimum wages; Willkie, Wendell Lewis; World 
War, 1939-1945; World War, 1939-1945: Peace: Refugees. 

Roosevelt, Theodore. See Persons; Roosevelt, Franklin D. 

Roosevelt, Theodore, Jr. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1936). 

Roosevelt, James. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Persons. 

Roosevelt's birthday. See Holidays. 

Roosevelt's fireside chats. See President Roosevelt: Radio ad- 
dresses, debates, etc. 

Roper, Daniel C. See Cabinet officers: U.S. 

Roper, Elmo. See Persons. 

Royalty. See Kings and rulers. 

Rubber. See Tires and rubber. 

Rubber, Artificial. See Tires and rubber. 



[ xlviii ] 



Rubber boots and shoes. See Boots and shoes. 

Rubber tires. See Tires and rubber. 

Ruhr and Rhineland industry. See Industry; Germany. 

Rulers. See Kings and rulers. 

Ruml, Beardslcy. See Income tax: U.S. (Ruml plan); Income tax 

vs. sales tax: U.S.; Persons. 
Ruml plan. See Income tax: U.S. (Ruml plan). 
Ruml-Carlson tax plan. See Income tax; U.S. (Ruml plan). 

RUSSIA 763 

See also Communism; Cost and standard of living; Free 
speech; Geography; Newspapers; Reconstruction; Reli- 
gion; Security: Great Britain; U.S.; Security, Interna- 
tional; United Nations; World War, 1939-1945: Peace. 
Cabinet officers. See Cabinet officers: Russia. 
Cooperation with Canada. See International cooperation; 

Canada-Russia. 
Cooperation with France. See International cooperation; 

France-Russia. 
Cooperation with Great Britain. See International coopera- 
tion: Great Britain-Russia. 
Cooperation with U.S. See International cooperation: U.S.- 
Russia. 
Defenses. See Armaments. 
Finance. See Finance: Russia. 

Foreign Relations 763 

See also Atomic bomb; Australia: Foreign relations; Can- 
ada: Foreign relations; Finance: Austria; Great Britain: 
Foreign relations (Russia); International cooperation: 
Canada-Russia; France-Russia: Great Britain-Russia: U.S.- 
Russia; International relations; Russia: Politics and gov- 
ernment; U.S.: Foreign relations (Russia); World War, 
1939^1945: Influence and results: Territorial questions 
Qapan). 
National characteristics. See National characteristics: Rus- 
sian. 

Politics and Government 764 

See also Imperialism; Jewish question; Totalitarianism; 
World politics. 
World War, 1939-1945. See World War, 1939-1945: Repara- 
tions (Russia): Russia: Territorial questions (Russia). 
Russia, Aid to. See Lend-lease operations. 
Russia, Population of. See Population. 
Russo-Finnish War, 1939-1940. See U.S.; Neutrality. 
Ruth, Babe. See Persons. 
Rysel, Ded. See Radio plays and programs. 
Ryti. See World War, 19391945; Refugees. 



Sabbath. See Simday. 

SABOTAGE 765 

See <«/jo Japanese in the U.S.; World War, 1939-1945; Un- 
derground movements. 

Sacred books. See Bible. 

Safety devices and measures. See Accidents; Prevention. 

Safety education. See Accidents: Prevention. 

Sailors. See Soldiers; U.S.: Merchant Marine. 

St. Lawrence Seaway Plan. See Public works. 

St. Nicholas Day (December 5). See Manners and customs. 

St. Wenceslaus. See Religion. 

Salaries. See Canada: Army and navy (Pay, allowances, etc.) 
Great Britain: Army and navy (Pay, allowances, etc.) 
Income; U.S. ; Army and navy (Pay, allowances, etc.) 
Wage regulations; Wages; Wages: Minimum; Wages and 
hours; Wages and prices; Woman; Wages. 

SALES TAX 766 

Denmark 766 

U.S 766 



PAGE 

See also Income tax vs. sales tax; U.S.; Taxation: U.S.; 

War bonds and stamps; World War, 19391945: U.S. 
Saloons. See Hotels, taverns, etc. 
Saltonstall, Leverett. See Persons; Politics, Practical: U.S.; 

Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940-1948). 
Salutes, Military. See Military ceremonies, honors, and salutes. 
SALVAGE (WASTE, ETC.) 767 

See also Metals; Oils and fats; Paper; Tin; Tires and rubber. 
San Francisco Conference, 1945- See Security, International; 

United Nations; World War, 1939-1945: Congresses, con- 
ferences, etc. 
San Francisco World's Fair, 1939. See Exhibitions. 
Sanitation, Household. See Heating; Plumbing. 
Santa Claus. See Children. 
Savages. See Indians of South America. 
SAVING AND THRIFT 768 

See also Buying; Cost and standard of living; Investments 

and savings; Old age pensions; Travel. 
Savings. See Investments and savings. 
Scandinavian countries — foreign relations. See International 

relations. 
Scandinavian languages. See Language and languages. 
Scenarios (moTing picture plays). See Moving picture plays. 
Schacht, Hjalmar. See War crimes and trials. 
Schermerhorn, Willem. See Netherlands; Foreign relations (East 

Indies). 
Schermerhorn-Drees cabinet. See Cabinet officers: Netherlands. 
School attendance. See Child labor; Education. 

SCHOOL CHILDREN 771 

Food 771 

School discipline. See Children; Management. 

School endowments. See Endowments. 

School lunches. See School children: Food. 

Schools. See Education; Education and state; Education of 

adults. Education of women; Education, Higher; Soldiers' 

monuments. 
Schools, Military and naval. See Military education. 
Schwellenbach, Lewis B. See Cabinet officers; U.S.; Persons. 
Science. See Culture. 

Scientific management. See Office management. 
Scientific research. See Research. 
Scientists. See Immigration and emigration. 

SCOTLAND 771 

Politics and Govbrnment 771 

Scrap drives. See Metals; Paper; Salvage (Waste, etc.). 

Scrap paper. See Paper. 

Scrap metal. See Metals. 

Scriptures, Holy. See Bible. 

Sculpture. See Great Britain: Politics and government. 

Sea power. See Armaments; Disarmament; see also subdivision 

Army and navy under names of countries. 
Seamen. See Soldiers; U.S.: Merchant Marine; World War, 

1939-1945: U.S. 
Seamen, Suff^rage. See Soldiers; Suff'rage. 
SECRET SERVICE 772 

See also Civil rights. 
Secretaries, Private. See Office management. ^ 

Secretaries of State. See Cabinet officers. '" 

Securities. See Bonds; Bonds: Taxation; Income tax; U.S.; In- 
vestments and savings; War bonds and stamps. 

SECURITY 772 

Australia. See Security, International. 

Belgium. See Security, International. 

Brazil 772 

See also Security, International. 
Canada 772 



[ xlix ] 



PAGE 

See also Security, International; World War, 1939-1945: 
Causes . 
Central and South America. See Security, International. 

France 772 

See also Security, International; World War, 1939-1945: 
Causes. 
Germany. See World War, 1939-1945: Atrocities. 

Great Britain 773 

See also Great Britain: Foreign relations; Security, Inter- 
national; World War, 1939-1945: Causes. 

Hungary 773 

Sweden 773 

U.S 773 

See also Political parties: U.S.; Security, International; 
U.S. : Foreign relations: Neutrality; World War, 1939-1945: 
Causes: Territorial questions (Germany) (Japan). 

ecurity council. See Security, International. 

ECURITY, INTERNATIONAL 780 

See also Arbitration, International; Atomic bomb; Disarma- 
ment; International organization; International police; In- 
ternational relations; Neutrality; Political parties: U.S.; 
Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944); Problems: U.S.; United 
Nations; U.S.: Foreign relations: Foreign relations (Rus- 
sia); War crimes and trials; World War, 1939-1945: Causes: 
Congresses, conferences, etc.: Peace: Territorial questions. 

ecurity. Social. See Social security. 

elf-culture. See Books and reading. 

elf-government. See Democracy. 

ellishness. See Character. 

elznick, David O. See Persons. 

enate. 

Australia. See Australia: Parliament. 
Canada. See Canada: Parliament. 
U.S. See U.S. : Senate. 

ENATORS 790 

See also Congressmen; Gasoline; U.S. : Congress; Women in 
public life. 

ERMONS 790 

See also Venereal diseases. 

ERVANTS 791 

See also Hours of labor; Manners and customs; Tipping; 
Wages . 

crvice, Compulsory military. See Military Service, Compul- 
sory; Woman: Military service, Compulsory. 

ERVICE, COMPULSORY NON-MILITARY 792 

See also Fuel; Woman: Employment. 

EWING MACHINES 792 

EX 792 

EX INSTRUCTION 793 

exual education. See Sex instruction. 

exual hygiene. See Sex instruction. 

hervirood, Robert. See Persons. 

hipbuilding. See Ships. 

HIPS 794 

See also Transportation; U.S.: Defenses: Merchant Marine; 
World War, 1939-1945: Naval operations. 

hoes. See Boots and shoes. 

hop committee. See Employees' representation in management. 

hopping. See Buying. 

hore, Dinah. See Persons. 

hort wave receivers. See Radio: Short wave. 

horthand. See Occupations. 

iam. See Thailand. 

icily. See World War, 1939-1945: Food question. 

ick. See Hospitals. 

ickness insurance. See Medicine, State. 



page 

SIGNS AND SIGNBOARDS 794 

See also Posters. 

Silk. See Clothing and dress. 

Silver question. See U.S.: Politics and government. 

Simms, Ginny. See Persons. 

Simon, Sir John. See Postal service: Rates. 

Simpson, Mrs. Wallis Warfield. See Kings and rulers. 

Sinatra, Frank. See Persons. 

Sinclair, Archibald. See World War, 1939-1945: Congresses, 
conferences, etc. 

Sinclair, Upton. See Persons. 

Singapore. See Geography; Security, International; World War, 
1939-1945: Causes: Territorial questions (Japan) (U.S.): 
U.S. 

Sino-Japanese conflict, 1937-1945. See World War, 1939-1945: 
China and Japan. 

Sister Kenny. See Infantile paralysis. 

Size of armies and navies. See subdivision Defenses under names 
of countries. 

Size of family. See Family. 

Sjahrir, Soeten. See Netherlands: Foreign relations (East In- 
dies). 

Slavery. See World War, 1939-1945: Atrocities. 

SLEEP 795 

See also Children: Management. 

Sloan, Alfred P., Jr. See Labor and laboring classes; Persons; 
U.S.: Politics and government. 

Slovak language. See Music. 

Slovakia. See Travel. 

Foreign relations — Hungary. See Hungary: Foreign relations. 

Small arms. See Firearms. 

Smith-Connally bill. See Labor laws and legislation. 

Smith, Ferdinand. See Labor leaders. 

Smith, Gerald. See Persons. 

Smith, Kate. See Persons; Radio plays and programs. 

Smith, Sydney. See Political parties: Canada. 

Smith, Thomas Vernor. See Radio addresses, debates, etc. 

SMOKING 796 

See also Moving pictures; Soldiers; Teachers. 

Smuggling. See Persons. 

Snyder, John. See Cabinet officers: U.S. 

Social class. See Social conditions. 

SOCIAL CONDITIONS 800 

See also Business cycles; Cost and standard of living; Eco- 
nomic conditions; Labor and laboring classes; Legislation: 
U.S.; Politics, Practical: U.S.; President Roosevelt; Radio 
addresses, debates, etc.; Roosevelt, Franklin D.; Social 
problems; Taxation: Sweden; United Nations; Wage regu- 
lation. 

Social customs. See Indians of South America; Manners and 
customs. 

Social democracy. See Socialism. 

Social diseases. See Venereal diseases. 

Social distinctions. See Class distinction. 

Social equality. See Class distinction; Democracy; Socialism. 

Social ethics. See Citizenship; Corruption (in politics); Crime 
and criminals; Social conditions; Social problems. 

Social evil. See Venereal diseases. 

Social hygiene. See Public health; Venereal.diseases. 

Social insurance. See Insurance, State and compulsory; Insur- 
ance, Unemployment; Medicine, State; Old age pensions. 

Social legislation. See Child labor; Insurance, Health; Insur- 
ance, State and compulsory; Insurance, Unemployment; 
Labor laws and legislation; Old age pensions; Woman: 
Suffrage. 

Social problems. See Charities; Child labor; Ccist and standard 
of living; Crime and criminals; Defective and delinquent 



[1] 



PAGE 

classes; Divorce; Housing; Immigration and emigration; 
Juvenile delinquency; Liquor problem; Old age pensions; 
Presidents: U.S. (Election 19-10); Public health; Race; Ser- 
mons; Social conditions; Soldiers; Unemployed; U.S.: Race 
question; Venereal diseases; Woman: Employment: Social 
and moral questions. 

Social psychology. See National characteristics. 

Social reform. See Social problems. 

Social security. See Insurance, State and compulsory; Insurance, 
Unemployment; Old age pensions; Problems: U.S. 

Social welfare. See Social problems. 

SOCIALISM 802 

See also Communism; Government ownership: Banks; In- 
dustry and state; Insurance, State and compulsory; Labor 
and laboring classes; Labor leaders; Land, Nationalization 
of; Mines and mineral resources; Government ownership; 
National Socialism; Newspapers; Old age pensions; Public 
utilities and state; Radio and state; Railroads and state; 
Teaching, Freedom of; Totalitarianism; Trade unions; 
U.S.: Politics and government. 

Socialist party. See Political parties; Socialism. 

Socialized medicine. See Medical economics; Medicine, State. 

Societies. See Agricultural societies; Clubs, Trade unions. 

Sociology. See Charities; Civilization; Class distinction; Com- 
munism; Crime and criminals; Defective and delinquent 
classes; Family; Immigration and emigration; Labor and 
laboring classes; Liquor problem; Population; Race; Social 
conditions; Social problems; Socialism; Unemployed; U.S.: 
Race question. 

Soekarno, Achmed. See Netherlands: Foreign relations (East 
Indies). 

Soil conservation. See Control of crops; Public works; U.S.: 
Appropriations and expenditures. 

SOLDIERS 803 

See also Amusements; Generals; Liquor problem; News- 
papers; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944); Soldiers: Suffrage; 
U.S.: Politics and government; Venereal diseases; Woman: 
Social and moral questions; World War, 1939-1945: News 
reports: U.S. 

Suffrage 806 

See also Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944). 

Soldiers' bonus. See Bounties, Military; Pensions, Military. 

Soldiers' leaves. See Travel. 

Soldiers' life. See Soldiers. 

SOLDIERS' MONUMENTS 807 

Solidarity tax. See Taxation: France. 

Songs. See National songs. 

Soul. See Immortality. 

South, The. See Southern states. 

South Africa, Union of. See Security, International. 

South America. See Central and South America. 

South American national characteristics. See National charac- 
teristics: South American. 

SOUTHERN STATES 807 

Sovereigns. See Kings and rulers. 

Spaatz, Carl. See Persons. 

SPAIN 807 

See also Dictators; Security, International; United Nations. 

Civil War, 1936-1939 .- 807 

Civil War, 1936-1939 (Causes) 808 

Civil War, 1936-1939 (Supplies) 808 

Cooperation with Great Britain. See International coopera- 
tion: Great Britain-Spain. 
Finance. See Finance: Spain. 

Foreign Relations 808 

See also France: Foreign relations (Spain); International 



cooperation: Great Britain-Spain; International relations; 
U.S. : Foreign relations (Spain). 
Politics and government. See Totalitarianism. 
Republic, 1931-1939 809 

Spanish America. See Central and South America. 

Spanish Civil War. See Spain: Civil War, 1936-1939. 

Spanish Republic. See Spain: Republic, 1931-1939. 

Spanking. See Corporal punishment. 

Sparring. See Boxing. 

Spars. See U.S.: Coast Guard — Women's Reserve (Spars). 

Specie. See Money. 

Specific medicines. See Medicines, Specific. 

Speculation. See Investments and savings. 

Speech, Liberty of. See Free speech. 

Speed limit. See Automobiles: Laws and regulations. 

Speeding, Automobile. See Automobiles: Laws and regulations. 

SPELLING REFORM 809 

Spellman, Francis Joseph, Rev. See Persons. 

SPIES 809 

See «/j-o Japanese in the U.S.; Security: U.S.; World War, 
1939-1945: Underground movements. 

Splitting the atom. See Atomic energy. 

Spoils system. See Civil service reform; Corruption (in politics). 

SPORTS 810 

See also Amusements; Baseball; Swimming; Wages. 

Spruance, Raymond Amos. See Persons. 

Stabilization in industry. See Business cycles; Economic condi- 
tions; Unemployed. 

Stage. See Actors and actresses; Radio plays and programs; 
Theater. 

Stalin, Joseph. See Dictators; Persons. 

Standard of living. See Cost and standard of living. 

Standard of value. See Money. 

"Star Spangled Banner." See National songs. 

Stark, Harold R. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944). 

Stars, Moving picture. See Actors and actresses. 

Stassen, Harold. See Housing; Income, Agricultural; Persons; 
Politics, Practical: U.S.; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940- 
1948); Republican party; Strikes and lockouts; Taxation: 
U.S.; U.S.: Foreign relations. 

State and agriculture. See Agriculture and state. 

State and banks. See Government ownership: Banks. 

State and business. See Industry and state. 

State and children. See Children and state. 

State and church. See Church and state. 

State and education. See Education and state. 

State and industry. See Industry and state. 

State and labor. See Labor laws and legislation; Trade unions 
and state. 

State and marriage. See Marriage and state. 

State and mines. See Mines and mineral resources: Government 
ownership. 

State and newspapers. See Liberty ot the press. 

State and public utilities. See Public utilities and state. 

State and radio. See Radio and state. 

State and railroads. See Railroads and state. 

State church. See Church .i.nd state. 

State debts. See Debts, Public; Canada: Great Britain: U.S 

State Department — U.S. See U.S.: Department of State. 

STATE GOVERNMENTS 815 

See also Elections: State governments (1936-1942); Insur- 
ance, Unemployment; Political parties: U.S.; Public works; 
Soldiers: Suffrage; Taxation: U.S.; Unemployed: U.S.; 
U.S.: Appropriations and expenditures; Wages and hours. 

State medicine. See Medicine, State. 

State ownership of banks. See Government ownership: Banks. 

State ownership of industry. See Industrv and state. 



J 



[li] 



State ownership of insurance companies. Sec Insurance, Life. 

State ownership of mines. Set Mines and mineral resources: 
Government ownership. 

State ownership of newspapers. See Liberty of the press. 

State ownership of public utilities. See Public utilities and state. 

State ownership of radio. See Radio and state. 

State ownership of railroads. See Railroads and state. 

State regulation of agriculture. See Agriculture and state. 

State regulation of banks. See Government ownership: Banks. 

State regulation of business. See Industry and state. 

State regulation of buying. See Buying; Rationing, Consumer. 

State regulation of commerce. See Interstate commerce; Tariff. 

State regulation of education. See Education and state. 

State regulation of industry. See Industry and state. 

State regulation of insurance companies. See Insurance, Life. 

State regulation of labor. See Labor laws and legislation; Trade 
unions and state. 

State regulation of mines. See Mines and mineral resources: 
Government ownership. 

State regulation of newspapers. See Liberty of the press. 

State regulation of prices. See Food prices and price regulation; 
Price regulation; Wage and price regulation. 

State regulation of public utilities. See Public utilities and state. 

State regulation of radio. See Radio and state. 

State regulation of railroads . See Interstate commerce; Railroads 
and state. 

State regulation of rent. See Rent. 

State regulation of trade unions. See Trade unions and state. 

State regulation of wages. See Labor laws and legislation; Wage 
and price regulation; Wage regulation. 

State trials. See Trials. 

States. See Geography. 

Statistics. See U.S.: Census. 

Steel industry and trade. See Brazil: Appropriations and ex- 
penditures; Industry and state: U.S.; Munitions; Trade 
unions; Ships; Strikes and lockouts. 

Steel strikes. See Strikes and lockouts. 

Steeplechasing. See Horse-racing. 

Steinbeck, John. See Persons. 

Stenography. See Occupations. 

Sterilization (for humans). See Defective and delinquent classes. 

Stettinius, Edward R. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Persons; Presi- 
dents: U.S. (Election 1944; 1948). 

Stilwell, Joseph W. See Generals. 

Stimson, Henry L. J'cf Cabinet officers: U.S.; Persons; Questions 
to government officials. 

Stock and stock breeding. See Vegetable gardening. 

Stock exchange. See Finance: Hungary; Investments and sav- 
ings; Prices; Problems: U.S.; U.S.: Politics and govern- 
ment. 

Stock raising. See Vegetable gardening. 

Stockings. See Clothing and dress. 

Stocks. See Stock exchange. 

Stores. See Retail trade. 

Stores, Chain. See Chain stores. 

Stores, Department. See Occupations. 

Storm troopers. See Police: Germany. 

Street railroads. See Public utilities and state. 

Streets. See Roads. 

Strikebreaking. See Strikes and lockouts. 

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS ; 816 

See also Actors and actresses; Arbitration, Industrial; Com- 
merce; Industry and state: U.S. ; Insurance, Unemployment; 
Military service. Compulsory; Newspapers; Political par- 
ties: U.S.; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944); Trade unions; 
Truman, Harry S.; Unemployed: Denmark; U.S.: Congress. 



PAGE 

Study, Courses of. See Education: Curricula; Education, Uni- 
versal. 
Suarez, Georges. See War crimes and trials. 
Submarine boats. See World War, 1939-1945: Naval operations. 
Submarine warfare. See World War, 1939-1945: Naval opera- 
tions. 
Subsidies. See Bounties. 
Substitute products. See Synthetic products. 

SUCCESS 829 

See also Civil rights; Education; Industrial relations; Sav- 
ing and thrift; Trade unions; Wages. 
Succession to the Presidency. See Presidential succession. 

SUFFRAGE 831 

See also Civil rights; Election law; Japanese in Canada; 

Soldiers: Suffrage; Woman Suffrage; World War, 1939- 

1945; Displaced persons. 

Soldiers. See Soldiers: Suffrage. 

Women. See Woman: Suffrage. 

Suffragettes. See Woman: Suffrage. 

SUGAR 835 

See also Canning and preserving; Food supply; Rationing, 
Consumer. 
Sullivan, Mark. See Persons. 
Summer time. See Daylight saving. 

Sunday. See Amusements; Baseball; Hours of labor; Moving 
pictures; Radio plays and programs; Roads; Sports; The- 
ater. 
Supernatural. See Superstition. 

SUPERSTITION 836 

See also Folklore. 
Supplies, War. See World War, 1939-1945: Supplies. 
Supreme Court. See Courts; U.S.: Congress. 
Supreme Court Justices. J"ee Judges. 
Swanson, Claude A. See Cabinet officers: U.S. 

SWEARING 836 

SWEDEN 837 

See also United Nations. 
Army and navy — officers. See Soldiers; Totalitarianism. 
Cabinet officers. See Cabinet officers: Sweden. 

Census 837 

Civil service. See Civil service: Sweden. 

Defenses 837 

See also Newspapers. 
Elections. See Elections: Sweden. 
Finance. See Finance: Sweden. 

Foreign Relations 838 

Foreign relations — U.S. See U.S. : Foreign relations (Sweden). 
Industry and state. See Industry and state: Sweden. 
Local government. See Local government. 

Neutrality 838 

See also Sweden: Defenses. 
Parliament. See Sweden: Politics and government; Transpor- 
tation. 
Police. See Police: Sweden. 
Political parties. See Political parties: Sweden. 
Politics, Practical. See Politics, Practical: Sweden. 

Politics and Government 839 

See also Women in public life; World politics. 
Security. See Security: Sweden. 
Taxation, i'ff Taxation : Sweden. 

World War, 1939-1945. See World War, 1939-1945: Influence 
and results (Sweden): Sweden. 
Sweden, Population of. See Population. 
Swedish in the U.S. See Minorities. 
Swedish language. See Language and languages. 

SWIMMING 841 

Swing music. See Music. 



PAGE 

Sympathy strikes. See Strikes and lockouts. 
Syndicalism. See Communism; Socialism. 

SYNTHETIC PRODUCTS 842 

Synthetic rubber. See Rubber, Artificial. 
Syphilis. See Venereal diseases. 

Taft, Robert A. See Persons; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940- 
1948) (Term of office); Political parties: U.S.; Politics, 
Practical: U.S.; Radio addresses, debates, etc.; Unem- 
ployed: U.S.; U.S.: Foreign relations. 
Taft, William Howard. See Persons. 
Talking. See National characteristics: American. 
Tanguv-Prigent, Pierre. See Cabinet officers: France. 

TARIFF 842 

See also Commerce; International relations; Smuggling; 
Tires and rubber; United Nations; U.S.: Politics and gov- 
ernment. 
Taverns. See Hotels, taverns, etc. 
Tax, Poll. See Poll tax. 
Tax, Solidarity. See Taxation: France. 

TAXATION 844 

Australia 844 

See also Tariff; World War, 1939-1945: Finance. 

Canada 845 

See also Canada: Politics and government; Tariff; Unem- 
ployed: Canada. 

Denmark 847 

See also Denmark: Defenses; Sales tax: Denmark; Tariff. 

France 847 

See also Tariff. 

Germany 847 

See also Cost and standard of living. 

Great Britain 848 

See also Bicycles; Gambling; Great Britain: Army and navy 
(Pay, allowances, etc.): Defenses; Tariff. 

Netherlands 849 

See also Tariff; Teachers. 

Sweden 849 

See also Art; Public works; Reconstruction. 

U.S 851 

See also Bonds: Taxation; Bounties, Military; Budget: U.S.; 
Buying; Cancer; Chain stores; Control of crops; Corpora- 
tions: Taxation; Cost and standard of living; Education 
and state; Excess-profits tax: U.S.; Horse-racing; Hospitals; 
Income tax: U.S.: U.S. (Ruml plan); Income tax vs. sales 
tax: U.S.; Industry and state: U.S.; Insura-nce, State and 
compulsory; Insurance, Unemployment; Medicine, State; 
Old age pensions; Pan-American relations; Pensions, Mili- 
tary; Political parties: U.S.; Prices; Problems: U.S.; Radio 
addresses, debates, etc.; Radio advertising; Reconstruction; 
Redistribution of wealth; Sales tax: U.S.; Southern states; 
Tariff; Unemployed: U.S.; United Nations; U.S.: Appro- 
priations and expenditures: Army and navy (Pay, allow- 
ances, etc.): Defenses : .Politics and government; Venereal 
diseases; Wages; Wages and prices; World War, 1939-1945: 
Finance: Food question: U.S. 
Taxation of bonds. See Bonds: Taxation. 
Taxation of corporations. See Corporations: Taxation. 
Taxation of excess profits. See Excess-profits tax: U.S. 
Taxation of income. See Income tax: U.S.: U.S. (Ruml plan); 

Income tax vs. sales tax: U.S.; Taxation. 
Taxation of sales. See Income tax vs. sales tax: U.S.; Sales tax. 

TEA 855 

See also Food supply. 
Tea rooms. See Restaurants, lunch rooms, etc. 

TEACHERS 855 

See itlso Children: Management; Education; Occupations; 



[Hi] 

PAGE 

Religious education; Russia: Politics and government; 
Teaching, Freedom of; Woman: Employment. 

TEACHING, FREE1X)M OF 857 

See also Education and state. 

Technical education. See Education; Employees, Training of. 

Technicolor. See Moving picture plays; Moving pictures. 

Teitgen, Pierre-Henri. See Cabinet officers: France. 

Telegraph. See Public utilities; Public utilities and state. 

Telephone. See Public utilities; Public utilities and state. 

Telephone, Wireless. See Radio. 

TELEVISION 857 

Temperament. See Character. 

Temperance. See Hotels, taverns, etc.; Liquor problem; Prohi- 
bition. 

TEMPERATURE 858 

See also Heating. 

Ten Commandments. See Bible. 

Tenant farmers. See Farmers. 

Tenants. See Housing; Rent. 

Tennessee Valley Authority. See Public works; Roosevelt, 
Franklin D.; U.S.: Politics and government. 

Tennis. See Sports. 

Term, Presidential. See Presidents: U.S. (Term of office). 

Term of Congressman. See Congressman's term. 

Territorial questions. See Canada: Territorial expansion; Ger- 
many: Territorial expansion; U.S.: Territorial expansion; 
World War, 1939-1945: Territorial questions. 

Testimony. See Witnesses. 

Thailand. See Security, International. 

Thanksgiving Day. See Holidays. 

THEATER 859 

See also Actors and actresses; Amusements; Culture; Great 
Britain: Politics and government; Moving pictures. 

Theology. See Immortality; Religion. 

Third term. Presidential. See Presidents: U.S. (Term of office). 

Thomas, Lowell. See Persons. 

Thomas, Norman. See Labor and laboring classes; Persons; 
Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940); Problems: U.S.; U.S.: 
Foreign relations. 

Thompson, Dorothy. See Persons. 

Thorez, Maurice. See France: National Assemblies: Presidents; 
Persons. 

Thrift. See Saving and thrift. 

Tillon, Charles. See Cabinet officers: France. 

Time, Daylight saving. See Daylight saving. 

TIN 861 

See also Radio plays and programs; World War, 1939-1945: 
Supplies. 

TIPPING 863 

TIRES AND RUBBER 864 

See also Automobiles; Automobiles: Laws and regulations; 
Gasoline; Salvage (Waste, etc); World War, 1939-1945: 
Supplies: U.S. 

TITLES OF HONOR AND NOBILITY 868 

Tivoli, The. See Amusements. 

Tobacco. See Smoking. 

Tokyo, Bombing of. See World War, 1939-1945: Aerial opera- 
tions. 

Toleration. See Conscientious objectors; Public opinion; Re- 
ligious liberty; Teaching, freedom of. 

Tolls. See Roads. 

Tools. See Agricultural machinery. 

Toronto. See Migration, Internal. 

Toronto baby derby. See Children and state. 

Total abstinence. See Liquor problem; Prohibition. 

TOTALITARIANISM 868 



1 

1 



[liii] 



See also Communism; Dictators; Fascism; National Social- 
ism. 

Town planning. See Housing; Public works. 

Towns. See Cities and towns. 

Townsend, Francis E. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1936). 

Townsend plan. See Old age pensions. 

Tracy, Dick. See Persons. 

Tracy, Spencer. See Persons. 

Trade. See Commerce; Competition; Industry; Installment plan. 

Trade agreements. See Arbitration, Industrial. 

Trade-marks. See Patent laws and legislation. 

Trade schools. See Technical education. 

TRADE UNIONS 871 

See also Arbitration, Industrial; Baseball; Civil service; 
Great Britain; U.S.; Elections: Finance; Industrial rela- 
tions; Labor laws and legislation; Labor leaders; Legisla- 
tion; U.S.; Minorities; Newspapers; Open and closed shop 
Political Action Committee; Political parties: U.S.; Poli 
tics. Practical: U.S.; Presidents; U.S. (Election 1944) 
Roosevelt, Franklin D.; Strikes and lockouts; Teachers 
Trade unions and state; Truman, Harry S.; U.S.; Congress 
Defenses: Politics and government; World War, 1939-1945 
Prisoners and prisons; U.S. 

Finance 880 

See also Trade unions. 

TRADE UNIONS AND STATE 881 

See also Arbitration, Industrial; Canada: Politics and gov- 
ernment; Industry a'nd state; U.S.; Labor laws and legisla- 
tion; Strikes and lockouts; Trade unions; U.S.; Congress 
(Elections, 1942): Politics and government. 

Trades. See Occupations. 

Traditions. See Folklore. 

Trailers. See Automobiles. 

Training camps. Military. See Military training camps. 

Training of children. See Children; Management. 

Tramways. See Public utilities and state. 

Transfer tax. See Inheritance and transfer tax. 

TRANSPORTATION 883 

See also Airplanes; Air lines; Automobiles; Bicycles; Com- 
merce; Industry and state; Great Britain; Postal service; 
Roads; Tires and rubber; Travel; Vacations. 

Transradio press. See News agencies. 

TRAVEL 885 

See also Airplanes; Amusements; Cities and towns; Rail- 
roads; Rates (France); Transportation; Vacations. 

Treaties. See Peace treaties. 

Trial by jury. See]\iry. 

Trial evidence. See Witnesses. 

Trials. See Courts; Crime and criminals; Mental physiology and 
hygiene; Persons; Spies; War crimes and trials. 

Trieste. See Geography; World War, 1939-1945: Territorial 
questions. 

Trolleys. See Public utilities and state. 

Trucks, Automobile. See Automobiles. 

TRUMAN, HARRY S 887 

See also Housing; Income, Agricultural; Persons; Politics, 
Practical; U.S.; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944; 1948); 
Taxation; U.S.; Strikes and lockouts; U.S.: Foreign rela- 
tions; Foreign relations (Russia); Politics and government. 

Trusts, Industrial. See Competition; Government ownership: 

_ Banks; Industry and state; Interstate commerce; Mines and 

mineral resources: Government ownership; Monopolies; 

Public utilities and state; Radio and state; Railroads and 

state; Tariff. 

TUBERCULOSIS 890 

See also Diseases. 

Tumors. See Cancer. 



Tunisia. See World War, 1939-1945; U.S. 

Turkey. See Geography; Russia; Politics and government. 

T.V.A. See Tennessee Valley Authority. 

U-boats. See World War, 1939-1945: Naval operations. 

Underground movements (World War, 1939-1945). See World 
War, 1939-1945; Underground movements. 

Undulant fever. See Diseases. 

UNEMPLOYED 891 

Australia 891 

See also Australia: Politics and government; Business 
cycles. 

Canada 891 

See also Insurance, Unemployment. 

Denmark 892 

Germany 892 

See also Housing. 

Great Britain 892 

See also Insurance, Unemployment; Saving and thrift. 

Hungary 893 

Netherlands. See Industry and state; Netherlands. 

U.S 893 

See also Business cycles; Corruption (in politics); Dewey, 
Thomas; Elections; Finance; Hours of labor; Industry and 
state: U.S.; Insurance, Unemployment; Labor supply; Oc- 
cupations; Old age pensions; Presidents; U.S. (Election 
1940; 1944); Priorities, Industrial; Political parties: U.S.; 
Problems; U.S.; Republican party; Saving and thrift; State 
governments; Taxation: U.S.; Truman, Harry S.; U.S.: 
Appropriations and expenditures; Army and navy (De- 
mobilization); Politics and government; Wages; Willkie, 
Wendell Lewis. 

Unemployment insurance. See Insurance, Unemployment. 

Unified command (Military). See Australia; Army and militia 
(Unified command); U.S.: Army and navy (Unified com- 
mand). 

UNIFORMS, MILITARY 905 

Union dues. See Trade unions; Finance. 

Union of South Africa. See South Africa, Union of. 

Union shop. See Open and closed shop. 

Unions, Trade. See Trade unions. 

United church. See Church unity. 

UNITED NATIONS 905 

See also Atomic bomb; Atomic energy; Birth control; Can- 
ada; Foreign relations; Commerce; Dictators; Education, 
Universal; Gaulle, Charles de; Immigration and emigra- 
tion; International cooperation; International organiza- 
tion; Java: Politics and government; Jews: Colonization; 
Language and languages; Military service. Compulsory; 
Security, International; Spain: Foreign relations; War 
crimes and trials; World War, 1939-1945; World War, 
1939-1945: Influence and results (Germany): Territorial 
questions; Territorial questions (Japan) (U.S.). 

United Nations Day. See United Nations. 

United Press. See News agencies. 

United Service Organization. See World War, 1939-1945: Con- 
tributions. 

UNITED STATES 917 

See also Newspapers; Travel; United Nations; World War, 
1939-1945; Peace. 
Air corps. See U.S.: Army air forces. 
Annexations. See U.S.: Territorial expansion. 

Appropriations and Expenditures 917 

See also Agriculture and state; Budget: U.S.; Cancer; Civil- 
ian Conservation Corps; Dies committee; Elections: Fi- 
nance; Old age pensions; Pensions, Military; Political 
parties; U.S.; President Roosevelt: Radio addresses, de- 



[ liv ] 



PAGE 

bates, etc.; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940); Problems: 
U.S.; Public works; Truman, Harry S.; Unemployed: U.S.; 
U.S.: Congress (Elections, 1940): Defenses: Merchant Ma- 
rine: Politics and government; N'enereal diseases; World 
politics; World War, 19391945: Finance. 

Army. See U.S.: Appropriations and e.xpenditures: Army and 
navy; World War, 1939-1945: News reports. 

Army — enlistment. See U.S.: Army and navy (Recruiting, 
enlistment, etc.). 

Army — military life. See Morale; Soldiers. 

Army — recruiting. See U.S. Army and navy: Recruiting, en- 
listment, etc. 

Army — Women's Army Corps. See Uniforms, Military; 
Women as soldiers; Women: Military service. Compulsory. 

Army Air Forces 922 

See also Armaments; Soldiers; U.S.: Appropriations and 
expenditures: Defenses. 

Army Nurse Corps 923 

Army and Navy 923 

See also Armaments; Income tax: U.S.; Military service. 
Compulsory; Priorities, Industrial; Roosevelt, Franklin D.; 
Soldiers; Strikes and lockouts; Taxation: U.S.; Uniforms, 
Military; U.S.: Defenses; Woman: Military service, Com- 
pulsory; World politics. 

Army and Navy (Demobilization) 924 

See also Reconstruction; Truman, Harry S. 

Army and Navy (Officers) 925 

See also Armies and navies: Officers; Generals; Persons; 
Soldiers; U.S.: Race question; Veterans; World War, 1939- 
1945: U.S. 

Army and Navy (Pay, Allowances, Etc.) 925 

See also Conscientious objectors; Income tax: U.S.; Mili- 
tary service. Compulsory. 

Army and Navy (Recruiting, Enlistment, etc.). . . 926 
See also Military service. Compulsory; Prisons; Radio plays 
and programs. 

Army and Navy (Sltpplies and Stores) 927 

See also Gasoline. 

Army and Navy (Unified Command) 927 

Army and navy. Size of. See U.S. : Defenses. 

Banks. See Government ownership: Banks (U.S.). 

Budget. See Budget: U.S. 

Cabinet officers. See Cabinet officers: U.S. 

Capital. See Cities and towns. 

Census 928 

Civil service. See Civil service: U.S. 

Coast Guard — Women's Reserve (Spars). See Uniforms, Mili- 
tary; Woman: Military service. Compulsory; Women as 
soldiers. 

Colonies. See U.S. : Insular possessions. 

Congress 929 

See also Agricultural societies; Budget: U.S.; Cabinet offi- 
cers: U.S.; Commerce; Congressmen; Dewey, Thomas; Po- 
litical parties: U.S.; Presidents: U.S.; Roosevelt, Franklin 
D.; Truman, Harry S.; Unemployed: U.S.; United Nations; 
U.S.: Appropriations and expenditures: Neutrality; War: 
U.S.; Willkie, Wendell Lewis; World War, 1939-1945: 
Peace: U.S. 

Congress (Elections, 1936) 932 

Congress (Elections, 1938) 933 

See also Corruption (in politics). 

Congress (Elections, 1940) 935 

Congress (Elections, 1942) 935 

See also Suffrage. 

Congress (Elections, 1944) 937 

Congress (Elections, 1946) 937 

See also Suffrage. 



PAGE 

Constitution (Amendments) 939 

See also Child labor; Control of crops; Senators; Wages: 
Minimum wages. 

Cooperation with Canada. See International cooperation: 
U.S. -Canada. 

Cooperation with China. See International cooperation: U.S.- 
China. 

Cooperation with France. See International cooperation: 
U.S. -France. 

Cooperation with Great Britain. See International coopera- 
tion: U.S. -Great Britain. 

Cooperation with Russia. See International cooperation: 
U.S. -Russia. 

Defenses 939 

See also Armaments; Democracy; Munitions; Political par- 
ties: U.S.; Security: U.S.; Security, International; United 
Nations; U.S.: Appropriations and expenditures: Politics 
and government; World politics. 

Department of the Interior. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Per- 
sons; Price regulation. 

Department of State. J'« Cabinet officers: U.S.; Persons; Price 
regulation; World War, 1939-1945: U.S. 

Elections. See Elections: State governments (1936-1946); 
Presidents: U.S. (Election 1936-1948); U.S.: Congress 
(Elections, 1936-1946). 

Executive. See President Roosevelt: Powers and duties: Radio 
addresses, debates, etc.; Presidents: U.S.; Roosevelt, Frank- 
lin D.; Truman, Harry S. 

Employees. See Civil service: U.S.; U.S. — Officials and em- 
ployees. 

Expansion. See U.S.: Territorial expansion. 

Finance. See Finance: U.S. 

Foreign Population 947 

See also Germans in the U.S.; Immigration and emigration; 
Japanese in the U.S.; Minorities. 

Foreign Relations 948 

See also Dewey, Thomas; International relations; News- 
papers; Pan-American relations; Political parties: U.S.; 
Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940; 1944); Republican party; 
Roosevelt, Franklin D.; Truman, Harry S.; U.S.: Neutral- 
ity; Politics and government; Willkie, Wendell Lewis; 
World politics; World War, 1939-1945: Influence and re- 
sults. 

Foreign Relations (Australia) 952 

Foreign Relations (Brazil) 952 

Foreign Relations (Canada) 952 

See also International cooperation: U.S. -Canada. 

Foreign Relations (China) 952 

See also International cooperation: U.S. -China. 

Foreign Relations (France) 953 

See also France: Politics and government; International co- 
operation: U.S. -France. 

Foreign Relations (Germany) 954 

See also Commerce. 

Foreign Relations (Great Britain) 955 

See also Great Britain: Foreign relations; International co- 
operation: U.S. -Great Britain; U.S.: Foreign relations 
(Germany). 

Foreign Relations (Italy) 960 

Foreign Relations (Japan) 961 

Foreign Relations (Russia) 961 

See also International cooperation: U.S. -Russia; Political 
parties: U.S.; Problems: U.S. 

Foreign Relations (Spain) 964 

Foreign Relations (Sweden) 965 

Foreign Relations (Vatican) 965 

Foreign Relations (Yugoslavia) 965 



[Iv] 



Government. See U.S.: Politics and government. 

Government employees. See Civil service: U.S. ; U.S. : Officials 
and employees. 

Income tax. See Income tax: U.S.; U.S. (Ruml plan); Income 
tax vs. sales tax; U.S. 

Industry. See Industry: U.S. 

Industry and state. See Government ownership: Banks (U.S.); 
Industry and state: U.S.; Mines and mineral resources: 
Government ownership; Public utilities and state; Rail- 
roads and state: U.S. 

Insular Possessions 965 

See also Security, International; U.S. : Territorial expansion; 
World War, 1939-1945: Causes: U.S. 

Insular possessions, Military occupation. See Military occu- 
pation: U.S. insular possessions. 

Legislation. See Legislation: U.S. 

Marine Corps. See Uniforms, Military; Woman: Military 
service. Compulsory. 

Merchant Marine 966 

See also Public law #346. 

Military Academy, West Point. See Military education. 

Militia. See Military service, Compulsory. 

Money. See Money. 

National characteristics. See National characteristics: Ameri- 
can. 

National debts. See Debts, Public: U.S.; War bonds and 
stamps. 

National problems. See Problems: U.S. 

Naval Academy, Annapolis. See Military education. 

Naval Reserve, Women's. See Uniforms, Military; Woman: 
Military service, Compulsory; Women as soldiers. 

Navy. See U.S.: Appropriations and expenditures: Army and 
navy: Merchant Marine; World War, 1939-1945: Naval 
operations: News reports. 

Navy — enlistment. See U.S.: Army and navy (Recruiting, en- 
listment, etc.). 

Navy — officers. See U.S.: Army and navy (Officers). 

Navy — recruiting. See U.S.: Army and navy (Recruiting, en- 
listment, etc.) 

Neutrality 966 

See also Commerce; Congressmen; European War, 1914- 
1918; Neutrality law; Political parties: U.S.; Presidents: 
U.S. (Election 1940); Roosevelt, Franklin D.; Security: 
Canada: U.S.; Security, International; U.S.: Congress: 
(Elections, 1942): Defenses: Foreign relations; World War, 
1939-1945: Supplies: Victory. 

Nominations for President. See Presidents: U.S. (Election 
1936-1948). 

Officials and employees. See Civil service: U.S. ; Persons; Presi- 
dent Roosevelt : Powers and duties ; Roosevelt, Franklin D. ; 
Security, International; Strikes and lockouts; U.S.: De- 
fenses: Politics and government; Women in public life; 
World War, 1939-1945: U.S. 

Political parties. See Political parties: U.S. 

Politics and Government 978 

See also Civil rights; Corruption (in politics); Dewey, 
Thomas; Imperialism; Insurance, Unemployment; Meat; 
National Socialism; Political parties: U.S.; President 
Roosevelt: Powers and duties; Presidents: U.S. (Election 
1936-1948); Prices; Problems: U.S.; Public works; Roose- 
velt, Franklin D.; Spies; State governments; Strikes and 
lockouts; Truman, Harry S.; Unemployed: U.S.; U.S.: Ap- 
propriations and expenditures: Congress (Elections, 1936- 
1946): Defenses; Wages and hours; World politics; World 
War, 1939-1945: News reports: U.S. 

Politics, Practical. See Politics, Practical: U.S. 

Presidents. See Presidents: U.S.; President Roosevelt: Powers 



and duties: Radio addresses, debates, etc.; Roosevelt, 
Franklin D.; Truman, Harry S. 
Problems. See Problems: U.S. 
Public works. See Public works. 

Race Question 988 

See also Race question. 
Railroads. See Railroads: Rates (U.S.); Railroads and state: 

U.S. 
Sales tax. See Sales tax: U.S.; Income tax vs. sales tax: U.S. 
Security. See Security: U.S. 

Senate. See Presidents: U.S.; Senators; U.S.: Congress: Con- 
gress (Elections). 
State governments. See State governments. 
Tariff. See Tariff. 

Taxation. See Bonds: Taxation; Corporations: Taxation; Ex- 
cess profits tax: U.S.; Income tax: U.S.: U.S. (Ruml plan); 
Income tax vs. sales tax: U.S.; Sales tax: U.S.; Taxation; 
U.S. 

Territorial Expansion 990 

Unemployed. See Unemployed: U.S. 
War. See W^r: U.S.; World War, 1939-1945: U.S. 
World War, 1939-1945. See World War, 1939-1945: Influence 
and results (U.S.): Manpower: News reports; Pearl Har- 
bor: Territorial questions (U.S.); U.S 
U.S. Employment Service. See Labor supply, Agricultural; 

World War, 1939-1945; Manpower. 
U.S., Population of. See Population. 
U.S.O. See United Service Organization. 
Universal language. See Language, Universal. 
Universal military training. See Military service, Compulsory; 

Woman: Military service. Compulsory. 
Universities and colleges. See Education, Higher. 
Usages. See Manners and customs. 
Usury. See Interest and usury. 
Utilities, Public. See Public utilities. 

VACATIONS 991 

See also Holidays; Hours of labor; Travel. 

Vaccination. See Public health. 

Vacuum cleaners. See Electric apparatus and appliances. Do- 
mestic. 

Valera, Eamon de. See de Valera, Eamon. 

Vallee, Rudy. See Persons. 

Vancouver. See Migration, Internal. 

Vandenberg, Arthur. See Finance; Great Britain; Persons; Po- 
litical parties; U.S.; Politics, Practical: U.S.; Presidents: 
U.S. (Election 1936-1948) (Term of office); Unemployed: 
U.S.; U.S.: Foreign relations. 

van Mook, Hubertus J. See Netherlands: Foreign relations (East 
Indies): Politics and government. 

van Poll, Maximiliaan J. M. See Netherlands; Foreign relations 
(East Indies). 

Vatican — foreign relations. See U.S.: Foreign relations (Vati- 
can). 

VEGETABLE GARDENING 995 

See also Canning and preserving. 

Vegetable oils. See Oils and fats. 

Vegetables. See Vegetable gardening; Vegetarianism. 

Vegetables, canning. See Canning and preserving. 

VEGETARIANISM 997 

VENEREAL DISEASES 997 

See also Diseases; Liberty of the press; Radio addresses, de- 
bates, etc.; Sex instruction; World War, 1939-1945: Medi- 
cal and sanitary affairs. 

Versailles, Treaty of. See World War, 1939-1945: Causes. 

Vessels (ships). See Ships. 

VETERANS 1000 



[Ivi] 



Set also Bounties, Military; Liberty of the press; Lotteries; 
Migration, Internal; Pensions, Military; Political parties: 
U.S.; Problems: U.S.; Public law #346; U.S.: Appropria- 
tions and expenditures: Politics and government. 

Education 1001 

Employment 1001 

Veterinary medicine. See Cattle: Diseases. 

Veto. See Legislation: U.S. 

Vice-presidents. See Persons; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944); 
Senators; Wages. 

Vichy Government. See France: Politics and government. 

Victoria Day. See Holidays. 

Victory (World War, 1939-1945). See World War, 1939-1945: 
Victory. 

Victory bonds. See War bonds and stamps. 

Victory Day. See Holidays. 

Victory gardens. See Vegetable gardening. 

Victory loan. See War bonds and stamps. 

Victory stamps. See War bonds and stamps. 

Victory tax. See Income tax: U.S. 

Vienna. See United Nations. 

Vigilantes. See Strikes and lockouts. 

Villages. See Local government. 

Vinson, Fred M. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Persons. 

Vital statistics. See U.S.: Census. 

Vitamins. See Calories and vitamins. 

Vladivostok. See Geography; Security, International. 

VOCABULARY 1002 

Vocation, Choice of. See Occupations. 

Vocational guidance. See Education; Occupations. 

Vocations. See Occupations. 

Vote of congressman. See Congressman's vote. 

Voting. See Elections; France: Presidents (Election); Presidents: 
U.S. (Election 1936-1948); Referenda: Australia: France; 
Soldiers: Suffrage; Suffrage; U.S.: Congress (Elections, 
1936-1946); Woman: Suffrage. 

Voting, Absent. See Soldiers: Suffrage. 

W.A.A.F. (Women's Auxiliary Air Force). See Women as 
soldiers. 

W.A.C. (Women's Army Corps). See U.S.: Army — Women's 
Army Corps. 

WAGE AND PRICE REGULATION 1003 

See also Income regulation; Price regulation; Unemployed: 
Denmark; Wage regulation. 

Wage deductions. See Income tax: U.S. (Ruml plan); Insurance, 
Health; Insurance, State and compulsory; Insurance, Un- 
employment; Old age pensions; War bonds and stamps. 

Wage publicity. See Income publicity. 

WAGE REGULATION 1006 

See also Income regulation; Occupations; U.S.: Politics and 
government; Wage and price regulation. 

WAGES 1010 

See also Budget, Household; Cabinet officers: U.S.; Canada: 
Army and navy (Pay, allowances, etc.): Politics and gov- 
ernment; Civil service: France; Congressmen; Cost and 
standard of living; Ebonomic conditions; Food prices and 
price regulation; Great Britain: Army and navy (Pay, al- 
lowances, etc.); Income; Income regulation; Industrial 
relations; Japanese in the U.S.; Negroes: Employment; 
Occupations; Political parties: U.S.; Presidents: U.S.; 
Price regulation; Prices; Profit; Servants; Sports; Strikes 
and lockouts; Taxation: Sweden; Teachers; Tipping; Trade 
unions; Unemployed: U.S.; U.S.: Army and navy 
(Pay, allowances, etc.): Census: Congress: Race question; 
Veterans: Employment; Wage deductions; Wage and price 
regulation; Wages: Agricultural: Minimum wages; Wages 



PAGE 

and hours; Wages and prices; Woman: Wages; World War, 
1939-1945: Reparations Qapan): U.S. 

Minimum Wages 1018 

See also Wages: Agricultural. 

Agricultural 1021 

WAGES AND HOURS 1021 

See also Hours of labor; Legislation: U.S.; Occupations; 
Roosevelt, Franklin D.; U.S.: Politics and government; 
Wages; World War, 1939-1945: Manpower. 

WAGES AND PRICES 1023 

See also Agriculture and state; Prices; Wages. 
Wages, Incentive. See Wages. 

Wages, Military. See subdivision Army and navy (Pay, allow- 
ances, etc.) under names of countries. 
Wagner-Dingle-Murray bill. See Medicine, State. 
Wagner Labor Act. See Labor laws and legislation. 
Wagner, Robert F. See Labor and laboring classes; Presidents: 

U.S. (Election 1940). 
Waiters. See Tipping. 

Walker, Frank C. See Cabinet officers: U.S. 
Walking. See Exercise. 
Wallace, DeWitt. See Persons. 

Wallace, Henry. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Fascism; Industry: 
U.S.; Persons; Political parties: U.S.; Politics, Practical: 
U.S.; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940-1948) (Term of of- 
fice): Questions to government officials; Radio addresses, 
debates, etc.; U.S.: Foreign relations (Russia). 

WAR 1025 

See also Disarmament; Munitions; Peace; Security: U.S.; 
Security, International; Soldiers; U.S.: Neutrality. 

Aerial Operations 1025 

See also World War, 1939-1945: Aerial operation. 
Causes. See Commerce; Security: U.S.; War. 
Economic aspects. See Munitions; Priorities, Industrial; 
Profit; Rationing, Consumer; World War, 1939-1945: 
Manpower. 

U.S 1025 

War and industry. See Munitions; Priorities; Profit; World War, 

1939-1945: Economic aspects: Manpower. 
War and morals. See World War, 1939-1945: Moral aspects. 
War and religion. See Conscientious objectors; World War, 
1939-1945! Religious aspects. 

WAR BONDS AND STAMPS 1026 

See also Income tax: U.S.; Industry and state: U.S.; Invest- 
ments and savings; Prices; Radio plays and programs. 
War contracts. See World War, 1939-1945: Supplies. 

WAR CRIMES AND TRIALS 1032 

See also Capital punishment; Hitler, Adolf. 
War debts — European War, 1914-1918. See European War, 1914- 

1918: Finance. 

War Labor Board. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Persons; Priccj 
regulation; Strikes and lockouts; World War, 1939-1945:' 
U.S. 
War loan. See War bonds and stamps. 
War Manpower Commission. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Per- 
sons; Price regulation. 
War memorials. See Soldiers' monuments. 
War news. See World War, 1939-1945: News reports. 
War of 1914. See European War, 1914-1918. 
War of 1939-1945. See World War, 1939-1945. 
War pictures. See Moving pictures. 
War posters. See Posters. 
War prisoners and prisons. See World War, 1939-1945: Prisoners 

and prisons. 
War production. See Munitions. 

War Production Board. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Persons; Price 
regulation; World War, 1939-1945: U.S. 



[Ivii] 



War profits tax. See Excess-profits tax: U.S. 

War stamps. See War bonds and stamps. 

War supplies. See Spain: Civil War, 1936-1939 (Supplies); U.S.: 

Army and navy (Supplies and stores); World War, 1939- 

1945: Supplies. 
War tax. See Income tax: U.S. 
War time. See Daylight saving. 
War trials. See War crimes and trials. 
War veterans. See Veterans. 
Ward, E. J. See Political parties: Australia. 
Warfare, Chemical. See Gases, Asphyxiating and poisonous: 

War use. 
Warfare, Submarine. See Submarine boats. 
Warren, Earl. See Persons; Politics, Practical: U.S.; Presidents: 

U.S. (Election 1944; 1948). 
Wars. See European War, 1914-1918; War; World War, 1939- 

1945. 
'Wars, Future. See Security, International. 
Washing. See Laundry. 
Washington, D.C. Jw United Nations; U.S.: Foreign relations 

(Great Britain). 
Washington, George. See Persons; Presidents: U.S. 
Washington's birthday. See Holidays. 
Waste products. See Salvage (Waste, etc.). 
Water sports. See Swimming. 
Water supply. See Public utilities and state. 
Wavell, Sir Archibald P. See World War, 1939-1945. 
WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service). 

See U.S. : Naval reserve. Women's. 
WEALTH 1040 

See also Cost and standard of living; Happiness; Income; 

Income regulation; Income tax: U.S.: U.S. (Ruml plan); 

Income tax vs. sales tax: U.S.; Jewish question; Justice; 

Money; Newspapers; Political parties: U.S.; Presidents: 

U.S. (Election 1944); Profit; Property; Success; Taxation: 

U.S.; World War, 1939-1945: U.S. 
Weapons. See Firearms. 
Weather. See Finland: Climate; Production, Agricultural; 

Weather forecasting. 

WEATHER FORECASTING 1041 

Weather lore. See Weather forecasting. 

Weddings. See Marriage. 

Welding. See Occupations. 

Welfare, Public. See Hospitals; Medicine, State. 

Welfare, Social. See Social problems. 

Welles, Orson. See Radio plays and programs. 

Welles, Sumner. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Persons. 

West, The. See Industry: U.S. 

Wheeler, Burton K. See Labor and laboring classes; Persons; 

Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940; 1944); U.S.: Congress 

(Elections, 1942): Foreign relations. 
West Point Military Academy. See Military education. 
Whipping. See Corporal punishment. 
White-collar workers. See Middle classes. 
Whiteman, Paul. See Persons. 
Whitney, A. F. See Labor leaders. 

Whitney, Richard. See Government ownership: Banks (U.S.). 
Whitsunday. See Amusements. 
.Wickard, Claude R. See Cabinet officers: U.S.; Questions to 

government officials; Radio addresses, debates, etc. 
WILLKIE, WENDELL LEWIS 1042 

See also Lend-lease bill; Persons; President Roosevelt: Radio 

addresses, debates, etc.; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940; 

1944) (Term of office); Republican party; U.S.: Defenses: 

Foreign relations: Neutrality. 
Wilson, Woodrow. See Persons; Presidents: U.S. 
Winant, John G, See Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944). 



PAGE 

Winchell, Walter. See Persons. 

Wine and wine making. See Liquor problem; Prohibition. 

Winnipeg. See Migration, Internal. 

Wireless. See Radio. 

Witnesses. See Civil rights. 

W.L.B. See War Labor Board. 

W.M.C. See War Manpower Commission. 

WOMAN 1044 

See also Capital punishment; Great Britain: Army and navy 
(Pay, allowances, etc.); Monastic and religious orders; 
National Socialism; Physicians; Women in public life. 
Dress. See Clothing and dress. 
Education. See Education of women. 
Emancipation. See Woman: Suffrage. 

Employment 1044 

See also Family; Hours of labor; Labor supply; Labor sup- 
ply. Agricultural; Occupations; Radio plays and programs; 
Unemployed: U.S. 
Enfranchisement. See Woman: Suffrage. 
Hours of labor. See Hours of labor. 
Legal status, laws, etc. See Labor laws and legislation; 

Woman: Suffrage. 
Military service. See Woman: Military service, Compulsory; 
Women as soldiers. 

Military Service, Compulsory 1048 

Occupations. See Occupations; Woman: Employment. 
Rights of women. See Woman: Suffrage. 

Social and Moral Questions 1050 

See also Divorce; Moral conditions; Moving pictures; Ve- 
nereal diseases; Women in public life. 

Suffrage 1050 

Wages 1050 

See also Canada: Army and navy (Pay, allowances, etc.) 
Women as clergymen. See Monastic and religious orders. 
Women as lawyers. See Women in public life. 
Women as physicians. See Physicians; Woman: Employment. 

WOMEN AS SOLDIERS 1052 

See also Woman: Military service. Compulsory. 
Women drinking. See Woman: Social and moral questions. 
Women in industry. See Woman: Employment. 

WOMEN IN PUBLIC LIFE 1052 

See also Clergy; Judges; Politics, Practical: Germany; 
Woman: Employment. 
Women smoking. See Woman: Social and moral questions. 
Women's Army Auxiliary Corps. See U.S.: Army — Women's 

Army Corps. 
Women's Auxiliary Air Force. See Women as soldiers. 
Women's Royal Naval Service. See Women as soldiers. 
Wood. See Fuel. 

Woodring, Harry H. See Cabinet officers: U.S. 
Woolton British restaurants. See Restaurants, lunch rooms, etc. 
Woolton, Frederick James (Marquis). See Cabinet officers: 

Great Britain. 
Words, Stock of. See Vocabulary. 
Work. See Labor and laboring classes. 
Working classes. See Labor and laboring classes. 
Working conditions. See Industrial relations; Labor and labor- 
ing classes; Strikes and lockouts; Wages. 
Working day. See Hours of labor. 
Working girls. See Child labor; Woman: Employment. 
Working women. See Woman: Employment. 
Workingmen's dwellings. See Housing. 

Workingmen's insurance. See Insurance, Health; Insurance, 

State and compulsory; Insurance, Unemployment; Old age 

pensions. 

Works Progress Administration. See Corruption (in politics); 

Hours of labor; Labor supply; Legislation: U.S.; Occupa- 



[ Iviii ] 



PAGE 

tions; Public works; Strikes and lockouts; Trade unions; 
Unemployed: U.S.; U.S.: Appropriations and expenditures; 
Politics and government; Wages. 
Workshop councils. See Employees' representation in manage- 
ment. 
World education. See Education, Universal. 
World federation. See International organization. 
World organization. See International organization. 

WORLD POLITICS 1055 

See also Atomic bomb; Dewey, Thomas; Eastern question; 
Education; European War, 1914-1918; International co- 
operation: U.S. -Russia; International organization; Inter- 
national relations; Newspapers; Presidents; U.S. (Election 
1944); Problems: U.S.; Republican party; United Nations; 
Willkie, Wendell Lewis; World War, 1939-1945; also 
subdivisions Foreign relations and Politics and government 
under names of countries. 
World War, 1914-1918. See European War, 1914-1918. 

WORLD WAR, 1939-1945 1061 

See also Bible; Elections: Great Britain; Geography; Great 
Britain; Politics and government; International coopera- 
tion: U.S. -Great Britain: U.S. -Russia; Ireland; Neutrality; 
Morale; Munitions; Presidents; U.S. (Election 1940; 1944) 
(Term of office); Roosevelt, Franklin D.; Sermons; Truman, 
Harry S.; U.S. : Congress; Foreign relations (Great Britain): 
Neutrality; War crimes and trials. 

Aerial Operations 1066 

See also Atomic bomb; World War, 1939-1945;- World War, 
1939-1945; Propaganda. 

Atrocities 1070 

See also Moving pictures; World War, 1939-1945: Prisoners 
and prisons; Propaganda. 

Australia 1071 

See also World War, 1939-1945. 

Belgium. See World War, 1939-1945: Territorial questions 
(Germany). 

Canada 1072 

See also World War, 1939-1945- 

Casualties 1073 

Causes 1074 

See also European War, 1914-1918: Territorial questions; 
League of Nations; Security: Canada; France; U.S.; Secu- 
rity, International; War crimes and trials; World War, 
1939-1945: Territorial questions (Japan). 

Charities. See Food relief; World War, 1939-1945: Civilian 
relief: Food question. 

Children 1081 

See also World War, 1939-1945: Evacuation of civilians: 
Food question. 

China. See World War, 1939-1945; World War, 1939-1945; 
China and Japan. 

China and Japan 1081 

See also World War, 1939-1945; World War, 1939-1945; 
Peace. 

Civilian evacuation. See World War, 1939-1945: Evacuation 
of civilians. 

Civilian Relief 1082 

See also Food relief; Reconstruction; World War, 1939-1945: 
Food question. 

Congresses, Conferences, etc 1082 

Contributions 1087 

Denmark. See World War, 1939-1945: Influence and results 
(Denmark): Territorial questions (Germany). 

Displaced Persons 1087 

Duration (Europe) 1089 

See also National Socialism; World War, 1939-1945; Dura- 
tion (Europe and Japan): Victory. 



Duration (Europe and Japan) 1094 

See also World War, 1939-1945: Duration (Europe) Qapan). 

Duration (Japan) 1097 

See also World War, 1939-1945: Duration (Europe and 
Japan). 

Economic aspects. See Lend-lease operations; Munitions; Pri- 
orities, Industrial; Profit; Rationing, Consumer; Recon- 
struction; World War, 1939-1945: Finance: Manpower: 
Reparations; Supplies. 

Evacuation of Civilians 1100 

Finance 1101 

See also Income tax; Income tax vs. sales tax; U.S.; Lend- 
lease operations; Lotteries; Republican party; Sales tax: 
U.S.; Saving and thrift; Taxation; U.S.; Truman, Harry S.; 
U.S.; Appropriations and expenditures: Defenses: Territo- 
rial expansion; World War, 1939-1945. 

Finland. See World War, 1939-1945: Russia: Supplies. 

Food Question 1103 

See also Food supply; Food; Preservation; Reconstruction; 
United Nations; World War, 1939-1945; World War, 1939- 
1945; Civilian relief; Supplies. 

France 1107 

See also World War, 1939-1945. 

Germany 1107 

See also World War, 1939-1945; World War, 1939-1945: 
France; Influence and results (Germany); Propaganda. 

Great Britain 1 108 

See also U.S.: Foreign relations (Canada); World War, 
1939-1945; World War, 1939-1945; France; Influence and 
results (Great Britain); Peace. 

Influence and Results 1110 

See also Military occupation. 

Influence and Results (Denmark) 1111 

Influence and Results (Germany) 1111 

See also Cabinet officers: U.S.; Germany: Politics and gov- 
ernment; Military occupation: Germany. 

Influence and Results (Great Britain) 1118 

Influence and Results (Japan) 1118 

Influence and Results (Norway) 1119 

Influence and Results (Poland) 1119 

Influence and Results (Sweden) 1119 

Influence and Results (U.S.) 1119 

See also Commerce; World War, 1939-1945: Casualties. 

Italy 1121 

See also World War, 1939-1945. 
Japan. See World War, 1939-1945; World War, 1939-1945: 
China and Japan: Influence and results Qapan). 

Len,d-lease operations. See Lend-lease bill; Lend-lease opera- 
tions. 

Manpower 1121 

See also Industry and state; U.S.; Military service. Com- 
pulsory; Radio plays and programs; U.S.: Defenses; Poli- 
tics and government; World War, 1939-1945: U.S. 

Medical and Sanitary' Affairs 1126 

See also World War, 1939-1945- 

Moral Aspects 1126 

Naval Operations 1127 

See also Canada; Politics and government; Lend-lease bill 
Lend-lease operations; Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940) 
Ships; World War, 1939-1945; World War, 1939-1945 
Causes: News reports; Propaganda; Refugees: Victory. 
Netherlands. See World War, 1939-1945: Territorial questions 
(Germany). 

News Reports 1129 

See also Radio: News reports; World War, 1939-1945: 
Aerial operations: Casualties; Naval operations: Prisoners 
and prisons: Propaganda. 



[lix] 



PAGE 

Norway. See World War, 1939-1945: Influence and results 
(Norway): Territorial questions (Germany). 

Occupied territories. See Military occupation; World War, 
1939-1945: Atrocities; Territorial questions: Underground 
movements. 

Peace 1134 

See also Hungary: Politics and government; International 
cooperation: U.S. -Russia; Peace; Political parties: U.S.; 
Presidents: U.S. (Election 1944); Religion; Roosevelt, 
Franklin D.; United Nations; World War, 1939-1945: 
Territorial questions (Germany) (Japan). 

Pearl Harbor 1144 

Personal Narratives 1145 

Prisoners and Prisons 1146 

See also Germans in the U.S.; Moving pictures; World War, 
1939-1945: Atrocities. 

Production. See Munitions. 

Propaganda 1147 

See also Dies committee; Newspapers; Newspapers and ra- 
dio; World War, 1939-1945: News reports: Supplies. 

Rationing. See Priorities, Industrial; Rationing, Consumer. 

Reconstruction. See Reconstruction. 

Refugees 1150 

See also World War, 1939-1945: Children: Displaced per- 
sons: Evacuation of civilians. 

Religious Aspects 1152 

See also Bible. 

Reparations 1153 

See also Industry: Germany; Reconstruction; United Na- 
tions; World War, 1939-1945: Influence and results (Ger- 
many). 

Reparations (Germany) 1153 

See also Industry: Germany; World War, 1939-1945: Repa- 
rations: Reparations (Russia). 

Reparations (Hungary) 1154 

Reparations (Japan) 1154 

See also Commerce; World War, 1939-1945: Reparations. 

Reparations (Russia) 1155 

See also World War, 1939-1945: Reparations: Reparations 
(Germany). 

Resistance movements. See World War, 1939-1945: Under- 
ground movements. 

Russia 1155 

See also Russia: Foreign relations; World War, 1939-1945. 

Supplies 1 1 56 

See also Gasoline; Lend-lease bill; Lend-lease operations; 
Presidents: U.S. (Election 1940); Ships; U.S.: Defenses: 
Neutrality: Politics and government; World War, 1939- 
1945: Finance: Naval operations. 

Sweden 1163 

See also World War, 1939-1945: Influence and results 
(Sweden): Territorial questions (Germany). 

Territorial Questions 1164 

See also World War, 1939-1945: Peace. 

Territorial questions, Australia. See World War, 1939-1945: 
Territorial questions. 

Territorial questions, Czechoslovakia. See World War, 1939- 
1945: Territorial questions (Germany). 

Territorial questions, Denmark. See World War, 1939-1945: 
Territorial questions (Germany). 

Territorial Questions (France) 1165 



page 

Territorial Questions (Germany) 1165 

See also Security, International; World War, 1939-1945: 
Territorial questions: Territorial questions (Great Brit- 
ain). 

Territorial Questions (Great Britain) 1167 

See also World War, 1939-1945: Territorial questions: Ter- 
ritorial questions (Germany). 

Territorial Questions (Hungary) 1167 

Territorial Questions (Italy) 1168 

See also World War, 1939-1945: Territorial questions; Ter- 
ritorial questions (Germany). 

Territorial Questions (Japan) 1168 

See also World War, 1939-1945: Territorial questions; Ter- 
ritorial questions (Germany) (Great Britain). 

Territorial Questions (Netherlands) 1169 

Territorial questions, Poland. See World War, 1939-1945: 
Territorial questions (Germany) (Russia). 

Territorial Questions (Russia) 1169 

See also World War, 1939-1945: Territorial questions 
(Germany). 

Territorial Questions (U.S.) 1169 

See also World War, 1939-1945; Territorial questions. 
Territorial questions, Yugoslavia. J"ee World War, 1939-1945: 
Territorial questions. 

Underground Movements 1171 

See also Great Britain; Politics and government; Persons. 

U.S 1171 

See also Persons; Political parties; U.S.; Presidents; U.S. 
(Election 1940); Problems: U.S.; Republican party; State 
governments; U.S.; Congress (Elections, 1942); Defenses; 
World War, 1939-1945: Influence and results (U.S.). 

Victory 1185 

See also Presidents; U.S. (Election 1940); U.S.: Neutrality; 
World War, 1939-1945: U.S. 
World-wide education. See Education, Universal. 
World's fairs. See Exhibitions. 

WORRY 1189 

Worship. See Public worship. 

W.P.A. See Works Progress Administration. 

W.P.B. See War Production Board. 

W. R.E.N. (Women's Royal Naval Service). See Women as 

soldiers. 
Writers. See Authors. 
Writs. See Habeas corpus. 
Wyatt, Wilson. See Persons. 

Young men. See Public health; Success; Youth. 

Young women. See Education of women; Success; Youth. 

Young, Owen D. See U.S.; Politics and government. 

Youth. See Amusements; Books and reading; Child labor; Chil- 
dren; Education, Higher; Labor supply. Agricultural; 
Leisure; Liquor problem; Military education; Moral con- 
ditions; Moving pictures; Prohibition; Radio; Religion; 
Smoking; Social conditions; Venereal diseases; World War, 
1939-1945: Influence and results (Germany). 

Yugoslavia. See Reconstruction; Russia; Politics and govern- 
ment. 
Foreign relations. See International relations; U.S.; Foreign 

relations (Yugoslavia). 
World War, 1939-1945. See World War, 1939-1945: Territo- 
rial questions (Yugoslavia). 



» 



PUBLIC OPINION 
1935-1946 



I 



PUBLIC OPINION, 1935-1946 



ABSENTEEISM (LABOR) 



ACCIDENTS 



1. (US Dec 10 '41) During the past four weeks have you been 
absent from work at any time because of sickness? Those who 
said they had missed time from work because of illness were 
asked: How many days did you miss from work? Asked of 
employed persons, (aipo) 

Medians 
National total 2.3 days out of every 100 

BY SEX 

Men 2.5 days out of every 100 

Women 2.0 days out of every 100 

2. (US Mar 10 '43) What do you think should be done with 
workers in war factories who are regularly absent from work 
without good excuse? (aipo) 

Draft them;, put them in service, into army. . 48% 

Lay them off; discharge them 11 

Absenteeism without cause is non-existent; no 

penalties 1 

Other 32 

No opinion 8 

3. (Canada June 16 '43) Do you think that workers in war in- 
dustries who stay away from their work without a good excuse 
should be fined in addition to losing their pay? (cipo) 

Would Would No 

fine not fine opinion 

National t-otal 58% 33% 9% 

BY OCCUPATION 

Farmers 70% 23% 7% 

Business and professional 53 38 9 

White-collar 57 34 9 

Labor 55 36 9 

4. (Canada June 16 '43) Do you think that a worker in a war 
industry who stays away from work without good reason 
should be punished as severely as a soldier who is absent 
without leave? (cipo) 

Yes 68% No 23% Undecided 9% 

6. (Canada Dec 11 '43) There has been a lot of talk recently 
about workers who stay away from their jobs. What, in your 
opinion, are the reasons why these people take time off from 
their jobs? (cipo) 

National Labor 

total only 

Too many taxes 29% 39% 

Overworked; need relaxation; etc.. . 16 15 

Sickness 11 12 

Jobs dull 2 2 

Bad management 1 1 

Poor working conditions 1 1 

Carelessness; laziness; etc 13 11 

Too much pay 12 8 

Parties; frivolity; etc 7 7 

Too easy to get jobs 3 3 



95%* 99%* 

* Miscellaneous answers and those who had no opinion brought the 
total up to slightly over 100, as some advanced more than one explana- 



Prevention 

1. (Great Britain Oct '46) Can you recall having seen any 
poster or advertisement of the government's road safety cam- 
paign? (bipo) 

Yes No 

National total 73% 27% 

BY SEX 

Men 74% 26% 

Women 71 29 

BY AGE 

21-29 years 81% 19% 

30-49 years 78 22 

50 years and over 64 36 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher 87% 13% 

Middle 83 17 

Lower 68 32 

2. (Great Britain Oct '46) Which [poster or advertisement 
have you seen]? Asked of 73% of the sample who said they 
recalled having seen a road safety campaign poster or adver- 
tisement, (bipo) 

Window poster 32% 

"Keep death off the road" 17 

"Hand" poster 1 

Posters, general 3 

Newspapers, general 4 

Strip cartoons 1 

"This is how it happened" series 1 

Local campaigns 5 

Miscellaneous 4 

Don't remember; haven't taken much notice. . 3 
No instance given 2 

73% 

3. (Great Britain Oct '46) Is there any way in which you 
think it [the government's road safety campaign] has increased 
your road sense? Asked of 73% of the sample who recalled 
having seen a poster or advertisement of the road safety cam- 
paign, (bipo) 

Has made me mote aware of danger; more gen- 
erally careful 13% 

More careful about crossing roads; look to left 

and right 6 

Use pedestrian crossings more 1 

Makes me more careful with children 2 

Makes me more nervous; dislike posters; think 

them in bad taste 4 

Have always been careful '. 10 

Miscellaneous 3 

No comment 34 

73% 



1] 



[2] 



ACTORS AND ACTRESSES 



1. (us Apr 12 '37) Who arc your favorite radio performers? 

(aipo) (Jan '38) Who is your favorite radio personality? (for) 

The Fornnie question was asked of a national cross-section of 

radio owners only. 

AIPO FOR 

Jack Benny 30% 10.7% 

Eddie Cantor 12 55 

Fred Allen 11 1.4 

Bing Crosby 9 5.4 

Lowell Thomas 8 5.9 

Burns and Allen 7 1.9 

Major Bowes 7 4.6 

Bob Burns 6 4.3 

Lum and Abner 5 1.0 

Amos and Andy 5 — 

Boake Carter — 7.1 

Nelson Eddy — 4.0 

Edwin C.Hill — 3.5 

Charlie McCarthy — 3.0 

President Roosevelt — 2.7 

Edgar Bergen . — 1.3 

Rudy Vallee — .9 

All others — 36.8 



100%* 

* Percentages are based on the number of respondents who mentioned 
the top ranking ten. 

2. (US May 10 '37) If the movie theaters in this town were 
picketed because of a strike of Hollywood actors, would you 
go to the movies just the same? (aipo) 

Yes 53% 

No 23 

Not a movie-goer 22 

No opinion 2 

3. (OS July '37) Who is your favorite movie star? (Nov '39) 
Who is your favorite male movie actor? Who is your favorite 
movie actress? (for) 



Clark Gable 

Shirley Temple 

Robert Taylor 

William Powell 

Norma Shearer 

Wallace Beery 

George Arliss 

Jeanette MacDonald . . 

Myrna Loy 

Greta Garbo 

Janet Gaynor 

Gary Cooper 

Joan Crawford 

Lionel Barrymore 

Kay Francis 

Bing Crosby 

Jean Harlow 

Nelson Eddy 

Spencer Tracy 

Tyrone Power 

Paul Muni 

Errol Flvnn 



July 
1937 

3.7% 
3.7 
2.7 
2.6 
2.3 
1.8 
1.7 
1.6 
1.6 
1.6 
1.4 
1.3 
1.3 
1.3 
1.3 
1.1 
1.0 
9 



Actors 

Nov im 
5.1% 

1.9 
1.3 

2.1 



1.5 



2.0 



1.3 
5.6 
2.1 
1.9 
1.3 



Actresses 
Nov 1939 

2.3% 



2.6 



3.4 
4.4 
1.0 
1.7 

1.3 

1.0 





July 


Actors 


Actresses 




m? 


Nov 1939 


Nov 1939 


Charles Boycr 


— 


1.2% 


— 


Gene Autry 


— 


1.1 


— 


Ronald Colman 


— 


1.0 


— 


Bob Burns 


— 


1.0 




Bette Davis 


4.6% 
2 8 


Irene Dunne 


— 


— 


Ginger Rogers 


1.5 


Claudette Colbert. . . 


— 


— 


1.3 


Alice Faye 


— 


— 


1.0 


Carole Lombard 


— 


— 


1.0 


Barbara Stanwyck . . . 


— 


— 


1.0 


Loretta Young 


— 


— 


1.0 


Animated cartoons . . 


1% 


— 


— 


All others 


25.1 


18.7 


13.2 


Don't know 


40.5 


29.1 


33.1 


Don't go to movies. 


1.4 


21.8 


21.8 



4. (US July '37) Why is he or she [star chosen in July '37 col- 
umn above] your favorite star? (for) 

Appearance and personality '. . 39.5% 

Acting ability 45-9 

Kind of picture he or she appears in 11.2 

What you know about his or her private life. . . 2.3 
All others and no answer 1.1 

6. (US Jan 25 '39) Are you satisfied with the selection of Vivien 

Leigh for the part [of Scarlett in "Gone with the Wind"]? 

Asked of a national cross-section of people who intend to sec 

"Gone with the Wind." (aipo) 

Yes 35% 

No 16 

Undecided 20 

Hadn't heard of choice 29 

6. (Sweden Apr '42) Which Swedish film actress do you prefer 
to see? (sGi) 



Karin Ekelund. 
Sickan Carlsson 
Viveca Lindfors 
Inga Todblad . . 
Birgit Tengroth 
Dagmar Ebbeson 
Alice Babs 



National 
total 

. 24.7% 

. 23.4 

. 15.4 
. 5.4 
. 5.2 
. 4.4 



Towns 
29.6% 
15.9 

18.2 
6.1 
4.0 
4.1 



Country 

19.9%. 

31.6 

12.7 

4.7 
6.4 
4.8 



Men 

22.5% 

25.8 

14.3 

4.0 

4.8 



Women 
26.6% 
22.1 
16.5 

6.7 

5.5 

5.6 



78.5%* 77.9%* 80.1%* 77.2%* 83.0%* 
* Others with few mentions and those who had no opinion or did not 
answer are omitted from the tabulation. 

7. (Sweden Apr '42) Which Swedish film actor do you prefer 
to see? (soi) 



National 
total 

24.0't: 
23-5 

8.6 

51 



Edvard Persson. . , 
Edvin Adolphson 
Anders Henriksson 

Elof Ahrle 

George Fant 5 1 

Ake Soderblom . - 5 1 

Adolf Jahr — 

Sture Lagervall 
Lars Hansson . . 



Towns 
15.2% 
31.9 
12.1 

4.1 
4.4 



Country 

32.3% 
154 

5 

7 

6 

5 



Men 

11.^% 
19.9 

7.7 
65 

7.0 
4.9 



Women 

20.5% 
26.8 
9.9 



6.0 



i 



— 5.2 — 



5.3 
4.9 



71.4%* 72.9%* 72.6%* 73.8%* 73.47o* 
* Others with few mentions and those who had no opinion or did 
not answer are omitted from tabulation. 



[3] 



8. (Sweden Apr '43) Which Swedish or foreign film actor 
(actress) of those you have seen do you consider to have 
achieved the most during the past season? (sgi) 



Foreign actors 

Greer Garson 11% 

Waher Pidgeon 3 

Ingrid Bergman 2.5 

Gary Cooper 2.5 

Vivien Leigh 2 

Bette Davis 1.5 

Robert Taylor 1.5 

Clark Gable 1.5 

Noel Coward 1 

Greta Garbo 1 

Others, don't know 

and-no answer 72.5 



Swedish actors 

Edvin Adolphson 8% 

Edvard Persson 5 

Marta Ekstrom 2 

Karin Ekelund 2 

Georg Rydeberg 2 

Arnold Sjostrand 2 

Anders Henriksson , 5 

Sonja Wigert 1 

Viveca Lindfors 1 

Sigurd Wallen 1 

Others, don't know 

and no answer 71 



9. (France Jan 1 '46) Who is your favorite movie star? (fipo) 

Raimu 5% 

Fernandel. . . . : 4 

Louis Jouvet 4 

Pierre Blanchard 4 

Jean Gabin 3 

Danielle Darrieux 3 

Jean-Louis Barrault 2 

Gaby Morlay 2 

Charlie Chaplin 2 

Edwige Feuillere 2 

Other French actors 20 

Other French actresses 11 

Other American actors 4 

Other American actresses 3 

No answer 31 



ADVERTISING 



1. (us Jan 18 '37) Do you think Congress should pass a law 
to prevent misleading food, cosmetic, and drug advertising? 



(aipo) 
Yes 



95% 



No 5% = 100% No opinion 



2. (US May 24 '37) Which are you more inclined to buy — 
products advertised on the air, or products you see advertised 
in publications? (aipo) 

Advertised on air 31% 

Advertised in publications. ... 69 



!^ 



100%, 
No opinion 27% 



3. (US July '37) When you buy canned goods, groceries, drugs, 
and toilet items, do you think the difference in price between 
nationally advertised brands and non-advertised brands repre- 
sents a worth-while difference in quality? (for) 









There is 


Some 










no dif- 
ference 


yes- 
some 


Don't 




Yes 


No 


in price 


no 


know 


National total . . 


■ 47.5% 


33.2% 

BY SEX 


4.6% 


1.0% 


13.7% 


Men 

Women 


. 45.0% 
. 501 


34.4% 
31.9 


3.7% 
55 


0.7% 
1-3 


16.2% 
11.2 



4. (US Apr 13 '38) Which kind of advertising interests you 
most — the advertising you hear on the radio, read in maga- 
zines, read in newspapers? (aipo) 

Hear on the radio 41% 

Read in magazines 25 

Read in newspapers 27 

No opinion 9 

102%* 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

6. (US Apr 13 '38) If you were a national advertiser, where 
would you expect to get the best advertising results — in news- 
papers, in magazines, on the radio? (aipo) 

In newspapers 26% 

In magazines 12 

On the radio 56 

No opinion 7 

101%* 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

6. (US May 26 '39) A bill has been introduced in Congress to 
prohibit the advertising of liquor and beer. Do you favor this 
bill? (aipo) 



Yes 40^ 



No 49% 



No opinion 11% 



7. (US May 26 '39) Do you think liquor advertising should 
be prohibited? (aipo) 



Yes 35% 



No 57% 



No opinion 8% 



8. (US Mar '40) Which of the following products generally 
have the most honest advertising? The least honest? (for) 

Most honest Least honest 



Automobiles 30.6% 

Insurance 24.5 

Cigarettes 11.3 

Drugs 7.0 

Liquor 4.1 

All equally honest. . 9-2 

Don't know 20.2 



Cigarettes 22.0% 

Drugs 21.4 

Liquor 20.9 

Insurance 45 

Automobiles 3.7 

All equally dishonest 7.2 

Don't know 24.8 



106.9%* 



104.5%* 



* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 



9. (US Aug 22 '45) Does the theater which you attend most 
often show advertisements of local dealers on the screen? (aipo) 

Yes 31% No 48% Don't know 21% 

10. (Belgium Apr-June '46) Do you read the advertisements in 
your newspaper? (insoc) 

Some- 
Always times Rarely Never 
National total 17% 32% 18% 33% 

BY SEX 

Men 15% 30% 19% 36% 

Women 20 35 18 27 

BY AGE 

20-34 years 15%, 36% 18% 31%, 

35-49 y.ears 18 32 18 32 

50-64 years 18 27 19 36 

65 years and over 14 27 21 38 



[4] 



Rarity 


Nifir 


18% 


25% 


17 


35 


22 


32 


17 


27 


18 


59 


24 


38 


18 


29 


19% 


337o 


16 


31 


19 


35 



Somt- 

Always times 

BY OCCUPATION 

Fann and farm labor 21% 36% 

Workers 13 35 

White-collar 17 29 

Business 26 30 

Professional 6 17 

Living on income 14 24 

Housewives 18 35 

BY ENVIRONMENT 

Urban 16% 32% 

Rural 18 35 

Industrial '. 18 28 



11. (Hungary Oct "46) What kind of advertising do you think 
is best? Asked of a cross-section of Budapest residents, (hipor) 

BY SEX 

Mtn Women 

Placard 26.8% 24.2% 

Newspaper 28.9 319 

Streetcar, tramway 11.5 10.6 

Movie 14.8 16.2 

Neon light 0.3 0.2 

Recommendation 0.6 0.7 

Shofvwindow 2.0 1.7 

None has any effect 8.1 8.8 

Other, no answer 7.0 5-7 

12. (Hungary Nov '46) Do you pay attention to advertisements 
in the daily papers? Asked of a cross-section of Budapest resi- 
dents, (hipor) 



AERONAUTICS 



Yes. 

No.. 



BY SEX 

Men 

.. 60.0% 
. . 40.0 



Women 

52.7% 
47.3 



13. (Hungary Nov '46) Have you ever taken advantage of the 
opportunities offered in them [advertisements in newspapers]? 
Asked of a cross-section of Budapest residents, (hipor) 

By Economic Status and Sex 



Pros- 
perous 

Never 67.5% 

Once 5.0 

Twice 2.5 

Sometimes, 

seldom 15.0 

Any time — 

Often; 5 or more. 10.0 



MEN 

Mid- 
dle Poor 
65.8% 81.0% 



WOMEN 

Pros- Mid- 
perous die Poor 
85.3% 77.0% 77.5% 



5.7 
7.1 

8.6 
6.4 
6.4 



6.4 
4.2 

5.5 
0.8 
2.1 



3.0 
3.0 



8.7 



2.9 
3.6 



2.4 
5.3 



7.1 
2.9 

7.1 
2.3 
3.1 



14. (Hungary Nov '46) Do you stop before a lighted shop- 
window in the evening? Asked of a cross-section of Budapest 
residents, (hipor) 

By Economic Status and Sex 

men women 

Pros- Mid- Pros- Mid- 

perous die Poor perous die Poor 

Yes 92.5% 85.7% 80.8% 82.3% 84.0% 84.7% 

No 7.5 14.3 17.5 14.7 14.8 ' 14.0 

Other — — 1.7 3.0 1.2 1.3 



Study and Teaching 

1. (us Jan 7 '39) As part of the national defense program, the 
government is planning to train young men in schools and col- 
leges to fly airplanes. Do you favor this plan? (aipo) 

Yes No 

National total 87% 13% 

by age 

Under 30 years 91% 9% 

30 years and over 85 15 

2. (US Jan 7 '39) Would you like to receive such [flying] 
training? Asked of a national cross-section of men 19 to 30 
years of age (aipo) 

Yes 74% No 26% 

3. (US Apr 30 '42) Do you think high schools should offer 
courses to boys in high school which would teach them about 
aviation — except actual flying — so that they would be pre- 
pared to go into the air corps when they reach 18? (aipo) 

Yes 77% No 12% No opinion 11% 



AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY 



1. (US Jan 21 '43) As one way to keep production up, it has 
been suggested that farmers with tractors, harvesters, and other 
machinery loan out this machinery to neighboring farms if 
convenient. Would you favor or oppose such a program? Asked 
of a national cross-section of farmers, (aipo) 

Favor 45% Oppose 48% No opinion 7% 

2. (us Jan 21 '43) Would you be willing to lend your ma- 
chinery if a mechanic was supplied to go along with it and 
take care of it? Asked of 48% of a sample of farmers who 
opposed lending out their machinery to" neighboring farms. 
(aipo) 

Yes 27% No 21% = 48% 

3. (us Jan 21 '43) Have you found it impossible to buy some 
repair parts for your farm machinery? Asked of a national cross- 
section of farmers, (aipo) 

Yes 26% No 44% Have not tried 30% 

4. (us Jan 21 '43) Have you tried to buy any necessary farm 
machinery? Asked of a national cross-section of farmers, (aipo) 

Yes 33% No 67% 

5. (US Jan 21 '43) Were you able to get it [farm machinery]? 
Asked of 33% of a sample of farmers who had tried to buy 



necessary farm machinery, (aipo) 
Yes 11% No 



22% = 33% 



6. (US Mar '43) Power-driven, labor-saving machinery might 
ease some of the tension on the farms if farmers could get it. 
According to many farmers, more power-driven machinery 
would help them to produce more food. Opinions of farmers are 
tabulated below: (for) , 



[5] 



Now using power-driven 
machinery (_56.5%^ 
Should have more. . . 42.1% 
Are about right now. 54.3 
Could do with less. . 1.6 
Don't know 1.9 



Not using power-driven 

machinery now (,43.5%^ 

Should have some .. . 33.0% 

Can do without 58.5 

Don't know 8.5 



AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES 



1. (us July 14 '42) Does Congress listen to leaders of farm 
groups too much? (aipo) 

Yes 24% No 49% Don't know 27% 

2. (US July 14 '42) Does he [Roosevelt] listen to leaders of 
farm groups too much? (aipo) 

Yes 18% No 52% Don't know 30% 

3. (US Apr '43) Do you belong to any farm or agricultural 
organization? Asked of a national cross-section of farmers, (for) 






a 






^ 






National 
total. .. 



70.5% 17.7% 3.4% 4.7% 2.2% 4.3% 102.8%** 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

High 49.8% 30.2% 4.6% 9.2% 5.8% 7.2% 106.8% 

Medium.. 70.9 17.9 4.2 4.3 .9 4.0 102.2 
Low 86.7 6.3 2.1 1.8 .9 2.7 100.5 

* For special farmers: Dairymen's League, Poultry Association, etc. 

** Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

4. (US Apr '43) Do you feel that the men from the various 
farm organizations in Washington represent farmers around 
your own district pretty well, or do you feel they are mainly 
interested in other kinds of farmers? Asked of a national cross- 
section of farmers, (for) 

Around Other Don't 

own district jarijjers know 

National total 43.7% 32.7% 23.6% 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

Northeast 16.8% 64.4% 18.8% 

Midwest 55.3 22.0 22.7 

South 41.2 29.7 29.1 

Mountain 44.8 41.9 13.3 

Pacific 27.8 54.9 17.3 

5. (US Apr '43) If you felt that farmers were being treated 
unfairly on some point and you wanted to register an effective 
kick, where would be the best place to go? Asked of a national 
cross-section of farmers, (for) 

Not a 

Agencies of gov- Member of an member of an 

ernment Total organisation organization 

^AA 16.0% 13.6% 17.0% 

-ounty agent . . 14.7 10.5 16.5 
Congressman, 

Senator, etc. . 12.2 16.6 10.5 

Total govern- 
ment agency. 42.9% 40.7% 44.0% 



Private organiza- 
tion Total 

Farm Bureau. . . 17.5% 

Grange 3-2 

Farmers Union . 



2.1 



Member of an 
organization 

yi.'i% 

6.7 
3 1 



Not a 

member of an 

organization 

11.3% 
1.8 
1.7 



Total private 
organization . 

Other 

Don't know. . . 



22.8° 

3.3 
32.1 



42.3% 

31 
16.5 



14.8% 

3.2 
38.6 



101.1%* 102.6%* 100.6%* 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 



6. (US Apr '43) Do you feel that the representatives of the 
various farm organizations have demanded too much for the 
farmer, not enough, or have their demands been about right? 
Asked of a national cross-section of farmers, (for) 

Too much 6.7% 

Not enough 25.7 

About fight 49.4 

Don't know 18.2 

7. (US Aug 1 '44 and Aug 16 '44) Do you happen to be a mem- 
ber of any of these farm organizations — the Farm Bureau, the 
Grange, the Fatmers Union? Asked of a national cross-section 
of farmers, (aipo) 

Kesults August 1 Yes No 

The Farm Bureau 32% 68% 

The Grange 12 88 

The Farmers Union ... 3 97 

Results August 16 

The Farm Bureau 22 78 

The Grange 17 83 

The Farmers Union. . . 13 87 

8. (US Aug 1 '44 and Aug 16 '44) Do you feel that your farm 
organization represents your views on public questions? Asked 
of a national cross-section of farmers who belong to the Farm 
Bureau, the Grange, or the Farmers Union, (aipo) 

Yes No Don't know 

AUGUST 1 figures BY ORGANIZATION 

Farm Bureau 69% 13% 18% 

The Grange 63 21 16 

The Farmers Union ... 50 25 25 

AUGUST 16 figures 
National total 57% 25% 18% 



AGRICULTURE AND STATE 



1. (us Sept 26 '36) Would you favor government loans, on a 
long-time and easy basis, to enable farm tenants to buy the 
farms they now rent? (aipo) 

Yes No 

National total 83% 17% 



[6] 



Yes No 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 

Maine 80% 20% 

New Hampshire. . - . 74 26 

Vermont 84 16 

Massachusetts 82 18 

Rhode Island 83 17 

Connecticut 78 22 

Middle Atlantic 

New York 81 19 

New Jersey 82 18 

Pennsylvania 82 18 

Maryland 78 22 

Delaware 82 18 

West Virginia 80 20 

East Central 

Ohio 82 18 

Michigan 83 17 

Indiana 82 18 

Illinois 80 20 

West Central 

Wisconsin 79 21 

Minnesota 85 13 

Iowa 83 17 

Missouri 87 13 

North Dakota 94 6 

South Dakota 84 16 

Nebraska 77 23 

Kansas 81 19 

South 

North Carolina 81 19 

South Carolina 89 11 

Virginia 81 19 

Georgia 91 9 

Alabama 91 9 

Arkansas 89 11 

Florida 88 12 

Kentucky 88 12 

Louisiana 84 16 

Mississippi 88 12 

Oklahoma 85 15 

Tennessee 89 11 

Texas 88 12 

Mountain states 

Montana 86 14 

Arizona 75 25 

Colorado 81 19 

Idaho 89 11 

Wyoming 88 12 

Utah 88 12 

Nevada 86 14 

New Mexico 87 13 

Pacific states 

California 86 14 

Oregon 85 15 

Washington 84 16 

2. (US July 19 '37) Would you favor government loans to en- 
able city people to buy small plots of land in the country that 
they could live on and farm? (aipo) 

Yes 70% No 30% = 100% No opinion 8% 

3. (US Oct 18 '37) Do you think government expenditures 
should be increased or decreased on farm benefits? (Jan 7 '39) 



Do you think government spending should be increased or de- 
creased on farm aid? (Jan 20 '39) Should government spending 
for farm aid be increased, decreased, or remain about the same? 
(Jan 11 '40) Do you think government payments to help farmers 
should be increased or decreased? (aipo) 

In- De- Remain No opinion 

creased creased same and no answer 

Oct 18 '37. . . 38% 31% 31% = 100% 6% 

Jan 7 '39. .. 31 24 24 21 = 100% 

Jan 20 '39. . . 21 26 33 20 = 100- 

Jan 11 '40. . . 31 37 32 = 100 23 

4. (US Nov 30 '37) In the New Deal spending program, do 
you think the farmers have received too much or too little 
money? Asked of a national cross-section of farmers, (aipo) 

Too little 12% 

Too much 44 

About right 44 

100% 
No opinion 19% 

5. (US Nov 30 '37) Would you be interested in buying a farm 
if the government loaned you the money at 3% interest and 
gave you forty years to repay the loan? Asked of a national 
cross-section of farmers who do not own their farms, (aipo) 
Yes 74% No 26% = 100% No opinion 12% 

6. (US Mar 30 '39) Do you think federal government spending 
to help farmers should be reduced by 10%? (aipo) 

Yes 38% No 62% = 100% No opinion 2l7o 

7. (US Apr 19 '39) Do you think the Roosevelt administration 
has done" a good job or a poor job in handling the farm prob- 
lem? (aipo) 

Good job 48% 

Poor job 52 



100% 
Don't know and no answer. . . 29% 

8. (US Jan 10 '40) The President proposes a 30 per cent (about 
one-third) reduction in payments by the government to help 
farmers. Do you approve or disapprove of this cut? (aipo) 

No 
Approve Disapprove opinion 

Total with opinions 52% 48% — 

National total 45 41 14% 

BY POLITICS 

Democratic 45% 55% 

Republican 63 37 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Farmers 45% 55% 

Small towns 53 47 

Cities 54 46 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper income group 69% 31% 

Middle income group 52 48 ■ 

Lower income group 45 55 

9. (US Jan 10 '40) Would you favor a smaller reduction [in 
payments to aid farmers]? How much? Asked of a national 
cross-section of people who either disapproved of the reduc- 
tion or had no opinion. 55% of the sample is represented (aipo^ 



[7] 



Yes 15% 

5% *% 

10 4 

15 5 

20 2 

25 * 

Vague or no answer ... 4 

No 48 

No answer 37 

* Less than 0.5%. 

10. (US Feb 6 '40) Do you think the present administration's 
program, as a whole, has helped or hurt the farmers? (Jan 21 
'43) As a whole, do you think the present administration's 
program has helped or hurt farmers? Both questions were asked 
of national cross-sections of farmers, (aipo) 

Helped Hurt Neither No opinion 

Feb 6 '40 66% 22% 12% — 

Jan 21 '43 66 19 7 8% 

11. (US Oct 9 '40) Do you think the Roosevelt administration 
has done a good job or a poor job in handling the farm prob- 
lem in this country? (aipo) 

Good job 59% 

Poor job 41 

100% 
Don't know 25% 

12. (US Oct 9 '40) In general, do you approve or disapprove 
of the Roosevelt administration's program for helping farmers? 
(aipo) 

Approve 62% 

Disapprove 38 

100% 
No opinion 19% 

13. (US Dec '41) After the war is over, do you think there 
will be more, the same, or less government regulation of farm- 
ing? (for) 

More 40.2% 

Same 28.0 

Less 13.0 

Don't know 18.8 

14. (US Dec 18 '41) In time of war, should the government 
have the right to tell farmers what crops they must raise and 
what price they are to get? (aipo) 

m I Qualified No 

Yes No answers opinion 

National total 61% 26% 4% 9% 

Opinion of farmers ... 51 33 7 9 

15. (US Mar 31 '42) Should farm benefits be done away with 
until the end of the war? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

National total 43% 40% 17% 

Opinion of farmers 46 46 8 

16. (Australia Mar- Apr '42) Do you favor or oppose market- 
ing of farm products through boards? (apop) 

Favor 19% 

Oppose 59 

Undecided 12 

No answer 10 

17. (US Jan 21 '43) What is your biggest criticism of the way 
m which the government is dealing with farmers? Asked of a 
national cross-section of farmers, (aipo) 



No criticism 27% 

Holding prices down for farmers 17 

Dislike AAA, FSA, conservation program; shouldn't 

subsidize farmers 11 

Restricting free enterprise; too much regimentation; gov- 
ernment meddles too much 8 

Labor lost to army due to draft 8 

Failure to control wages 5 

Failure of government to take steps to supply farm man- 
power; taking farm help into industry 5 

Shortage of farm machinery 5 

Government inefficiency; too many conflicting ideas. ... 7 
Government doesn't do enough for the farmers; other 

groups are being favored 4 

Miscellaneous 4 

No answer 5 



106%* 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some farmers gave more 
than one answer. 

18. (US Apr '43) Would you say that the government farm 
program has been good or bad for American farming as a whole? 
Asked of a national cross-section of farmers, (for) 



National total 



About Don't 

Good Bad 50-^0 know 

53.9% 18.4% 19.0% 8.7% 



BY TYPES OF FARMERS 



Farm owners 49.5% 22.4% 20.3% 7.8% 

Tenants 56.7 14.1 18.7 10.5 

Share-croppers... 74.7 4.9 110 9.4 

Hired hands 50.1 14.0 21.5 14.4 

19. (US Apr '43) What are the one or two best things the 
government farm program has done? What one or two things 
aren't so good? Asked of a national cross-section of farmers. 
(for) 

Approval Disapproval 

Soil improvement. .. . 14.4% Production limitation 16.5% 

Farm price policy. .. . 20.4 Advice and informa- 

Direct loans, etc 14.1 tion 50 

Production limitation 92 Farm price policy. . . . 4-4 

Advice and informa- Soil improvement. ... 2.8 

tion 7.0 Direct loans, etc 2.6 

Other 13.8 Other 22.7 

None 2.1 None 2.1 

Don't know 28.7 Don't know 49.8 



119.7%* 105.9%* 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

20. (US Apr '43) Which one of these statements comes closest 
to what you think should be the relationship between govern- 
ment and farming in normal times? Asked of a national cross- 
Section of farmers, (for) 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

National Me- 

total High dium how 
Farming can and should take 

care of itself and the govern 

ment should leave it entirely 

alone 26.3% 31.8% 29.4% 21.3% 

While farming could get along 

all right if other industries 

hadn't got laws passed to help 

them, farming now needs gov- 
ernment aid to get along. .. . 36.7 445 39.2 30.2 



[« 

National Me- 

total High dium Low 
Farming needs government aid 
more than other industries 
and should get it whether 

other industries do or not .. . 28.0% 20.6% 24.2% 36.5% 
Don't know 90 3.1 7.2 12,0 

21. (US Nov '43) As far as you know, is the government giv- 
ing subsidies to farmers at this time for some of the things 
they produce? (norc) 

Yes 48% No 8% Don't know 44% 

22. (US Nov '43) Will you tell me what the term "farm sub- 
sidy" means to you? (norc) 

Right 46% Wrong 6% Don't know 48% 

23. (US Nov '43) If farmers can't get as much money as they 
should for some foods they produce, which one of these things 
do you think it would be better to do? (norc) 

Let farmers get higher prices for these foods than they 
do now 43% 

Let the government pav farmers something out of taxes 
so they won't need higher prices 43 

Don't know 14 

24. (US Nov 9 '43) What do the words "farm subsidy" mean 
to you? Asked of a national cross-section of farmers, (aipo) 

Some understanding 35%* 

Could not define or gave incorrect definition. ... 65 
* The 35% includes 13% who indicated a fairly exact knowledge of 
the term. 

25. (US Nov 9 '43) Are you for or against such a government 
subsidy to farmers? Asked of a national cross-section of farmers 
who indicated a knowledge of farm subsidies, (aipo) 

For 49% Against 44% Undecided 7% 

26. (US Nov 23 '43) Have you followed the discussions about 
price subsidies to farmers? (aipo) 

Yes 48% No 52% 

27. (US Nov 23 '43) Will you tell me in your own words what 
you think a price subsidy to farmers is? (aipo) 

Understand 29% Do not understand 71% 

28. (US Nov 23 '43) Do you think Congress should pass or 
defeat farm subsidies? Asked of a national cross-section of 
people who indicated a knowledge of farm subsidies, (aipo) 

Pass 31% Defeat 23% No opinion 46% 

29. (US Dec '43) Some people say that one way to keep both 
prices and wages from going higher than they are now is for 
the government to pay farmers something out of taxes. Do you 
agree or disagree? (norc) 

Agree 39% Disagree 42% Don't know 19% 

30. (US Dec '43) Do you think the government should pay 
farmers something out of taxes or not? Asked of 39% of the 
sample who agreed that paying farmers something out of taxes 
would help keep both prices and wages from going higher. 
(norc) 

Yes 35% No 3% Don't know 1% = 39% 

31. (US Apr 25 '44) Do you think subsidy payments to farmers 
should or should not be continued? Asked of a national cross- 
section of farmers, (aipo) 

Should 30% Should not 55% Undecided 15% 



AIR DEFENSES 



1. (Great Britain Dec '37) Have you taken any precautions 
against air raids? (bipo) 

Yes 7.5%, No 92.5%, 

2. (Great Britain Apr '39) If there were an air raid today, 
would you know what to do? 17% of the sample said they 
had been trained for such emergencies, (bipo) 



i 



At work 

Yes 36% 

No 64 



At home 
Yes 33% 

No 67 



3. (Great Britain July '40) Do you approve of the present policy 
of not sounding air raid warnings unless there is danger of 
immediate attack, or do you think warnings should be sounded 
whenever enemy aircraft are in the neighborhood? (bipo) 

No warning unless attack. . . . 57% 

Warning always 38 

Don't know 5 

4. (Great Britain Oct '40) Is respondent carrying tin hat? In- 
terviewers were asked to check this for each person interviewed. 
(bipo) 

Yes 13% No 87% 

5. (US Dec 10 '41) Have you given any thought to where you 
would go in case of an air raid? Those who have given thought 
to where they would go were asked: Where? (aipo) 

No and no answer 58% I 

Correct answers: I 

Stay put 3 1 

Stay in house 7 

Stay in house seeking safest place 3 

Go into basement 12 

Go in large public building 2 

Go into large buildings seeking safest place. . 2 

Miscellaneous answers 3 

Incorrect answers: 

Go into subway 1 

Go outside, into street 2 

Go out into country, woods, etc 3 

Miscellaneous answers 1 _ 

Those who said they had thought of it but didn't ■ 

say where they would go 3 m 

6. (US Dec 10 '41) How would you put out an incendiary 
bomb? Asked in the coastal states only, (aipo) 

No answer, don't know, leave it 45% 

Correct answers: 

Sand, dirt 26 

Spray, sprinkle it with water 18 

Incorrect answers: 

Smother it 3 

Use chemical, fire extinguisher 2 

Water 6 

Throw water on it 4 

Smother it with blanket 1 

Miscellaneous 1 

106%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 



[9 



7. (Canada July 25 '42) Are you satisfied or dissatisfied with 
the way air raid precautions are being handled in this com- 
munity? (cipo) 
Satisfied 44% Dissatisfied 36% No opinion 20% 



AIR LINES 



1. (Canada July 31 '43) In your opinion, which of these is the 
best way to run the air lines in Canada after the war — to have 
all air lines owned and operated by the government, to allow 
privately owned air lines to compete with government lines, 
to leave all air transportation to privately owned air lines? 
(ciPo) 

Govern- 
ment Private Unde- 
lines lines Both tided 
National total 50% 19% 31% * 

BY POLITICS 

Progressiv^Conservative. . , 38% 19% 34% 9% 

Liberal 46 18 27 9 

CCF 59 13 21 7 

* Undecided figure was excluded from the national total. 

2. (Canada Aug 4 '43) After the war, do you think all inter- 
ested countries should get together and set up a joint board to 
regulate international air lines, or do you think all countries 
should be free to start international air lines when and where 
they please? (ciPo) 

Joint Free com- Un- 

board petition decided 

National total 61% 26% 13% 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper income 79% 16% 5% 

Middle income 67 24 9 

Lower income 53 30 17 

3. (Great Britain Sept '43) After the war, should all the coun- 
tries concerned get together on regulating international air 
lines, or should each country be free to start international air 
lines when and where they please? (bipo) 

Get together 60% Be free 24% Don't know 16% 

4. (Canada May 27 '44) At present almost all air lines in 
Canada are owned by the railroads. After the war do you 
think the railroads should be allowed to continue to own air 
lines, or should the ownership of railroads and air lines be 
completely separate? (cipo) 

Separate 

Railroads ownership Undecided 

National total 29% 50% 21% 

Quebec only 42 34 24 

6. (Australia Aug-Sept '44) In your opinion, which of these 
three statements would be the best way to run air lines in 
Australia after the war — all transport should be privately 
owned, all air lines should be owned by the government, some 
private air lines and some government? (apop) 

All All No 

government private Both opinion 

National total.... 31% 34% 30% 5% 

BY POLITICS 

Labor voters 43% 25% 26% 6% 

Non-labor voters . . 12 47 36 5 

I 



6. (Australia Dec '44) Next year the Commonwealth intends 
to buy all the interstate air lines and operate them itself. Do 
you favor or oppose that proposal? (Apr '45) The Common- 
wealth government plans to buy and operate all interstate air 
lines. Do you favor or oppose that proposal? (Feb-Mar '46) 
Do you think the federal government should or should not 
run interstate air lines itself in competition with the present 
companies? (Nov '46) Do you think the federal government 
should or should not run commercial planes in competition 
with the present air lines? To help classify answers to this 
question, would you mind telling me whether you voted "yes" 
or "no" at the recent referendum?* The question about the 
referendum vote was asked only in Dec '44 and Apr '45. (apop) 

Oppose Favor No opinion 

Dec '44 42% 37% 21% 

Apr '45 53 30 17 

Feb-Mar '46 51 33 16 

Nov '46 51 35 14 

DEC '44 AND APR '45 RESULTS BY THE REFERENDUM VOTE 

Dec '44 

Voted "yes" 17% 61% 22% 

■Voted "no" 63 18 19 

Apr '45 

Voted "yes" 24 60 16 

Voted "no" 75 12 13 

DEC '44 AND APR '45 RESULTS BY POLITICS 

Labor Dec '44 28% 48% 24% 

Labor Apr '45 39 43 18 

Non-labor Dec '44 64 17 19 

Non-labor Apr '44 74 15 11 

* Referendum on whether or not the Commonweakh would be given 
extra powers for five years after the war. 



AIR RAID SHELTERS 



1. (Great Britain Feb '39) Are you satisfied with the govern- 
ment's present ARP plans (to provide protection in air raids) 
or should they provide deep shelters in congested areas? (bipo) 

Satisfied 21% 

Want deep shelters 70 

No opinion 9 

2. (Great Britain May '39) The government has decided against 
the general provision of deep shelters for air raid protection. 
Do you approve or disapprove of the government's decision? 
(bipo) 

Approve 34% 

Disapprove 53 

No opinion 13 

3. (Great Britain June '39 and Nov '39) If there were an air 
raid today while you were at home, could you by foot* reach 
a shelter in seven minutes? (bipo) 

Own Arranged 

Public private private 

shelters shelter shelter None 

12% 4% 72% 



June '39 12% 

'39 RESULTS 

... 43% 
... 38 
... 28 



NOV 

Evacuation areas . 
Neutral areas .... 
Remainder 



BY TYPE OF AREA 

23% 

29 

14 



10% 



24% 

25 

50 



' The November question read: on foot. 



[10] 



4. (Great Britain July '40) What kind of air raid shelter have 
you at home, i.e. actually in your home or garden? (dipo) 

Anderson 25% 

Other outdoor shelter 13 

Strengthened room or basement 17 

No shelter 45 

5. (Great Britain Oct '40) Do you think the government has 
been wise or unwise in favoring the building of surface shelters 
rather than underground shelters? (bipo) 

Wise 15% Unwise 66% Don't know 19% 

6. (Great Britain Jan '41) What kind of shelter do you use 
during night raids? (bipo) 

Anderson shelter 20% 

Brick surface shelter 11 

Underground station or basement of large 

building 5 

Strengthened room or basement 19 

None of these or no special protection. . . 45 

7. (Great Britain Aug 22 '42) Have you an Anderson shelter? 
Those who had Anderson shelters were asked: Will you use 
your Anderson shelter if there are raids? (bipo) 

Have Anderson shelter and would use it 23% 

Have Anderson shelter but wouldn't use it. . . 4 
Have Anderson shelter but don't know whether 

would use it or not 1 

Other shelter or none 72 

8. (Sweden Feb '44) If you were at home, do you think you 
would be safer during a raid if you went into the air raid shelter 
of your house? Asked only in cities and larger communities. 
(sGi) 

Shelter 
Shelter more The No No 

safer risky same shelter opinion 

National total . . . 51% 9% 13% 16% 11% 

BY SEX 

Men 53% 9% 13% 16% 9% 

Women 49 9 14 15 13 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Towns 59% 11% 15% 6% 9% 

Country 37 5 U 33 14 



AIRPLANE INDUSTRY AND TRADE 



1. (us Jan 9 '42) About how many airplanes did the President 
say we would produce during this year? (norc) 
Under 10.000 1.8% 



10,000-29,000 3 

30,000-54,000 11 

55,000-64,000 25 

65,000-75,000 8 

Over 75,000 13 

Don't know 34 



2. (us July 31 '42) Have you heard anything about a plan to 
build a lot of big airplanes instead of ships to carry our troops 
and supplies overseas? (norc) 

Yes 68% No 32% 



3. (US July 31 '42) Do you think it is practical to build air- 
planes instead of ships to carry troops and supplies overseas? 
(norc) 

Yes 74% No 10%, Don't know 16% 

4. (US Sept 15 '42) Would you approve or disapprove of hav- 
ing a committee of impartial, qualified men to investigate and 
make a report on manufacture of cargo planes? (aipo) 
Approve 65% Disapprove 13% No opinion 22% 

5. (Australia Nov '44) Would you permit Germany to manu- 
facture airplanes [after the war]? (apop) 

Yes 42% No 50% Don't know 8% 

6. (US Apr 10 '46) By and large, which would you say has 
done more to improve airplanes in this country in the last 
twenty-five years — the various branches of the government, 
including the armed forces, or the companies that make the 
planes? (aipo) 

Government 35% 

Companies 45 

Equal 3 

World circumstances forced the improvements * 

Mitchell * 

No opinion 17 

* Less than 0.5%. 



AIRPLANES 



1. (us July 5 '37) If someone paid your expenses, would you 
like to go by airplane to Europe and back? (aipo) (Great 
Britain Feb '39) A trans-Atlantic passenger air service is a 
prospect of the near future. If someone paid your way and 
you could go, would you be willing to fly across the Atlantic 
Ocean? (bipo) (US Feb 2 '39) If someone paid your way and 
you could go, would you be willing to fly across the Atlantic 
Ocean in one of the new commercial airplanes? (alpo) 

Yes No 

United States July '37 38% 62% 

Great Britain Feb '39 48 52 

United States Feb '39 41 59 

AMERICAN opinion in JULY '37 BY AGE 

18-20 years 69% 31% 

21-24 years 50 50 

25-34 years 46 54 

35-44 years 35 65 

45-55 years 30 • 70 

55 years and over 18 82 

AMERICAN OPINION IN FEB '39 BY AGE 

Under 30 years 61% 39% 

30-49 years 40 60 M 

50 and over 25 75 I 

AMERICAN OPINION IN FEB '39 BY SEX V 

Men 47% 53% ■ 

Women 36 64 ^ 

AMERICAN OPINION IN FEB '39 BY FLYING EXPERIENCE 

Those who have flown 

(30% of sample) 64% 36% 

Those who have not flown 

(70% of sample) 32 68 



[11] 



2. (Great Britain July '39) Have you ever flown? Would you 
like to? (bipo) 

Have, vsrould like to again 15% 

Have, would not like to again 3 

Have not, would like to 41 

Have not, would not like to 41 

3. (US Apr 18 '45) Have you ever been up in an airplane? 
Those who had been in an airplane were asked — was it a regu- 
lar air line or a private plane? (aipo) 

Regular air line 7% 

Private plane 17 

Both 4 

Other replies 1 

Never been in an airplane 71 

4. (Czechoslovakia Sept '46) In your opinion, how long does 
a transport plane take to fly from Prague to Briinn? (czipo) 

Half an hour 19% 

One hour 41 

One and one-half hours 16 

Two hours 8 

Other answer 16 

Military 

1. (us Dec 16 '40) Which country do you think has the fastest 
and best warplanes — the United States, England, or Germany? 
A comparable cross-section was asked the last part of the ques- 
tion: Germany, England, or the United States. Results were 
combined, (aipo) 

United States 56% 

England 12 

Germany 15 

Don't know 17 

2. (US Dec 16 '40) About how many warplanes would you 
guess Germany is now producing a month? (aipo) 

Made a guess 52% 

Don't know 48 

Median 1,200 planes 

3. (US Dec 16 '40) About how many warplanes would you 
guess England is now producing a month? (aipo) 

Made a guess 50% 

Don't know 50 

Median 800 planes 

4. (US Dec 16 '40) About how many warplanes would you 
guess the United States is now producing a month? (aipo) 

Made a guess 50% 

Don't know 50 

Median 800 planes 

5. (US Dec 16 '40) Do you think America's warplane produc- 
tion is going ahead fast enough? (aipo) 

Yes No Undecided 

National total 28% 58% 14% 

Union members only. . 32 57 11 

6. (US Sept 9 '42) Have you read or heard anything about our 
fighter planes not being as good as the German, or Japanese, 
or English planes? (norc) 

Yes 50% No 50% 

7. (US Sept 9 '42) What's your own opinion — do you think 
our fighter planes are better than Germany's, or about the 
same, or not as good? 



(Nov 3 '42) From what you've read or heard, would you 
say this country's fighter planes are better than Germany's, or 
about the same, or not as good? (norc) 

Not No 

Better Same as good opinion 

Sept 9 '42 52% 21% 8% 19% 

Nov 3 '42 54 23 11 12 

8. (US Sept 9 '42 and Nov 3 '42) How about England's? Would 
you say our fighter planes are better than England's, or about 
the same, or not as good? (norc) 

Not No 

Better Same as good opinion 

Sept 9 '42 38% 34% 8% 20% 

Nov 3 '42 34 43 12 11 

9. (US Sept 9 '42) And Japan — are our fighter planes better, 
or about the same, or not as good? (norc) 

Better 59% 

Same 12 

Not as good 9 

No opinion 20 

10. (US Aug 4 '43) Are most of the planes used by the RAF 
made in America or in England? (norc) 

America 44% 

England 39 

Don't know 17 

11. (US May 2 '45) After the war, who do you think should 
make the military planes for our army and navy — the govern- 
ment or private companies? (Feb 27 '46) During the next few 
years, who do you think should make the military airplanes 
for our army and navy — the government or private companies? 
(Apr 24 '46) Who do you think should make the military 
planes for our army and navy — the government or private 
companies? (aipo) 

Govern- Private Either, no No 

ment companies dijference opinion 

May 2 '45 46% 42% — 12% 

Feb 27 '46 31 48 9% 12 

Apr 24 '46 43 42 1 14 

12. (US Feb 27 '46) By government, do you mean the airplanes 
should be made under government supervision by private air- 
plane manufacturing companies, or should they be made by 
the government itself in government-owned plants? Asked of 
40% of the sample who thought that the government or both 
the government and private companies should make the mili- 
tary airplanes for our army and navy, (aipo) 

Companies under government supervision .... 20% 
Government in government-owned plants .... 17 
No opinion 3 

40% 

13. (US Feb 13 '46) Taking everything into consideration, 
which would you say did more to improve the airplanes that 
were used by our air force during the war — the government, 
including the armed forces, or the companies that made the 
planes? (aipo) 

Government 24% 

Companies 35 

Both 30 

Don't know 10 

No answer 1 

14. (US Feb 27 '46) At the present time both the government 
and the airplane manufacturing companies in this country are 
experimenting on new and better military airplanes. Do you 



[12] 



think both should continue the experimenting, or should only 
the government or only the companies do it? (aipo) 

Both 68% 

Only government 16 

Only companies 9 

No opinion 7 



Piloting 



1. (US May 10 '39) If it didn't cost you anything, would you 
like to learn how to fly an airplane? (aipo) 

Yes 42% No 58% 

2. (US May 10 '39) Have you ever been up in an airplane? 
(aipo) 

Yes 32% No 68% 

3. (US Jan '46) Do you think you will ever want to pilot a 
plane? (for) 

Yes No Don't know 

National total 22.9% 74.2% 2.9% 

BY AGE 

21-34 years 36.9% 59.2% 3.9% 

50 years and over 8.8 88.6 2.6 

4. (US Feb 27 '46) Would you like to learn to fly an airplane? 
(aipo) 

Yes No Don't know 

National total 27% 69%) 4% 

BY SEX 

Men 30% 67% 3% 

Women 22 74 4 

BY AGE 

21-29 years , 50% 

30-49 years 28 

50 years and over 9 

5. (US Feb 27 '46) What is the total amount you would be 
willing to spend to learn to fly? Asked of 27% of the sample 
who said they would like to learn to fly an airplane, (aipo) 

No opinion, don't know 12% 

Nothing, expect plane company to teach . . 7 

$20 and under 2 

Over $20 to under $50 17 

$50 to under $100 5 

$100 to under $200 24 

$200 to under $300 9 

$300 to under $400 5 

$400 to under $500 1 

$500 7 

Over $500 4 

Miscellaneous 7 



47% 


3% 


68 


4 


89 


2 



100% of 
those who said they would like to learn to fly an airplane 
Median $100 



ALIENS 



Great Britain 

1. (Great Britain May_ '40) Do you think the government's 
treatment of Germans and other foreigners living in this coun- 
try has been too strict, too lenient, about right? (bipo) 



Too strict 2% 

Too lenient 64 

About right 25 

Don't know 9 

2. (Great Britain July '40) Which do you think is the wiser 
course for the government to follow in dealing with enemy 
aliens; to intern them all, to intern only those who may be 
unfriendly and dangerous? (bipo) 

Intern only those who may be 

unfriendly and dangerous 48% 

Intern them all 43 

Don't know 9 

3. (Great Britain June '46) Do you approve or disapprove of 
the government's decision to allow Polish troops who do not 
wish to return to Poland to remain in this country? (bipo) 

Approve Disapprove Don't know 
National total 30% 56% 14% 

BY SEX 



Men . . . 
Women . 



21-29 years 

30-49 years 

50 years and over. 



31 

' AGE 

33% 

33 

26 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 



Higher. 
Middle, 
Lower . . 



39% 

39 

26 



Conservative. 

Labor 

Liberal 

Other 

Non-voters . . 



BY POLITICS 

. 32% 
28 
31 
28 
30 



60% 
52 

54% 

54 

58 

53% 

52 

57 

54% 

58 

56 

61 

53 



BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 



London and South . 

Midlands 

Wales 

Northern 

Scotland 



31% 

32 

45 

31 

17 



54% 

50 

44 

54 

75 



11% 
17 

13% 

13 

16 

8% 
9 
17 

14% 

14 

13 

11 

17 

15% 
18 
11 
15 



AMUSEMENTS 



1. (Australia May '42) During the war, should places of amuse- 
ment be open to soldiers on Sunday? (apop) 

Yes 86% No 14% 

2. (Sweden May '42) Is there any form of amusement which 
you consider to be too widespread among the young? Asked 
of a national cross-section of parents. (sGi) 

National 

total Towns Provinces Country 

Cinema 11% 16% 14% 6% 

Dancing 20 14 26 23 

Restaurants 8 14 4 4 

Cafes 2—33 

Sport 1 1 2 1 

Several things. . . 16 17 13 14 

Other answers .3 2 4 3 

Don't know 26 26 26 27 

Nothing 13 10 8 19 



\ 



[13] 



3. (US May 30 '42) How about amusement conditions for de- 
fense workers? Would you say they are satisfactory, only fair, 
or poor around here? (norc) 

Satisfactory 41% 

Only fair 19 

Poor 17 

No defense workers around here .... 6 
Don't know 17 

4. (Australia Dec '42) Should places of amusement be open to 
the public on Sunday afternoons and evenings — or should they 
remain closed? (apop) 

Open them 50% 

Keep them closed 46 

Undecided 4 

6. (Sweden Apr '43) Do you think that the prohibition of 
amusements on certain holidays should be extended to include 
Whitsunday and Easter? (sgi) 

t^ational 
total 



20-29 
yrs. 



30-49 
yrs. 



50 years 
and over 



2 


1 


2 


1 


i3 


47 


34 


21 





8 


11 


12 



Prohibition of dancing, the- 
aters, cinemas, and sports 
at Easter and Whitsunday 47% 34% 46% 59% 

Prohibition of dancing. ... 4 6 4 3 

Prohibition of dancing, the- 
aters, and cinemas, but 
not sports 4 4 3 4 

Prohibition of dancing and 
sports, but not theaters 
and cinemas 

No extension of prohibition 

No opinion 10 

6. (Sweden Apr '43) Should this kind of prohibition [of amuse- 
ments] be enforced on all Sundays and holidays? (sgi) 

l^ational 

total Towns Country 
Prohibition of dancing theaters, 

cinemas, and sports 8% 5% 10% 

Prohibition of dancing, only 3 2 3 

Prohibition of dancing, theaters, 

cinemas, but not sports 2 1 3 

No general prohibition 76 85 71 

No opinion 11 7 13 

7. (Sweden Apr '45) Do you think that we in Sweden, think- 
ing of the war in Europe, should limit our amusements, or do 
you think that the war should not influence this? (soi) 

Too much 
amusement 

when Not too 

thinking much No 

of the war amusement opinion 

National total 52% 44% 4% 



Men . . . 
Women. 



49% 
55 



Upper class . . 
Middle class . 
Workers 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

66% 

56 

47 



20-29 years 

30-49 years 

50-64 years 

65 years and over. 



34% 
50 
65 
67 



47% 
41 



34% 

39 

49 

63% 
46 
32 
25 



4% 

4 



5% 
4 

3% 

4 

3 



Too much 
amusement 

when Not too 

thinking much No 

of the u'ar amusement opinion 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Country districts: 

A* 63% 34% 3% 

B 60 36 4 

C 51 45 4 

D 54 41 5 

Large towns 35 59 6 

Other towns 51 46 3 

*A — districts where 75% of the population are farmers, farm work- 
ers, etc. 

B — districts where 50%-75% of rhe population are farmers, farm 
workers, etc. 

C — districts where less than 50% of the population are farmers, 
farm workers, etc. and where there are thinly populated areas 
comprising as much as two-thirds of the total population. 

D — areas comprising at least two-thirds of the population. 

8. (Sweden Apr '45) How many times a month do you go to 
the cinema, theater, concerts, public dances, restaurants, or 
other amusements? (sgi) 

B^estau- 
rants 
Public without The- Con- 
Cinema dances dancing ater cert Other 
National total 

Not at all.... 29% 69% 71% 64% 69% 59% 
Twice or more 29 7 4 1 1 7 

Once 42 24 25 35 30 34 

BY SEX 

M.en 

Not a tall.... 26% 65% 63% 61% 69% 55% 

Twice or more 31 8 7 2 2 10 

Once 43 27 30 37 29 35 

Women 

Not at all 32 74 78 66 70 63 

Twice or more 27 5 1 1 1 5 

Once 41 21 21 33 29 32 

BY AGE 

20-29 years 

Not at all.... 9% 39% 61% 51% 64% 46% 

Twice or more 59 20 6 2 3 12 

Once 32 41 33 47 33 42 

30-^9 years 

Not at all 23 69 66 59 67 55 

Twice or more 28 5 5 2 1 9 

Once 49 26 29 39 32 36 

5O-W years 

Not at all 41 90 80 75 74 69 

Twice or more 11 — 3 114 

Once 48 10 17 24 25 27 

65 years and over 

Not at all 69 91 90 82 80 79 

Twice or more 3 — 11 — 1 

Once 28 9 9 17 20 20 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 

Not at all.... 13% 70% 42% 37% 42% 45% 

Twice or more 34 4 10 6 5 12 

Once 53 26 48 57 53 43 

Middle class 

Not at all 29 72 67 60 65 57 

Twice or more 21 4 5 1 2 8 

Once 50 24 28 39 33 35 



[14] 



rants 
Public tvithoiit The- Con- 
Cinema dances dancing ater cert Other 
Workers 
Not at all.... 30% 67% 76% 68% 74% 62% 
Twice or more 28 9 3 1 1 7 
Once 42 24 21 31 23 31 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Country districts 

A* Not at all. 42% 72% 69% 72% 78% 57% 
Twice or 

more.... 15 6 2 — 1 10 

Once 43 22 29 28 21 33 

B Not at all. 42 71 78 79 77 71 
Twice or 

more.... 15 4 2 — — 2 

Once 43 25 20 21 23 27 

C Not at all. 30 67 78 72 78 60 
Twice or 

more.... 25 7 1 1—7 

Once 45 26 21 27 22 33 

D Not at all. 30 71 77 66 63 51 
Twice or 

more.... 31 5 3 1—3 

Once 39 24 20 33 37 46 

Large towns 

Not at all 10 67 54 31 59 53 

Twice or more 49 10 12 5 4 11 

Once 41 23 34 64 37 36 

Other towns 

Not at all 25 69 68 61 62 58 

Twice or more 36 7 6 1 3 11 

Once 39 24 26 38 35 31 

*See footnote to 7. 

9. (Sweden Apr '45) How much money have you spent alto- 
gether on such amusement [cinema, public dances, restaurants 

without dancing, theaters, concerts, and other public amuse- 
ments] during the past week? Asked of a national cross-section 

of people who had visited one or more of these amusement 
places. (sGi) 



" . . . tj 

^ O ■--) (^1 >^ i^ c 

,^ I I o "^ "^ 5^ •> 

Mrs ^o*-^"— iPS^ <-i 

National total . 6% 16%, 4% 2% 2% 1% — 69% 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class.... 5% 18% 9% 3% 4% 2% 1% 58% 
Middle class. . . 4 16 5 2 1 1 — 71 
Workers 8 16 4 1 1 — — 70 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Country districts 

A* 3% 9% 4% 2% 1%- - 81% 

B 7 10 1 — 1 — — 81 

C 5 '15 2 1 — — — 77 

D 5 21 5 1 1 1% — 66 

Large towns .. . 5 22 10 4 4 2 1%, 52 

Other towns ... 9 18 5 3 2 1 — 62 
* See footnote to 7- 

** The Swedish krona at this time was approximately 26 cents in 

American money. 

10. (Denmark Apr 22 '45) Have you ever been to Copenhagen? 
(dgi) 

Yes 71.5% No 28.5% 



11. (Denmark Apr 22 "45) Have you been to the Tivoli? Asked 
of 71.5% of the sample who had been to Copenhagen, (dgi) 

Yes 90.8%, No 9.2%o = 100% of those who had 

been to Copenhagen 

12. (Denmark Apr 22 '45) Do you think the Tivoli should be 
rebuilt in the old style, or should it be modern? (dgi) 

Old style 67.2%, 

Modern 10.7 

Between the two 4.4 

Don't know 177 

13. (Denmark Apr 22 '45) The Tivoli's lease expires in 1955 — 
do you think it ought to be canceled? (dgi) 

Yes 1.9% No 93.1% Don't know 50%, 



ANIMALS 



Treatment 

1. (Sweden Oct '44) Do you think that the ill-treatment of 
animals is a considerably smaller offense than the ill-treatment 
of human beings, or do you consider it just as serious? (sGi) 

Less just as More Don't 

serious serious serious know 

National total ... 9%o 65% 23%o 3%o 

BY SEX 

Men 10% 62% 26% 2% 

Women 8 68 20 4 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 11% 56% 19% 3%, 

Middle class 10 66 22 2 

Workers 8 66 24 2 

2. (Sweden Oct '44) Do you think the authorities take strict 
enough measures against ill-treatment of animals, or do you 
think that more severe steps should be taken? (sgi) 

Strict Too many Too few Don' t 

enough measures measures know 

National total . . . 16% l%o 61% 22% 

BY SEX 

Men 19% 1% 64% 16% , 

Women 12 1 59 28 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 20% — 58% 22%, 

Middle class 17 l%o 60 22 

Workers 14 1 63 22 



ARBITRATION, INDUSTRIAL 



1. (us Apr 26 '37 and June 28 '37) Should employers and em- 
ployees be compelled by law to try to settle their differences 
before strikes can be called? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

Apr 26 '37 89%, ll%o = 100%o &7o 

June 28 '37 88 12 = 100 9 



[15] 



2. (Great Britain June 12 '37) Do you favor compulsory arbi- 
tration in industrial disputes? (bipo) 

Yes 80% No 20% = 100% No opinion 2% 

3. (US Feb 3 '38) Have you an opinion on the National Labor 
Relations Board? (aipo) 

Yes 35% No 61% No answer 4% 

4. (US Feb 3 '38) In your opinion have its [National Labor 
Relations Board's] decisions been fair to employers? Asked of 
35% of the sample who had an opinion on the National Rela- 
tions Board, (aipo) 

Yes 40% No 52% No opinion 8% = 100% of 

those with opinions 

5. (US Feb 3 '38) Do you think the National Labor Relations 
Board has been fair to employers in its decisions? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

National total 50% 50% = 100% 52% 

BY POLITICS 

Democratic 60% 40% 

Republican 20 80 

6. (US Feb 3 '38) As between the CIO and AFL do you think 
the [National Labor Relations] Board's decisions have been 
partial to one union more than the other? (aipo) 

Yes 22% No 19% No opinion 59% 

7. (US July 27 '38) Have you an opinion on the National Labor 
Relations Board? (aipo) 

Yes 32% No 68% 

8. (US July 27 '38) In your opinion have its [National Labor 
Relations Board's] decisions been fair to employers? Asked of 
a national cross-section who had an opinion on the National 
Labor Relations Board, (aipo) 

Yes 41% No 59% = 100% No opinion 7% 

9. (US July 27 '38) As between the CIO and AFL, do you 
think the [National Labor Relations] Board's decisions have 
been partial to one union more than the other? Asked of a 
national cross-section of persons with opinions about the 
NLRB. (aipo) 

Yes 67% No 33% 

10. (US July 27 '38) 'Which union [have the NLRB's decisions 
been more partial to]? Asked of a national cross-section of 
persons with opinions about the NLRB who thought the 
Board's decisions had been partial to one union more than the 
other, (aipo) 

AFL 8% CIO 92% 

11. (US Oct 8 '38) Do you think the National Labor Relations 
Board is fair to businessmen and other employers? (aipo) 
Yes 42%, No 58% = 100% No opinion 50% 

12. (US Feb 23 '39) Do you think the National Labor Rela- 
tions Board has done a good job or a poor job in administering 
the Wagner Labor Act? (aipo) 

Good job 10% 

Fair job 14 

Poor job 21 

No opinion 55 

13. (US Feb 23 '39) Have you heard of the National Labor 
Relations Board? Those who had heard of the Board were 
asked: How good a job do you think the National Labor Re- 
lations Board has done in administering the Wagner Labor 
Act? (aipo) 



Never heard of it 34% 

Excellent 3 

Good 8 

Fair 15 

Poor 9 

Very bad 7 

No opinion 24 

14. (US May 26 '39) Would you favor a law requiring em- 
ployers and workers to submit their differences to a federal 
labor board before a strike could be called? A comparable cross- 
section was asked: Would you favor a law requiring employers 
and unions to submit their differences to a federal labor board 
before a strike could be called? Results were combined, (aipo) 

Favor Oppose 

mediation mediation 
National total 86% 14% 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 84% 16% 

Middle class 87 13 

Lower class 85 15 

15. (US June '39) Do you think our government should or 
should not make all decisions in disputes between capital and 
labor? (for^ 

Should Don't know 
Should not or depends 

National total 34.8% 44.6% 20.6% 



Unemployed . . 
Farm owners. . 
Farm labor. . . 
Factory labor. 
Executives. . . . 



BY OCCUPATION 

47.0% 

44.2 

42.0 

36.6 

29.8 



30.2% 

41.0 

27.2 

46.4 

62.4 



22.8% 
14.8 
30.8 
17.0 
7.8 



16. (US Dec 16 '40 and Mar 7 '41) Would you favor a law 
compelling employers and unions to submit their differences 
to a federal labor board before a strike could be called in in- 
dustries connected with the defense program? (July 12 '45) 
Would you favor a law compelling employers and unions to 
submit their differences to a federal labor board before a strike 
could be called in war industries? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

Decl6 '40 93% 7% = 100% 10% 

Mar 7 '41 85 7 8 = 100% 

July 12 '45 77 6 17 = 100 

17. (US Apr 8 '41) When workers in a factory working on 
defense contracts vote to go on strike, do you think they should 
be required by law to wait for sixty days before the strike can 
start? (aipo) 

Yes 89% No 11% = 100% No opinion 8% 

18. (US June '41) Do you think there should or should not 
be a government agency with the power to force settlement of 
differences between employers and labor? (for) 

Don t 
Yes No Depends know 

National total 67.4% 12.6% 9.3% 10.7% 

BY OCCUPATION 

Proprietors 76.0% 14.0% 7.4% 2.6% 

Executives 73.8 12.9 12.6 .7 

White-collar 70.2 15.4 9.7 4.7 

Factory labor 68.3 17.4 10.0 4.3 

Miscellaneous 68.8 12.8 9.6 8.8 



[16] 



19. (US July 12 '45) Would you favor a law requiring em- 
ployers and unions to take their differences to a federal labor 
board before a strilcc could be called in any industry? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

National total 70% 10% 20% 

Union members 71 18 11 

Those favoring closed or 

union shop 73 17 10 

20. (US Oct 3 '45) Would you favor a law requiring employers 
and unions to take their differences to a government arbitrator 
for settlement before a strike could be called? A comparable 
cross-section was asked: Would you favor a law requiring em- 
ployers and unions to take their differences to a federal labor 
board before a strike could be called in any industry? Results 
were combined, (aipo) 

Yes 79% No 11% No opinion 10% 

21. (US Oct 17 '45) It has been suggested that the government 
create special courts to settle labor disputes. When a strike is 
threatened, unions and employers would go before a special 
labor court to state their case and the decision of the court 
would be final. Would you favor or oppose setting up special 
labor courts? (aipo) 

Favor 70% Oppose 16% No opinion 14% 

22. (US Oct 17 '45) It has been suggested that to settle some 
labor disputes, communities set up their own boards of persons 
from civic groups, industry, and labor to help the government 
settle these differences. Do you think this would be a good 
idea or a poor idea? (aipo) 

Good 60% Poor 20% No opinion 20% 

23. (US Dec 5 '45) Have you heard or read about President 
Truman's proposal for a law to handle important labor dis- 
putes? Those who had heard of the proposal were asked: What 
is your opinion of President Truman's proposal for dealing 
with important labor disputes? (aipo) 

Hadn't heard of the proposal 37% 

In favor, generally 28 

In favor, it will help settle strikes. . . 2 

In favor (pro-labor) * 

In favor (pro-management) 1 

Oppose, generally 10 

Oppose (pro-labor) 3 

Oppose (pro-management) 1 

Some law should be passed 4 

Don't understand this proposal 1 

Miscellaneous 3 

Don't know 10 

* Less than 0.5%. 

24. (US Dec 19 '45) Have you heard or read about President 
Truman's proposal for a law to handle important labor dis- 
putes? Those who had heard or read of the proposal were asked: 
What is your opinion of President Truman's proposal for deal- 
ing with important labor disputes? (aipo) 

Hadn't heard of proposal 31% 

Favor 37 

Oppose 15 

Some law should be passed 1 

Favor, it will help settle strikes 1 

Oppose (pro-labor) 1 

Oppose (pro-management) 1 

Miscellaneous 4 

No opinion 9 



25. (US Dec 19 '45) Do you agree or disagree with labor leaders 
who say this [President Truman's] proposal will hurt labor's 
cause? Asked of 69% of the sample who were familiar with the 
proposal, (aipo) 

Agree 12% Disagree 40% No opinion 17% = 69% 

26. (US Dec 5 '45; Dec 19 '45; Jan 23 '46; Feb 13 '46) President 
Truman has proposed a law requiring a thirty-day cooling-off 
period before a major strike could start. During this time a 
committee would look into the facts and causes of the dispute 
and make public its report. Would you favor or oppose such 
a law? (aipo) 

Favor Oppose No opinion 
National total 

Dec 5 '45 78% 10% 12% 

Dec 19 '45 79 11 10 

Jan 23 '46 84 9 7 

Feb 13 '46 81 11 8 



DEC 5 '45 RESULTS BY POLITICS 

Republican 83% 7% 

Democratic 74 14 



10% 
12 



DEC 5 '45 RESULTS BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England and 

mid-Atlantic 77% 10% 13% 

East and West central 

South 

Far West 



78 12 


10 


79 5 


16 


77 12 


11 


BY OCCUPATION 




80% 12% 


8% 


80 11 


9 


83 5 


12 


73 12 


15 


70 16 


14 



Business and professional. . . . 

White-collar 

Farmers 

Manual workers 

Union members 

27. (US Dec 5 '45) Do you think this law [to require a thirty- 
day cooling-off period and investigation] would operate to re- 
duce the number of strikes? (aipo) 

Yes No Undecided 

National total 72% 14% 14% 

Union members 68 21 11 

28. (US Dec 19 '45) If such a law is passed [to require a thirty- 
day period before a strike could be called], do you think it will 
stop most strikes, some, or probably none at all? (aipo) 

Most 19% 

Some 56 

None 13 

No opinion 12 

29. (US Jan 3 '46) Have you heard or read about President 
Truman's proposal for a law to handle important labor dis- 
putes? One cross-section of those who had heard of the pro- 
posal was asked: What is your opinion of President Truman's 
proposal for dealing with important labor disputes? A compa- 
rable cross-section was asked : What is your opinion of President 
Truman's proposal for dealing with labor disputes? Results 
were combined, (aipo) 

Hadn't heard of the proposal 27% 

In favor generally 35 

In favor, it will help settle strikes. . . 1 

Some law should be passed 1 

Opposed generally 17 

Opposed (anti-labor) 1 

Opposed (anti-management) 1 ' 

Has both desirable and undesirable 

characteristics 1 

Miscellaneous 3 

No answer, don't know 13 



[17] 



30. (US Jan 23 '46) Do you agree or disagree with President 
Truman that there should be a fact-finding board to study the 
facts in a labor dispute? (aipo) 

Agree 78% Disagree 11% No opinion 11% 

31. (US Jan 23 '46) Do you think a thirty-day cooling-off 
period should be required before a major strike could start? 
(aipo) 

Yes 80% No 10% No opinion 10% 

32. (US Jan 23 '46) Should a fact-finding board be allowed to 
look into the company's books and examine their profits? (aipo) 

Yes 55% No 31% No opinion 14% 

33. (US Feb 13 '46) Do you think there should be a fact-finding 
board to study the facts in a labor dispute, or should unions 
and employers try to settle strike issues themselves? (aipo) 

Board 51% 

Settle themselves 40 

No answer 1 

No opinion 8 

34. (US Sept 25 '46) In Toledo, Ohio, strikes have been settled 
by a local committee of citizens. Do you think that this method 
would work in this community? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

National total 52% 23% 25% 



BY occupation 



Professional and business. 

Farmers 

White-collar 

Manual workers 

Union members 



60% 

52 

53 

49 

50 



25% 

13 

27 

24 

30 



15% 

35 

20 

27 

20 



35. (US Nov '46) Which one of these statements comes closest 
to what you believe the government should do about a labor 
dispute that a large electrical manufacturer like General Electric 
or Westinghouse and the union can't settle themselves? (for) 



National 
total 



Salaried 
executives 



Union 
members 



11.1% 14.4% 20.3% 



22.5 



21.5 



26.3 



26.8 


22.4 


35.3 


26.0 


2.0 


5.0 



Do nothing beyond barring vio- 
lence 

Just help bring the two sides to- 
gether 

Present a solution without forc- 
ing acceptance 24.1 

Arbitrate and require acceptance 30.2 

Don't know 12.1 

36. (US Nov '46) When its employees go out on strike, do you 
think it is usually all right, sometimes all right, or never all 
right for the company to refuse to agree to a strike settlement 
proposed by the government? (for) 

Usually all right 11.2% 

Sometimes all right 41.6 

Never all right 32.4 

Don't know 14.8 



ARMAMENTS 



2. (US June 1 '37) If other nations should agree to reduce their 
spending for armaments, should America agree to reduce its 
expenditures to the same extent? (aipo) 

Yes No 

National total 79% 21% 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 80% 20% 

Middle Atlantic 78 22 

East central 78 22 

West central 84 16 

Southern 82 18 

Rocky Mountain 74 26 

Pacific coast 75 25 

BY POLITICS 

Democratic 81% 19% 

Republican 73 27 

3. (US June 1 '37) Do you believe any nation, or any nations, 
are responsible for the present armament race? (aipo) 

Yes 77% No 23% 

4. (US June 1 '37) Which [nation or nations do you believe 
responsible for the present armament race]? Asked of a na- 
tional cross-section of people who believed one nation, or more 
nations, were responsible for the present armament race. 77% 
of the sample is represented, (aipo) 

Germany 38% 

Italy 32 

Japan 10 

Russia 9 

Great Britain 3 

France 3 

Spain 2 

All nations 2 

United States 1 



100% 

5. (US July 22 '41) It has been said that the men who go into 
the German army get better military training than men who 
go into the United States army. Do you agree, or disagree 
with this? (aipo) 

Agree 36% Disagree 43% No opinion 21% 

6. (US Nov 19 '41) Do you think that at the present time our 
army is as strong as the German army? (opor) 

Yes 21% 

No 63 

Our army is stronger 2 

Qualified answers 2 

Don't know 12 

7. (US Nov 19 '41) Do you think that at the present time our 
air force is as strong as the German air force? (opor) 

Yes 26% 

No 49 

Our air force is stronger. ... 2 

Qualified answers 3 

Don't know 20 



1. (US May 10 '37) If other nations agreed to reduce their 
spending for military purposes, would you favor reducing ours 
also? (aipo) 
Yes 73% No 27% = 100% - No opinion 11% 



8. (US Dec 24 '41) From what you know or have heard, would 
you say that right now our army (navy, air force) has more, 
about the same amount, or less equipment than Japan's? Ger- 
many's? (norc) 



[18] 



JAPAN 



GERMANY 



Army Navy Air force Army Navy Air force 

More 40% 54% 47% 32% 73% 35% 

Same 15 18 15 13 8 15 

Less 30 14 23 42 8 36 

Don't know . 15 14 15 13 11 14 

9. (US Mar 26 '42) Which do you think has the strongest 
navy at present — Japan, or England, or the United States? 
(opor) 

Japan 16% 

England 15 

United States 50 

No opinion 19 

10. (US July 1 '42) Which country do you think has the 
stronger war machine — Japan or Germany? (norc) 

Japan 15% 

Germany 72 

Don't know 13 

11. (US July 14 '42) From what you have read, which country 
would you guess has more men in its armed forces for every 
thousand of population — Canada or the United States? (aipo) 

Canada 33% 

United States 48 

No difference 2 

Don't know 17 

12. (US July 15 '42) Do you think Germany's military strength 
today is greater or less than the combined military strength of 
Britain and Russia? (opor) 

Greater 30% 

Less 44 

Same 8 

Don't know 18 

13. (US Aug 21 '42 and Nov 27 '42) Would you say the United 
States and her Allies have more fighting equipment, about the 
same amount, or less fighting equipment than the Axis coun- 
tries? (norc) 

About Don't 

More the same Less know 

Aug 21 '42 41% 22% 23% 14% 

Nov 27 '42 57 19 11 13 

14. (US Aug 21 '42) Would you say we are getting further 
and further ahead of them [Axis countries] all the time or not? 
Asked of 41% of the sample who thought the Allies had more 
fighting equipment than Axis countries, (norc) 

Getting further ahead 36% 

Not getting further ahead . . 3 
Don't know 2 

41% 

15. (US Aug 21 '42) Do you think we will eventually have 
more fighting equipment than the Axis or not? Asked of 36% 
of the sample who thought the Allies had the same amount of 
fighting equipment as Axis countries or who didn't know about 
it. (norc) 

Will have more 32% 

Will not have more * 

Don't know 4 

36% 

* Less than 0.5%. 

16. (US Aug 21 '42) Do you think we will eventually catch 
up with the Axis supply of fighting equipment, or not? Asked 



of 23% of the sample who thought the Allies had less fighting 
equipment than the Axis, (norc) 

Will catch up 22% 

Will not catch up 1 

Don't know * 

23% 

* Less than 0.5%. 

17. (US Aug 29 '42) Now I have some questions about the 
armed forces of the countries listed on this card.* Which one 
of those countries would you say has the strongest navy? (norc) 

Russia 1% 

Japan 6 

Germany 3 

England 27 

United States 52 

Don't know 11 

* Card listed Russia, Japan, Germany, England, and United States. 

18. (US Aug 29 '42) How about their armies [Russia, Japan, 
Germany, England, and United States] — which country do you 
think has the strongest army? (norc) 

Russia 14% 

Japan 2 

Germany 42 

England 1 

United States 31 

Don't know 10 

19. (US Aug 29 '42) And air forces — which country [among 
Russia, Japan, Germany, England and United States] has the 
strongest air force? (norc) 

Russia 1% 

Japan 2 

Germany 13 

England 20 

United States 51 

Don't know 13 

20. (US Aug 29 '42) Which would you say [Russia, Japan, 
Germany, England, or United States] has the best equipment 
for its army? (norc) 

Russia 1% 

Japan 1 

Germany 20 

England 2 

United States 66 

Don't know : . . . . 10 

21. (US Sept '43 and July '45) After the war, do you tTiink 
every country should be allowed to build as large an army, 
navy, and air force as it wants to? (norc) 

Qualified Don' I 
Yes No answer know 

Sept '43 22% 72% 1% 5% 

July '45 23 70 — 7 

22. (US Apr '44) Is it your impression that the Japanese army 
is larger than the German army, smaller, or about the same 
size? (for) 

Larger 29.0% 

Smaller 35-7 

Same 17.6 

Don't know 17.7 

23. (France Dec 1 '44) Which do you think is the most power- 
ful army in the world? (fipo) 



A 



[19] 



Russia 60% 

United States 29 

Germany 5 

Great Britain 1 

Other countries 3 

No opinion 2 

24. (France Dec 1 '44) Which do you think is the strongest 
navy in the world? (fipo) 





National 


Men 




total 


only 


Great Britain .... 


5170 


46% 


United States .... 


41 


50 


Russia 


1 


— 


Other countries . . . 


3 


4 


No opinion 


2 



25. (France Dec 1 '44) Which do you think is the strongest 
air force in the world? (fipo) 

United States 72% 

Great Britain 22 

Russia 3 

Other countries 1 

No opinion 2 

26. (US May 31 '45) After the war, which one of these coun- 
tries would you like to see have the most powerful peacetime 
army? Navy? Air corps? Regardless of what you would like 
to see, which country do you think probably will have the 
most powerful peacetime army? Navy? Air corps? (nyht) 

ARMY NAVY AIR CORPS 

Want to Will Want to Will Want to Will 
happen happen happen happen happen happen 



China 2% 1% 



1% 



France 2 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


Great Britain . . 3 


3 


6% 


18% 


2 


5% 


Russia 4 


44 


1 


4 


1 


10 


United States . . 82 


40 


88 


64 


90 


72 


Don't know. . . 7 


12 


5 


14 


6 


13 


* Less than 0.5%. 













ARMIES AND NAVIES 



Officers 

1. (US Mar 26 '42) Which do you think has the smartest mili- 
tary leaders at present — Germany, or Russia, or the United 
States? (opor) 

Germany 20% 

Russia 12 

United States 52 

No opinion 15 

No answer 1 

Recruiting, Enlistment, etc. 

1. (US Aug 30 '39) Should the United States permit its citizens 
to join the German army? (aipo) 

Yes 26% No 68% No opinion and no answer 6% 

2. (US Aug 30 '39) Should the United States permit its citizens 
to join the British and French armies? (May 29 '40) Should 
our government allow Americans to volunteer to fight in the 
British and French armies? (aipo) 



Yes No 

Aug 30 '39 43% 50% 

May 29 '40 57 43 



No opinion and 
no answer 

7% = 100% 
100% 10 



3. (US May 29 '40) At the present time, Americans who vol- 
unteer in the British and French armies lose their United States 
citizenship. Do you think Americans should be allowed to vol- 
unteer in the allied armies, without losing their American 
citizenship? (Feb 14 '41) At present, an American citizen who 
volunteers in the armed forces of any foreign country loses his 
American citizenship. Should this law be changed to permit 
Americans to serve in the armed forces of Canada, Britain, or 
any allied country without losing their American citizenship? 
(aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

May 29 '40 43% 43% 14% 

Feb 14 '41 49 42 9 



ART 



1. (Sweden Oct '44) Have you any works of art in your home, 
such as paintings, sculptures, etc.? (sgi) 

•I ^ : ^ & a s ^ 

National 

total 42% 14% 12% 10% 8% 9% 41% = 136%* 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class. . 91% 57% 19% 50% 35% 23% 6% = 281%* 
Middle class. 50 18 14 12 10 10 35 =149* 
Workers 31 7 10 5 4 3 50 =110* 

BY AGE 

20-29 years.. 36% 13% 7% 7% 7% 6% 36% = 112%* 

30-49 years.. 48 15 12 11 10 10 40 =146* 

50-64 years.. 43 14 14 11 7 11 43 =143* 
65 years and 

over 27 9 20 6 5 9 52 = 128* 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

2. (Sweden Oct '44) Have you yourself bought it [object of 
art] (any of it) or have you had it (them) given to you? Asked 
of 59% of total sample who said they had works of art of some 
sort in the home, (sgi) 

Bought Bought Had it 

some all given or No 

of it of it inherited it answer 

National total .... 34% 43% 22% 1% = 100%* 

BY AGE 

20-29 years 32% 35% 30% 3% 

30-49 years 37 43 19 1 

50-64 years 31 47 21 1 

65 years and over . . 31 47 20 2 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 43% 37% 20% — 

Middle class 39 40 20 1% 

Workers 27 47 24 2 

* 100% of those who said they had art works ia the home. 



[20] 



3. (Sweden Oct '44) Do you think art so valuable that your 
local government should be able to demand tax from everyone 
in order to buy and exhibit statues, etc., locally, when made 
by a recognized artist? (sgi) 

Local Local 

government government 
should buy shouUn' t buy Don't know 
National total 35% 46% 19% 

BY AGE 

20-29 years 42% 40% 18% 

30-49 years 36 48 16 

50-64 years 31 49 20 

65 years and over 21 49 30 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 62% 31% 7% 

Middle class 38 45 17 

Workers 30 49 21 

4. (Denmark Mar 18 '45) Which do you prefer, the so-called 
old-fashioned or the so-called modern art? (dgi) 

Old-fashioned 57.6% 

Modern 11.0 

Both 9.5 

Don't know 21.9 

5. (Denmark Mar 18 '45) Does modern art interest you? Asked 
of 57.6% of the sample who preferred old-fashioned art to 
modern, (dgi) 

Yes 16.3% No 80.7% Don't know 3.0% = 100% 

of those who prefer old- 
fashioned to modern art 

6 (Denmark Mar 18 '45) Can you imagine having a modern 
picture on your walls? Asked of 57.6% of the sample who pre- 
ferred old-fashioned to modern art. (dgi) 
Yes 22.5% No 69.4% Don't know 8.1% = 100% 

of those who prefer old- 
fashioned to modern art 

7. (Denmark Mar 18 '45) Does abstract art interest you? Asked 
of 20.5% of the total sample who preferred modern art to old- 
fashioned (11.0%) or who like both (9.5%). (dgi) 

Yes 10.2% 

No 54.0 

Do not know abstract art 35. 8 



100% of those who prefer modern 
to old-fashioned art or who 
like both 

Galleries and Museums 

1. (Sweden Oct '44) Have you ever visited a museum of art or 
art exhibition? (sgi) 

Yis No Don't know 

National total . . . 59% 39% 2% 

BY AGE 

20-29 years 61% 37% 2% 

30-49 years 64 35 1 

50-64 years 56 42 2 

65 years and over. 45 52 3 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

upper class 96% 4% — 

Middle class 69 29 2% 

Workers 49 49 2 



2. (Czechoslovakia Oct '46) Have you ever visited the National 
Gallery in Prague? (czipo) 

Several times 12% Once 16% Never 72% I 

3. (Czechoslovakia Oct '46) Have you ever visited another 
picture gallery or museum [other than the National Gallery 
in Prague]? (cziPo) 

Several times 54% Once 24% Never 22% -^ 



ATOMIC BOMB 



1. (us Aug 8 '45) Have you heard or read about the new 
atomic bomb? (aipo) 

Yes 96% No 2% No answer 2% 

2. (US Aug 8 '45) Do you approve or disapprove of using the 
new atomic bomb on Japanese cities? Asked of a cross-section 
of people who had heard of the bomb. 96% of a national sam- 
ple is represented, (aipo) (Great Britain Aug 26 '45) Did you 
approve or disapprove of the use of atomic bombs against 
Japan? (bipo) (Canada Oct 3 '45) Now that it's all over, do 
you think the Allies should or should not have used the atomic 
bomb against Japan? (cipo) 

Approve Disapprove No opinion 

United States 85% 10% 5% 

Great Britain 72 21 7 

Canada 77 12 11 

us and BRITISH OPINION BY SEX 

Men 

United States 86% 9% 5% 

Great Britain 78 18 4 

Women 

United States 83 ^ 11 6 

Great Britain 65 24 11 

us and BRITISH OPINION BY AGE 

21-29 years 

Uni'ted States 86% 10% 4% 

Great Britain 75 18 7 

30-49 years 

United States 85 10 5 

Great Britain 73 21 6 

30 years and over 

United States 83 10 7 

Great Britain 68 22 10 

us OPINION BY EDUCATION 

College 90% 7% 3% 

High school 86 11 3d 

Grammar school or less ... 83 10 ^ ■ 

BRITISH OPINION BY ECONOMIC STATUS I 

Higher 82% 15% 3% I 

Middle 71 25 4 " 

Lower 71 21 8 

3. (US Aug 22 '45) Do you think it was a good thing or a 
bad thing that the atomic bomb was developed? (aipo) 

Good 69% Bad 17% Don't know 14% M 

4. (US Aug 22 '45) Some people say that the atomic bomb 
makes a large army and navy unnecessary. Do you agree or 
disagree with this? (aipo) 

Agree 35% Disagree 47% No opinion 18% 

6. (US Aug 22 '45) It has been suggested that the new United 
Nations Security Council use the atomic bomb to help keep 



[21] 



peace by putting it under control of a special international air 
force. Would you favor such a plan, or should the United States 
try to keep control of this weapon? (aipo) 
Air force 14% US control 73% No opinion 13% 

6. (US Aug 22 '45; Oct 3 '45; Mar 27 '46; Sept 25 '46) Do you 
think the secret of making atomic bombs should be put under 
the control of the new United Nations Security Council, ot 
should the United States and England keep this secret to them- 
selves? In Oct '45 the question was asked of two comparable 
cross-sections — one including England and one asking only 
about United States. Results from these cross-sections were 
combined. In Mar and Sept '46 the question omitted England. 
(aipo) 



Aug 22 '45. 
Oct 3 '45. . 
Mar 27 '46. 
Sept 25 '46. 



Security 


US and 


United 


No 


Council 


England 


States 


opinion 


14% 


73% 


— 


13% 


17 


— 


71% 


12 


25 


— 


68 


7 


18 


— 


75 


7 



7. (Great Britain Aug 26 '45 and US Sept '45) Do you think 
that the atomic bomb makes wars more likely or less likely? 
(bipo and norc) 

More Less No Don't 

likely likely difference know 

British opinion 12% 52% 21% 15% 

United States opinion. . . 12 64 13 11 



BRITISH OPINION BY SEX 



Men. . . 
Women. 



10% 
13 



56% 
49 



BRITISH OPINION BY AGE 

21-29 years 11% 49% 

30-49 years 12 53 

50 years and over 12 52 



24% 
19 



24% 

23 

19 



BRITISH OPINION BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher 13% 58% 23% 

Middle 11 55 24 



Lower. 



12 



51 



20 



10% 
19 

16% 

12 

17 

6% 
10 
17 



8. (US Sept '45) Why do you think so [that the atomic bomb 
makes wars more likely or less likely]? Asked of the 12% who 
thought the atomic bomb made wars more likely and the 64% 
who thought the bomb made wars less likely, (norc) 
Impossible to prevent manufacturing of atomic bomb by 

all countries 3% 

Responses indicating that bomb can be weapon of totally 

successful aggression 4 

The attitude of distrust 2 

Axis countries will want revenge on U.S 1 

Other nations will feel equal to making war on us 2 

Don't know * 

(who thought the bomb made wars more likely) 12% 
One-sided fear based on monopoly of bomb by the U.S. . . 16% 
General fear — fear of the bomb in anyone else's hands. . . 47 
Aggressor who uses it will have gained nothing; no fac- 
tories, farms, natural resources left for benefit of ag- 
gressor * 

Other answers * 

Don't know 1 

(who thought the bomb made wars less likely) 64% 
* Less than 0.5%. 

9. (Great Britain Aug 26 '45) Now that the atomic bomb has 
been invented, do you agree or disagree that each country 



should abolish its armed forces, having them replaced by an 
international force under a world government? (bipq) 

Agree Disagree Don't know 
National total 51% 29% 20% 



Men . . . 
Women. 



21-29 years 

30-49 years 

50 years and over. 



Higher . 
Middle. 
Lower. . 



■ SEX 






54% 


31% 


15% 


47 


27 


26 


AGE 






53% 


28% 


19% 


51 


30 


19 


51 


29 


20 


)MIC STATUS 




52% 


40% 


8% 


56 


32 


12 


49 


27 


24 



10. (us Sept '45) If you had been the one to decide whether 
or not to use the atomic bomb against Japan, which one of 
these four things do you think you would have done? Each 
respondent was handed a card with the four alternatives, (norc) 

Refused to use 4% 

Where no people 27 

One city at time 43 

Wiped out cities 24 

Don't know 2 

11. (us Sept '45) In order to defend itself, do you think our 
country should rely more on our own ability to make better 
atomic bombs than any other country or on the ability of the 
world organization to prevent any country, including our own, 
from ever using such bombs in another war? (norc) 

Our own ability World organisation Don't know 

43% 48% 9% 

12. (us Sept '45) If the world organization does try to pre- 
vent any country from ever using atomic bombs in another 
war, which one of these ways do you think would have the 
best chance of working? Each respondent was handed a card 
with the two alternatives, (norc) 



World police force 
31% 



Pass law; use an FBI 
54% 



Don't know 

15% 



13. (US Sept '45) Do you think the United States should try 
to keep the secret of how to make atomic bombs as long as 
we can, or do you think we should let some other countries 
also know how to make them? (norc) (Great Britain Nov 3 
'45) Do you think that America should share the secret of the 
atomic bomb with other nations now or should they try to 
keep it as long as possible? (bipo) (Denmark Jan 5 '46) Do you 
think the United States should keep the atom bomb secret to 
itself or should it be shared with other countries? (dgi) 



Share Keep 

United States 12% 85% 

Great Britain 59 25 

Denmark 51 46 



Men . . . 
Women. 



BRITISH OPINION BY SEX 

23% 
26 



64% 
54 



Miscellaneous or 
Don't know 

3% 
16 
3 



13% 
20 



BRITISH OPINION BY AGE 

21-29 years 62% 25% 

30-49 years 61 23 

50 years and over, . . , 55 26 



13% 

16 

19 



[22] 



Share 



Keep 



Miscellaneous or 
Don' t know 



BRITISH OPINION BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher 64% 30% 6% 

Middle 62 28 10 

Lower 58 23 19 

14. (US Sept '45) Do you think the United States will be able 
to keep for just its own use the secret of how to make atomic 
bombs, or will other countries be able to find out by them- 
selves how to make them? (norc) 

Able to keep secret Others will find out Don t know 

13% 82% 5% 

15. (US Sept '45) About how long a time would you guess it'll 
take before some other countries find out as much about atomic 
bombs as we know now? Asked of 82% of the sample who 
thought other countries would be able to find out how to make 
atomic bombs, (norc) 

Under 1 year 12% 

I to 5 years 44 

6 to 10 years 13 

II to 50 years 4 

Over 50 years * 

Secret known 2 

Don't know 7 

82% 
* Less than 0.5%- 

16. (US Sept '45) If there is another world war, about how 
much danger do you think there'll be of most city people on 
earth being killed by atomic bombs: a very real danger, only 
a slight da'nger, or no danger at all? (norc) 

Real danger 83% 

Slight danger 10 

No danger 3 

Don' t know 4 

17. (US Sept '45) How much danger do you think there is of 
the atomic bomb being used against the United States in the 
next twenty-five years: a very real danger, only a slight danger, 
or no danger at all? (norc) 

Real danger 37% 

Slight danger 29 

No danger 23 

Don't know 11 

18. (US Sept '45) What country do you think would most 
likely use atomic bombs against us? Asked of the 37% who 
thought there was a real danger of the bomb being used against 
the United States in the next twenty-five years and the 29% 
who thought there was a slight danger, (norc) 

Russia 28% 

England 3 

Germany 12 

Japan 19 

Mexico; South America; any South 

American country 1 

Near East; China; United Asia; yel- 
low race 1 

Other European countries 1 

Internal war in the United States. ... * 

No special country 12 

Other countries; race war; not speci- 
fied where * 



* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 66 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 



19. (US Sept '45) Most scientists agree that within ten years 
other countries will find out by themselves how to make atomic 
bombs, even if we don't tell them. Do you think the United 
States will be able to keep for just its own use the secret of 
how to make atomic bombs, or will other countries be able to 
find out by themselves how to make them? (norc) 

Able to keep secret Others will find out Don't know 

10';; 86% 4%o 

20. (us Oct 3 '45) Do you think the United States can keep 
this secret [of making atomic bombs] to itself, or do you think 
other nations will develop atomic bombs? (aipo) 

Can keep 22% Others develop 65% No opinion 13% 

21. (US Oct 3 '45) Do you think the discovery of the atomic 
bomb increases or decreases the possibility of another world 
war? (aipo) (US Dec '45) Do you feel that the atomic bomb 
has increased or decreased the chances of a future world war 
or made no difference one way or the other? (for) (Australia 
July 27 '46) Do you think the atomic bomb has increased or 
decreased the possibility of another wt)rld war? (apop) 

In- De- Nodif- No 

creases creases ference opinion 

United States Oct '45 18%, 47%o 20%, 15% 

United States Dec '45 15.7 46.9 24.1 13.3 

Australia Aug '46 30 31 23 14 

UNITED STATES DEC '45 RESULTS BY OPINIONS AS TO FUTURE WARS 

Those who think a big war 

will come 23.3%o 33.7%, 30.4% 12.6%, 

Those who think there is a 

chance to avoid war ... . 11.2 58.5 21.0 9-3 

UNITED STATES DEC '45 RESULTS BY AGE* 

21-34 years 21.1%o 44.0% 23.9%, 11-0% 

35-49 years 14.0 47.7 26.3 12.0 

50 years and over 12.5 48.6 22.1 16.8 

UNITED STATES DEC '45 RESULTS BY EDUCATION* 

Grade school 12.0%o 46.9%o 17.3%o 23.8% 

High school 18.4 48.7 25.1 7.8 

College 16.8 43.4 33.3 6.5 

* Additional breakdowns from New York Herald Tribune Nov 8 '45. ' 

22. (US Oct 3 '45) Do you think we can develop a way to 
protect ourselves from atomic bombs in case other countries 
tried to use them against us? (aipo) 

Yes 49%, No 21%, No opinion 30% 

23. (US Oct 17 '45) Do you think England, Russia, France, 
United States, China, and other countries should all get to- 
gether to agree that atomic bombs should never be used as a 
war weapon? (aipo) 

Yes 67% No 23% No opinion 10% 

24. (US Oct 31 '45) Do you wish now that we had never dis- 
covered the atomic bomb? (aipo) 

Yes 29% No 62% No opinion 9%o 

25. (US Oct 31 '45) Do you wish now that the atomic bomb 
had never been discovered? (aipo) 

Yes 34%, No 52%o No opinion 14% 

26. (US Oct 31 '45) Some people say that with the discovery 
of the atomic bomb armed forces, except those to handle the 
bombs, are no longer useful. Do you agree or disagree with 
this? A comparable cross-section was asked the question with 
a slightly different beginning: With the discovery of the atomic 
bomb, some people say that . . . etc. Results were combined. 
(aipo) 



[23] 



Agree 13% 



Disagree 67% 



No opinion 20% 



27. (US Oct 31 '45) Some people say that, if there is another 
war, a nation can be defeated in one blow by atomic bombs 
and the war will be over in a few days. Do you agree or dis- 
agree with this? (aipo) 

Agree Disagree No opinion 
National total 36% 49% 15% 



BV EDUCATION 



College 30% 

High school 38 

Grade school or less . . 35 



62% 

50 

46 



12 
19 



28. (US Dec '45) Which of these comes closest to describing 
how you feel about our use of the atomic bomb? (for) 

We should not have used any atomic bombs at all 4.5% 

We should have dropped one first on some unpopulated 
region, to show the Japanese its power, and dropped 
the second one on a city only if they hadn't surren- 
dered after the first one 13-8 

We should have used the two bombs on cities, just as 
we did 53. 5 

We should have quickly used many more of them before 
Japan had a chance to surrender 22.7 

Don't know 5-5 

29. (US Dec '45) It took the United States about five years to 
develop the first atomic bomb. About how long do you think 
it will be before some other country will develop one if we 
don't give them any help at all on it? (for) 

Less More 

than About than Don't 

5 years 5 years 5 years Never know 

National total.. . 52.7%, 12.9% 11.7% 4.5% 18.2% 



21-34 years 54.3% 12.1% 13.6% 

35-49 years 53.8 13.9 11.7 

50 years and over. 50.2 12.6 10.0 



3.7% 16.3% 

4.3 16.3 

5.4 21.8 



BY EDUCATION 



College 73.6% 9.6% 7.2% 

High school 55.0 15.0 12.7 

Grade school 37.5 12.4 13.3 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Prosperous 66.4% 14.9% 3.8% 

Upper middle 66.6 10.8 9.2 

Lower middle 57.0 13.7 11.5 

Poor 32.8 12.9 15.8 

* Breakdowns from New York Herald Tribune Nov 1 '45. 



2.5% 

3.8 

6.4 

3.8% 
3.7 
3.7 
6.3 



7.1% 
13.5 
30.4 



11.1% 
9.7 
14.1 
32.2 



30. (US Dec '45) Which nation or nations do you think will 
be likely to be the first to develop the atomic bomb? (for) 

Russia 40.4% 

Germany 28.5 

Great Britain 8.9 

Japan 7.4 

Other 1.7 

None 4.5 

Don't know 19. 



110.4%' 



* Results add to more than 100 because some respondents gave more 
than one answer. 

31. (Sweden Dec '45) Do you think that Russia should share 
the atom bomb secret? (soi) 



National total . 



Yes 
31% 



No 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 26% 60% 

Middle class 28 58 

Workers 35 45 



DV POLITICS 



Right party 24% 

Liberal 22 

Agrarian 12 

Social Democrat 34 

Communist 79 



64% 

63 

74 

47 

16 



Don't know 

'7o 

14% 

14 

20 

12% 
15 
14 
19 
5 



32. (Sweden Dec '45) Do you think that Sweden, alone, should 
go seriously into the solution of the atom bomb problem? (sgi) 






National total 



55% 



<5 ■?»-< 

11% 



13% 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 



Upper class 55% 16% 13% 

Middle class 56 11 13 

Workers 55 10 13 






4% 

4% 

4 

4 



5% 



12% 



4% 8% 

4 12 

5 13 



BY POLITICS 



Right party 62% 

Liberal 60 

Agrarian 44 

Social Democrat . 57 

Communist 59 



12% 

9 
13 

9 

17 



7% 
14 
21 
14 



7% 

5 

4 

5 

6 



8% 

8 
15 
11 

5 



33. (US Dec '45) How much longer do you think the Japanese 
would have held out if it had not been for the atomic bomb? 
(for) 

No longer 8.4% 

1 month less 99 

2-5 months 17.0 

6 months 17.2 

7-11 months 3.3 

1 year 15-1 

Over a year 17.6 

Don't know 11.5 

34. (Canada Dec 5 '45) Should Britain, Canada, and United 
States tell Russia that they are ready to join a world govern- 
ment and give this government all the secrets of the atomic 
bomb, or do you think they should continue to try and keep 
these details secret? (cipo) 

Keep secret Share 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 



upper. . 
Middle. 
Lower. . 



56 
64 



34 
26 



Undecided 
10% 

7% 
10 
10 



35. (France Dec 16 '45) Have the United States, Great Britain, 
and Canada good reason to guard the secret of the atomic 
bomb? (fipo) 

Yes 45% No 41% No opinion 14% 

36. (France Jan 16 '46) Is it your opinion that the atomic bomb 
will be used in the next war? (fipo) 

Yes 51% No 30% No opinion 19% 



[24] 



37. (France Jan 16 '46) Is it your opinion that France should 
manufacture atomic bombs? (pipo) 

Yes 56% No -^1% No opinion 12% 

38. (US Feb 13 '46) This summer our navy plans to make tests 
at sea to find out how effective the atom bombs would be in 
naval warfare. Do you thinlc that representatives of other na- 
tions should or should not be allowed to watch these tests? 
(aipo) 

Should Should not Undecided 
National total 26%, 66% 8%o 

BY EDUCATION 

College 45% 49% 6% 

High school 31 63 6 

Grammar school or less 19 72 9 

39. (US Feb 13 "46) Do you approve or disapprove of giving 
other nations a complete report of the results of the [atom 
bomb] tests? (aipo) 

Approve Disapprove Undecided 
National total 28%, 63%o 9% 

BY EDUCATION 

College 44% 50% 6% 

High school 33 59 8 

Grammar school or less 21 68 11 

40. (US Mar '46) If the United States does fight in another 
war within the next twenty-five years, do you thinlc atomic 
bombs will or will not be used against American cities? (norc) 
Will 75% Will not 15% Don't know 10% 

41. (US Mar '46) Do you think the world organization should 
pass a law, and be given power to enforce it, so that no country 
in the world can make atomic bombs, or don't you think so? 
(norc) 

Should 72% Should not 20% Don't know 8% 

42. (US Mar '46) If passing a law so that no country can make 
atomic bombs meant that the United States would not only 
have to stop making any more, but would also have to destroy 
all atomic bombs now on hand, then would you be for or 
against passing this law? Asked of 72% of the sample who 
thought the United Nations should be empowered to and 
should prevent any country from making atomic bombs, (norc) 
For 56% Against 13% Don't know 3%o = 72%o 

43. (US Mar "46) It has been suggested that the world organ- 
ization have inspectors who could search any property in any 
country at any time to see if anybody was making atomic 
bombs. All inspectors would work in teams, having one Rus- 
sian, one Englishman, and one American working together. 
Do you think there should be such an inspection or not? (norc) 
Should 75% Should not 17% Don't know 8% 

44. (US Mar '46) Would you be willing for these [world- 
organization] inspectors to search American property if it 
meant that they would find out how we make atomic bombs, 
or would that be going too far? Asked of 75% of the sample 
who thought an inspection should be made for atomic bomb 
manufacture, (norc) 

Willing 39%, Going too far 33%o Don't know 3% = 75%, 

45. (US Mar '46) If we ever suspect that a certain country is 
planning to make a surprise atomic bomb attack on our coun- 
try within a few days, which one of these two things do you 
think we should do: we should try to keep from being the first 
country to be bombed — even if this means starting an atomic 
war on them as soon as we become suspicious; or we should 



first try to prove if they're really planning this attack — even 
if waiting means taking a chance that we'll be bombed first? 
Each respondent was handed a card with the two alternatives. 
(norc) 

Try to keep from being bombed first 47% 

Try to prove if attack is planned 43 

Don't know 10 

46. (US Mar '46) What other ways besides being dropped from 
airplanes as bombs do you think atomic explosives might be 
used in a surprise attack? (norc) 

Sabotage 14% 

Guided missiles 27 

Water projection 11 

Other feasible answers — balloons, long-range 

guns, etc 8 

Unfeasible answers and don't know 49 



109%)* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more thari one answer. 

47. (US Mar '46) Do you think atomic bombs more powerful 
than those we dropped on Japan will be made in the next 
twenty-five years, or do you think it'll take longer than that? 
(norc) 

In 25 years 85% Will take longer 6%, Don't know 9% 

48. (US Mar 27 '46) Do you think the United States should 
carry out the atom-bomb tests on Bikini Island, or should this 
be given up? (aipo) 

Hold CM off 

the tests the tests Undecided 

National total 43%o 37%, 20%o 

World War II veterans 65 25 10 

BY EDUCATION 

College 53% 36% 11% 

High school 52 32 16 

Grammar school or less 35 40 25 

49. (US Mar 27 '46) Some persons say that animals should not 
be used in making atomic-bomb tests at Bikini Island. Do you 
agree or disagree? (aipo) 

Think Think 

animals animals 

should should not 
he used be used Undecided 

National total 42%o 42%o 16%o 

World War II veterans 53 36 11 

BY SEX 

Men : 47% 40% 13% 

Women 37 43 20 

BY EDUCATION 

College 53% 34% 13% 

High school 46 42 12 

Grammar school or less 36 44 20 

50. (US Apr 10 '46) From what you have heard or read, what 
do you think is the main purpose for the atom-bomb tests 
which are to be held in the Pacific? (aipo) 

No answer, don't know 19% 

To see what it will do; to find out its destructive power 32 

To see what it will do to a navy; its effect on sea warfare 20 
Further experimentation and research; defense research; 

defense 17 

To show the world its power; to frighten other coun- 
tries 7 



1 



To show how powerful we are; to prove the strength 

of the US 3% 

To outlaw war; to prevent war 1 

To prepare for next war 2 

Experiment for industrial use 1 

Test effect on sea life, living things * 

Miscellaneous 2 

104%** 

* Less than 0.5%- 

** Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer, 

51. (US Apr 10 '46) Should the United States continue to manu- 
facture atom bombs? (aipo) 

Yes 61% No 30% No opinion 9% 

52. (US Apr 10 '46) Do you think any other country (ies) is 
(are) already making atom bombs? (aipo) 

Yes 42% No 40% No opinion 18% 

63. (US Apr 10 '46) Which country (ies) [is (are) already mak- 
ing atomic bombs]? Asked of 42% of the sample who thought 
one country or more were already manufacturing bombs, (aipo) 

No answer, don't know. . . . 5% 

Russia 79 

England 18 

South America * 

Germany 12 

Spain 12 

Japan 2 

Canada 2 

France 1 

Argentina 2 

They are trying * 

Miscellaneous 4 



137%** 

* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages are based on the number of respondents who thought 
one or more countries were already making atomic bombs and add to 
more than 100 because some gave more than one answer. 

64. (Canada June 8 '46) Do you think Russia's attitude in the 
past few months has been due mainly to our withholding the 
secret of the atomic bomb? (cipo) 

Yes 25% No 56% Don't know 19% 

55. (Canada June 8 '46) Do you think Russia has the secret of 
how to make an atomic bomb or not? (cipo) 

Has formula 31% 

Has part of formula 30 

No, hasn't formula 22 

No opinion 17 

66. (US July 24 '46) Did the atomic bombs in the recent 
[Bikini] tests do more damage or less than you thought they 
would? (aipo) (France Sept '46) On the whole was the destruc- 
tive effect of the atomic bombs dropped on Bikini the same, 
less, or greater than you expected? (fipo) 

Greater Same Less No opinion 

United States 18% 11% 53% 18% 

France 3 11 58 28 

57. (US Sept '46) Do you think the United States could become 
so strong by making atomic bombs and rockets that no coun- 
try would dare attack us, or do you think that regardless of 
how strong we become, some day another country might think 
she's stronger and attack us? (norc) 



[25] 

No country dare attack 19% 

Another country might attack. . 74 
Don't know 7 

68. (US Sept '46) Suppose the United States should fight in 
another war within the next twenty-five years, how much 
danger do you think there would be of an atomic bomb being 
dropped in the place where you live — a very real danger, only 
a slight danger, or no danger at all? (norc) 

Real danger 53% 

Slight danger 29 

No danger 14 

Don't know 4 

59. (US Sept '46) If the United States could do only one of 
these two things during the next few years, which one do you 
think would give us the best chance of keeping peace in the 
world — should we try to keep ahead of other countries by mak- 
ing more and bettet atomic bombs and rockets; should we try 
to make the United Nations organization strong enough to 
prevent all countries, including the United States, from making 
atomic bombs and rockets? (norc) 

Try to keep ahead of other countries 28% 

Try to make the United Nations strong enough to 

prevent countries from making atomic bombs . . 67 
Don't know 5 

60. (US Sept '46) Which one of these two things [trying to 
keep ahead of other countries in atomic manufacture or trying 
to strengthen the United Nations] do you think the United 
States is doing at the present time? (norc) 

Trying to keep ahead 34% 

Making United Nations strong. . 35 

Both 18 

Don't know 13 

61. (US Nov 13 '46) Do you think the United States should 
stop making atom bombs and destroy all those we have now? 
(aipo) 

Yes 21% No 72% No opinion 7% 

62. (US Nov 13 '46) Suppose the United States stopped mak- 
ing atom bombs and destroyed those already made. Do you 
think Russia would then agree to let a United Nations com- 
mittee check to see that Russia does not make atom bombs? 
(aipo) 

Yes 13% No 72% No opinion 15% 

63. (US Nov 14 '46) Do you think that the United States 
should stop making atom bombs and destroy those already 
made to prove our good intentions in asking for international 
control of atomic bombs? (aipo) 
Yes 19% No 65% No opinion 11% Qualified 5% 

64. (US Nov 14 '46) Do you believe that this would help in 
bringing about an agreement with Russia regarding interna- 
tional control of atomic bombs? (aipo) 

Yes 28% No 52% No opinion 20% 



ATOMIC ENERGY 



1. (us Aug 22 '45) Some people say that someday experiments 
in smashing atoms will cause an explosion which will destroy 
the entire world. Do you think this is ever likely to happen? 
(aipo) 

Yes 27% No 53% No opinion 20% 



[26] 



2. (US Sept "45 and Sept "46) In the long run, do you think 
people everywhere will be better off or worse off because some- 
body learned how to split the atom? (norc) 

No Don't 

Better off Worse off difference know 

Sept '45 52% 22% 6% 20% 

Sept '46 37 38 6 19 



Men 

Sept '45 57% 19% 

Sept '46 46 34 

Women 

Sept "45 48 21 

Sept '46 30 41 

BY EDUCATION 



6% 
5 



5% 
4 

5 

6 



College 

Sept '45 67% 

Sept '46 58 

High school 

Sept '45 56 

Sept '46 40 

Eighth grade or less 

Sept "45 42 

Sept '46 25 

SEPT '46 RESULTS BY MILITARY STATUS 

World War II vet- 
erans 60% 30% 7% 

34 39 6 



Non-veterans. 



17% 
26 

20 
40 

21 
40 



18% 
15 

25 
23 



11% 
12 

19 
14 

29 
29 



3% 
21 



3. (US Sept '45) Some say that splitting the atom will prove 
the greatest invention in over a thousand years and will change 
many of our ways of living. Do you agree with them, or do 
you think they exaggerate its importance? (norc) (Great Brit- 
ain Dec 14 '45) Some people say that splitting the atom is 
man's greatest scientific discovery and will change many of 
our ways of living. Do you agree with them or do you think 
they exaggerate? (bipo) 

Agree Exaggerate Don't know 

United States 56% 25% 19% 

Great Britain 52 24 24 



BRITISH OPINION BY' SEX 



Men . . . 
Women . 



57% 
46 



26% 
22 



BRITISH OPINION BY AGE 



21-29 years 52% 

30-49 years 54 " 

50 years and over 48 



23% 

25 

24 



BRITISH OPINION BY ECONOMIC STATUS 



Higher 66% 29% 

Middle 67 23 

Lower 46 24 



17% 
32 

25% 

21 

28 

5% 
10 
30 



4. (US Sept '45) What are some of the changes you think it'll 
make in our ways of living? Asked of 56% of the sample who 
thought that the atomic bomb would change many ways of 
our living, (norc) (Great Britain Dec 14 '45) What are some 
of the changes [that will take place in our ways of living as a 
result of the discovery of the method of splitting the atom]? 
Asked of 52% of the sample who thought that splitting the 
atom would change many ways of our living, (bipo) 

Opinions in United States 

Changes in industry 25% 

Changes in daily living, domestic aspect 19 

Changes in social and economic aspect 5 

Changes in transportation 16 



Changes in medical science 3% 

Changes in employment situation 3 

Changes in international relations 1 

Changes in further scientific research 1 

Other answers 1 

Don't know 14 



88%,* 
* Percentages add to more than 56 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

Opinions in Great Britain 
Will change industry and trade; provide cheaper power 

and goods 16% 

Change transport; speed it up and make it cheaper and 

easier 9 

Changes in daily living, domestic aspect 4 

Will change all spheres of life for better 3 

Too soon to say; change will not take place for years; 
will not affect the lives of the present generation .... 2 

Will help man conquer nature and the elements 1 

Will change ail spheres of life for worse 1 

Will change methods of warfare; make war cheaper; in- 
crease capacity of smaller countries to make war 1 

Diminish possibilities of war; make countries less likely 
to wage war; make countries fear devastation by atom 

bombs 1 

Make countries more likclv to wage war 1 

Changes in international relations 1 

Miscellaneous 4 

No reply, don't know 8 



i 



52% 



5. (Great Britain Jan 12 '46) Do you approve or disapprove of 
the proposal to put the control of atomic energy under the 
United Nations Security Council? (bipo) 

Approve Disapprove Don't know 



National total 74% 



Men . . . 
Women. 



82% 
66 



by AGE 

21-29 years 77% 

30-49 years 76 

50 years and over 70 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 



Higher. 
Middle. 
Lower. . 



80% 

81 

71 



9% 



8% 



8% 
8 
10 

11% 
9 



17% 

10% 
25 

15% 
16 

20 

9% 
10 
21 



6. (Canada Jan 26 '46) Do you think the discovery of atomic 
energy means that the end of the world is coming near, or do 
you think it means that it is the beginning of a new age? (cipo) 

End of the world 8% 

New age 64 

Qualified answers 7 . 

Undecided 21 ;^ 

7. (US Mar 27 '46) 1. Do you think that the government 
agency which handles the development and use of atomic en- 
ergy should be under military or civilian control? A comparable 
cross-section was asked: 2. Do you think that the development 
and control of atomic energy should be under a government 
body controlled by the militarv or by civilians? (aipo) (May 
'46) Who do you think should have the most control over 
atomic energy in this country — military leaders or civilian 
leaders? (norc) 



[^27] 



Scien- 
Mili- Civil- tific No 

tary tan Both group Other opinion 

First form March 51% 26% 7% 1% 1% 14% 

Second form March. . . 44 31 7 1 2 15 

May 49 27 12 — — 12 

8. (Great Britain May '46 and Canada June 8 '46) In a long 
run, do you think that releasing atomic energy will do more 
good than harm or more harm than good? (bipo and cipo) The 
Canadian question substituted "the discovery of" for the word 
"releasing." 

More good More harm Don't 

than harm than good know Qualified 

Great Britain 28% 46% 26% — 

Canada 38 26 26 10% 

BRITISH OPINION BY SEX 

Men 36% 42% 22% 

Women 20 51 29 

BRITISH OPINION BY AGE 

21-29 years 30% 44% 26% 

30-49 years 30 46 24 

50 years and over . 24 47 29 

BRITISH OPINION BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher 31% 48% 21% 

Middle 37 40 23 

Lower 24 48 28 

9. (Great Britain June '46) In the present state of the world, 
are you or are you not in favor of the full exchange of atomic 
secrets between all countries? (blpo) 

In favor 44% Not in favor 34% Don't know 22% 

10. (Great Britain June '46) Do you think that such an ex- 
change [of atomic secrets between all countries] would or would 
not be desirable at a later date? Asked of 34% of the sample 
who said they were not in favor of the full exchange of atomic 
secrets, (bipo) 

Would be 10% Would not be 19% Don't know 5% = 34% 

11. (US June '46) Have you heard or read anything about the 
official American plan for control of atomic energy which 
Bernard Baruch presented to the United Nations recently? 
(norc) 

Yes 29% No 71% 



ATOMIC POWER 



1. (us Aug 22 '45 and Canada Oct 3 '45) Do you think that 
atomic energy will be developed in the next ten years to supply 
power for industry and other things? (aipo and cipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

United States 47% 19% 34% 

Canada 37 24 39 

2. (US Sept '45) How long do you think it will be before 
atomic power is put to general everyday use in industry? (norc) 

Under 1 year 3% 

1-5 years . 25 

6-10 years 23 

11-50 years 21 

Over 50 years 3 

Don't know 25 



3. (US Sept '45) Would you rather have the atomic power that 
is manufactured for peacetime uses in the future controlled 
mostly by government or mostly by business? (norc) (US Oct 
17 '45) Do you think the government alone should keep strict 
control of atomic energy, or should private business also be 
given the secret and allowed to make atomic energy to supply 
power for industry and other things? (aipo) (Great Britain Dec 
14 '45) If atomic power is developed for peacetime use, should 
control mostly be in the hands of the government or of private 
business? (bipo) 

Govern- Busi- Don't 

ment ness Both know 

US Sept '45 77% 11% 6% 6% 

US Oct '45 66 20 — 14 

Great Britain Dec '45 74 11 — 15 

BRITISH opinion BY SEX 

Men 79% 13% - 8% 

Women 68 10 — 22 

BRITISH opinion BY AGE 

21-29 years 76% 10% — 14% 

30-49 years 75 H — 14 

50 years and over 70 12 — 18 

BRITISH opinion BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher 66% 26% - 8% 

Middle 76 13 — 11 

Lower 74 9 — 17 



ATTLEE, CLEMENT 



1. (Great Britain Aug 26 '45) Do you approve or disapprove 

of Mr. Attlee as Prime Minister? (Oct '46 and Dec '46) Are you 
satisfied or dissatisfied with Mr. Attlee as Prime Minister? 
(bipo) 

Satisfied Dissatisfied Don't 

or approve or disapprove know 
National total 

Aug '45 66% 19% 15% 

Oct '46 53 35 12 

Dec '46 52 30 18 

BY SEX 

Men 

Aug '45 69% 18% 13% 

Oct '46 54 38 8 

Dec '46 57 30 13 

Women 

Aug '45 63 20 17 

Oct '46 52 32 16 

Dec '46 50 28 22 

BY AGE 

11-29 years 

Aug '45 68% 16% 16% 

Oct '46 60 28 12 

Dec '46 54 27 19 

'iO-49 years 

Aug '45 68 18 14 

Oct '46.. 56 33 11 

Dec '46 55 29 16 

50 years and over 

Aug '45 63 22 15 

Oct '46 53 34 13 

Dec '46 51 30 19 



Satisfied Dissatisfied 
or approve or disapprove 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher 

Aug '45 49% 35% 

Oct '46 41 52 

Dec '46 32 58 

Middle 

Aug '45 56 25 

Oct '46 47 42 

Dec "46 44 41 

Lower 

Aug '45 71 15 

Oct "46 60 28 

Dec '46 59 22 

Very poor 

Oct '46 59 26 

Dec '46 58 20 

1946 RESULTS BY POLITICS 

Conservative 

Oct '46 27% 63% 

Dec '46 21 63 

Labor 

Oct '46 78 15 

Dec '46 80 10 

Liberal 

Oct '46 45 39 

Dec '46 36 34 

Other voters 

Oct '46 44 39 

Dec '46 52 28 

N on- voters 

Oct '46 49 30 

Dec '46 45 27 

DEC '46 RESULTS BY LABOR STATUS 

Union members 67% 20% 

Non-union members 48 33 



AUSTRALIA 



Don't 

know 



16% 
7 
10 

19 
11 
15 

14 
12 
19 

15 
22 



10% 
16 

7 
10 

16 

30 

17 
20 

21 
28 



13% 
19 



Army 

1. (Australia Mar '42) Do you approve the law which keeps 
the militia in Australia and its territories — or should the gov- 
ernment have power to use the militia anywhere to fight the 
Japanese? Qune '42) Should the law be altered so that the 
militia could leave Australia in an offensive against the Japa- 
nese? (Sept '42) Should the law be altered so that the militia 
could be sent outside Australia and its territories? (apop) 

Alter Keep militia 

the law here Undecided 

Mar '42 51% 43% 6% 

June '42 59 29 12 

Sept '42 50 40 10 

JUNE '42 RESULTS BY POLITICS 

Labor 49% 38% 13% 

Non-labor 70 19 11 

SEPT '42 RESULTS BY SEX 

Men 53% 39% 8% 

Women 46 40 14 



] 

2. (Australia Sept '43) Do you think sending the AIF to the 
middle East in 1940 was right or wrong? (apop) 

Right 75% Wrong 16% Undecided 9% 

3. (Australia Sept '43) What about the recall of the AIF after 
Japan entered the war — was that right or wrong? (apop) 

Right 80% Wrong 10% Undecided 10% 

4. (Australia Sept '43) Would you approve or disapprove if 
part of the AIF were sent overseas again in the near future? 
(apop) 

Approve 42% 

Leave it to the authorities. . 26 

Disa pprove 24 

Undecided 8 

5. (Australia June '44) The Japs have now been pushed back 
as far as the militia can be sent. Do you think the militia 
should now be used anywhere in the world or kept for home 
defense? Quly '44) The Japs have been pushed back about as 
far as the militia can be sent. Do you think the militia should 
now be used anywhere against the Japs or kept for home de- 
fense? (apop) 

Yes No Undecided 

June '44 

Anywhere in the world . . . 47% 40% 13% 

July '44 

Anywhere against the Japs 55 37 8 

6. (Australia May-June '46) It has been suggested that Aus- 
tralia should have a permanent army, navy, and air force of 
sixty thousand men costing an average of £15 a year for each 
elector. Do you approve or disapprove that plan? (apop) 
Approve 75% Oppose 17% Undecided 8% 

Army and Militia (Unified Command) 

1. (Australia Nov '42 and Dec '42) Should the militia and the 
AIF be combined into one army able to go anywhere our gov- 
ernment decides? The Dec '42 question used "the government" 
instead of "our government." (Mar '43) Should the AIF and 
militia be combined into one army able to fight anywhere the 
government decides? (apop) 

Yes No Undecided 

Nov '42 67% 22% 11% 

Dec '42 66 27 7 

Mar '43 77 16 7 

2. (Australia Dec '42) Should the militia be able to go any- 
where in the Southwest Pacific? Asked of 27% of the sample 
who opposed sending the militia anywhere the government 
decided, (apop) 

Yes 80% No 12% Undecided 8% = 100% of those 

who opposed sending the mili- 
tia anywhere the government 
decided 

Foreign Relations 

1. (Australia Oct '41) Should Australia and Russia exchange 
official representatives? (apop) 

Favor 69% 

Against 12 

Undecided 14 

No opinion 5 

2. (Australia May '45) Which of these things would you like 
Australia to do — join with Britain and the other Dominions 
in a common foreign policy, or decide for herself how she will 
deal with foreign countries? (apop) 



[29] 



Join Britain Decide 
and the others herself Undecided 
National total 64% 30%, 6% 

BY POLITICS 

Non-Labor %0% 16% 4% 

Labor 54 39 7 

Parliament 

1. (Australia May '45) At present the Federal Parliament con- 
sists of seventy-five members in the House of Representatives 
and thirty-six in the Senate. Do you favor or oppose increasing 
those numbers? (apop) 

Opposed more members 74% 

Favored increase 11 

Undecided (mostly women). ... 15 

2. (Australia July '45) On the reverse side of the card are the 
names of some members of Parliament. If you had to choose, 
who would be your first and second choice for leaders of both 
Labor and non-Labor? Asked of a national cross-section of 
non-Labor voters, (apop) 



First choice 

Menzies 59% 

Fadden 15 

Cameron 4 

Harrison 3 

McEwen 3 

Others 3 

No choice 13 



Second choice 

Fadden 49% 

Cameron 12 

Harrison 9 

McEwen 9 

Others 3 

No choice 18 



3. (Australia July '46) Which of these men is your first and 
second* choice for leader of your party in the Federal Parlia- 
ment? (apop) 

BY politics 

Liberal-Country 



Labor 

Chifley 55% 

Evatt 31 

Ward 5 

Forde 4 

Dedman 2 

No answer 3 



Menzies 44% 

Casey 34 

Fadden 10 

Earle Page 5 

Spender 3 

No answer 4 



* Second choice is omitted because complete figures were not avail- 
able. 

Politics and Government 

1. (Australia Oct '41) Should all parties in the Commonwealth 
Parliament join together in a wartime government? (apop) 

Favor Against Undecided 

National total, 78% 14% 8% 

BY POLITICS 

Labor voters 63% 

Other voters 92 

BY STATE 

New South Wales .... 72% 

Queensland 79 

Victoria 82 

South Australia 86 

Western Australia and 

Tasmania 90 

2. (Australia Feb '42) Which do you prefer, the present gov- 
ernment or an all-party government? (apop) 

Prefer all-party government 45% 

Prefer present government 45 

Undecided 10 



25% 
4 


12% 
4 


17% 
17 
10 
7 


11% 
4 
8 
7 


6 


4 



3. (Australia Oct '42 and Mar '43) Which do you prefer, the 
present government,* a non-Labor government, or an all-party 
government? (apop) 





Present 






No 




government 






answer. 




All-party Labor 


Non- 


Minority 


no 




government government 


Labor 


groups 


opinion 


Mar '43 . . 


■ 51% 35% 


7% 


— 


7% 


Oct '42. . 


47 42 


5 


1% 


5 



* The Mar '43 question was worded "the present Labor government." 

4. (Australia Dec '42) Do you favor or oppose the states giving 
substantial extra powers to the Commonwealth during postwar 
reconstruction? (apop) 

Favor 64% 

Against 13 

Undecided 10 

No answer 13 

6. (Australia Nov '43) For five years after the war the Com- 
monwealth wants from the states power to make laws on both 
employment and unemployment. Do you favor or oppose the 
Commonwealth having both those powers? (apop) 



Men . . . 
Women. 



Favor 


Oppose 


No 


extra powers 


them 


opinion 


BY SEX 






62% 


27% 


11% 


45 


25 


30 



6. (Australia Dec '43 and Apr '44) Which of these statements 

is nearest to the form of government you would like us 

(Australia) to have? (apop) 

Na- 
tional 

total Men Men Women 
Dec '43 Dec '43 Apr '44 Dec '43 

The present federal system, with 
the Commonwealth having 
no more power than before 
the war 19% 

The present federal system, but 
with certain powers trans- 
ferred from the states to the 
Commonwealth 15 

The Commonwealth the only 
government with all powers, 
some of which would be dele- 
gated to provincial or state 
councils 51 

No opinion 15 



17% 21% 20% 



16 



61 
6 



17 



56 
6 



14 



41 
25 



7. (Australia Sept '44) What do you consider the main reason 
the Commonwealth is asking for the powers? (apop) 



BY THE VOTE ON 

Those who voted against 

Socialize industry 30% 

Industrial conscription . 20 

Avoid depressions 9 

Ensure full employment . 6 

Abolish states 10 

Control monopolies .... 8 

Help returned soldiers . . 4 

No idea (chiefly women) 13 



THE REFERENDUM 

Those who voted for 

Avoid depressions 37% 

Ensure full employment. 28 

Abolish states 10 

Control monopolies .... 10 

Help returned soldiers . . 10 

Socialize industry 5 



8. (Australia Nov '44) The next question is to see if people 
favor the Commonwealth having some of the powers of the 
referendum. For instance, would you agree to the Common- 



[30] 



wealth having power over employment and unemployment? 
(apop) 



Yes 41% 



No 47% 



Don't know 12% 



9. (Australia May-June '46) During the next few years, would 
you like the policy of the federal government to swing to the 
right or to the left — that is, be more conservative or more 
socialistic? (apop) 

Favor Favor Favor No 

left '"',?'-'' middle opinion 

National total 27% 28%, 30% 15%, 

BY POLITICS 

Labor 43% 14% 28% 15%, 

Liberal-Country ... 12 49 29 10 



AUSTRIA 



Politics and Government 

1. (Germany Apr 26 '46) The German public was asked 
whether they agreed or disagreed with the following state- 
ment: Austria is an independent agricultural unit and should 
therefore be an independent country, (omgus) 

No 
Yes No opinion 

American zone and Berlin. . . 69% 21% 10% 
Berlin only 78 19 3 



AUTHORS 



1. (us July 12 '37 and June 12 '46) Do you have a favorite 
author? Those who said they had a favorite author were asked: 
Who is it? (aipo) 

July 12 ■}? June 12 '46 

Don't have a favorite author. . 69% 69% 

Zane Gray 4 1 

Kathleen Norris 2 1 

Charles Dickens 1 — 

Shakespeare 1 2 

Harold Bell Wright 1 — 

Sinclair Lewis 1 1 

L. Douglas 1 1 

Longfellow 1 1 

Gene Stratton Porter 1 — 

Mark Twain 1 — 

Somerset Maugham — 1 

James Whitcomb Riley — 1 

Pearl Buck — 1 

A. J. Cronin — 1 

Others, miscellaneous 17 20 

2. (Great Britain July 12 '43) Is any writer, dead or alive, in- 
fluencing your views today? (bipo) 

J. B. Priestley 2% 

The Bible 2 

Marx and Lenin . . 2 

Shaw 1 

Wells 1 

Swaffer 1 

Miscellaneous authors, dead 4 



i 



Miscellaneous journalists 3% 

Miscellaneous authors, living not specifically 

listed 2 

Living statesmen \ 

Miscellaneous living religious writers 1 

Do not read any books; read newspapers only 5 

"I think for myself" 2 

Dickens, Joad, Vernon, Bartlett, Burns, Sir 
Philip Gibbs (less than 1% each, not in- 
cluded above) 3 

None, or no name given 70 



AUTOMOBILE DRIVERS 



1. (US Jan 25 '37) Do you favor jail sentence for drunken 
drivers? (aipo) 

Yes 



No 12% = 100% 



No opinion 5% 



2. (US May 3 '37) Connecticut just passed a law requiring the 
suspension of license and jail sentence for drunken drivers. 
Would you favor such a law in this state? (aipo) 

Yes 90% No 10% = 100% No opinion 4% 

3. (US May 17 '37) Should every automobile driver be required 
to take a physical examination each year? (aipo) 

Yes 64% No 29% No opinion 7% 

4. (Great Britain Oct '38) Do you consider that motorists 
charged with driving offences are treated severely enough by 
the courts? (bipo) 

Too severe 16% About right 46% Not enough 38% 

5. (US June 16 '39 and Mar 27 '46) Would you rather ride in 
a car driven by a man or a woman? (aipo) 

Kather Kather 

drive drive No 

with a with a differ- Quali- No 

man woman ence Jied answer 

June '39 60% 8% 32% — — 

Mar '46 56 10 17 1%, 16% 

JUNE '39 RESULTS BY SEX 

Men 72% 4% 24% - - 

Women 48 12 40 — — 

6. (Canada Dec 19 '45) In general, do you think women make 
better drivers than men, as good, or worse drivers? (cipo) 



4 



Better 

drivers 



As 
good 



Men 4% 

Women 14 



BY SEX 

^- 35% 



49 



Worse 



54% 
28 



No 
opinion 



1% 
9 



7. (Sweden Mar '46) Which of the following do you think 
behave best in traffic — bus drivers, taxi drivers, truck drivers, 
pedestrians, horse drivers, private-car drivers, or cyclists? (sgi) 



[31] 



Nat. Motor- Motor- Pecles- 

total ists Cyclists cyclists trians 

Bus drivers 30% 37% 30% 36% 23% 

Taxi drivers 26 38 24 34 22 

Truck drivers 6 12 5 13 4 

Pedestrians 5 3 3 3 5 

Horse drivers 4 2 4 3 3 

Private-car drivers .3 5 2 — 4 

Cyclists 1 — 2 — 2 

No great difference 23 17 25 18 25 

Don't know 11 1 11 4 18 

109%* 115%* 106%* 111%* 106%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 



Expect Best 

to buy appearance 



AUTOMOBILES 



1. (us July '35) When do you expect to replace your present 
car? When you replace your present car, do you plan to buy 
new or secondhand? Both questions were asked of a national 
cross-section of car owners, (for) 

Expect to replace car Plan to buy 

This year 6.5% New 53.8% 

Next year 10.4 Secondhand 10.0 

Don't know 83.1 Don't know 36.2 



2. (US July 


'35; Oct 


'35; Jan 


'36; Api 


r '36; Apr '37; Apr '38) 


When you replace yo 


ur present car, what mak 


e of car 


do you 


plan to buy? 


(for) 














July 


Oct 


Jan 


Apr 


Apr 


Apr 




■35 


'35 


'i6 


'36 


'37 


•38 


Ford 


34.5% 


31.4% 


29.2% 


30.2% 


22.3% 


23.9% 


Chevrolet . . . 


25.1 


24.0 


24.7 


24.8 


28.4 


256 


Plymouth . . 


12.6 


11.7 


12.8 


14.0 


12.0 


11.8 


Buick 


5.0 


6.5 


7.0 


5.8 


8.3 


9.5 


Dodge 


5.5 


5.8 


6.3 


6.3 


7.3 


6.0 


Pontiac 


4.0 


4.1 


4.5 


3.2 


4.9 


4.8 


Oldsmobile . 


2.4 


3.9 


3.8 


4.1 


4.5 


4.6 


Studebaker . 


2.4 


2.2 


1.6 


1.6 


1.9 


2.3 


Chrysler. . . . 


2.1 


2.1 


2.0 


2.3 


2.3 


1.9 


Packard .... 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2.4 


2.7 


All others. . 


6.4 


8.3 


8.1 


7.7 


5.7 


6.9 



100.0% 100.0% 100.0%, 100.0% 100.0%, 100.0% 
Undecided.. 48.6% 39.4% 32.2%, 34.2%, 25.1%, — 

In July '35 car owners were also asked: What make do you 
own? And: Of the cars priced under $1,000, which do you think 
has the best general appearance? 48.6% of the sample did not 
know what make they will buy next, and 26.5% had no opinion 
about which had the best appearance. Analysis of the results 
of these two questions in comparison with the July '35 results 
on the preceding question follows: 



Ford 

Chevrolet. . 
Plymouth. . 

Buick 

Dodge 

Pontiac. . . . 
Studebaker. 



ill owners 


Expect 


Best 


now own 


to buy 


appearance 


11.9% 


34.5% 


21.4% 


21.9 


25.1 


18.7 


6.6 


12.6 


16.4 


6.6 


5.0 


* 


5.3 


55 


9.0 


3.9 


4.0 


12.8 


3.6 


2.4 


3.0 



*% 



All owners 
now own 

Chrysler 2.9%, 

Oldsmobile 1.8 

Other 19.5 

* Negligible. 

BY INTENTIONS OF OWNERS OF THE THREE LEADING MAKES 



2.1% 

2.4 

6.4 



13.0 
5.7 



Chevrolet owners. 

Ford owners 

Plymouth owners. 



Will buy 
same 
make 

44.2% 

47.6 

49.2 



Will buy 
other 
make 
10.2% 
13.0 
13.3 



Don't 

know 

45.6% 

39.4 

37.5 



3. (US July '35) Do you regard an automobile as a luxury or a 
necessity? (for) 



Men. . . 
Women. 



Luxury Necessity Both 

17.2% 75.5% 7.3% 
15.6 80.6 3.8 



4. (US July '35) Suppose a car with the following specifica- 
tions were for sale — full size, carrying four passengers, no ac- 
cessories or fittings except those required for safety, top speed 
of fifty miles per hour, thirty miles to a gallon of gasoline, 
priced at $300 — would you buy such a car instead of any car 
you could now get? (for) 

Yes 49.8% No 40.7%o Don't know 9.5%o 

5. (US Jan '37) Would you like to own a trailer and spend a 
part of the year traveling in it? (for) 

Yes 49.3%, No 46.3% Don't know 4.4% 

How much do you think a good trailer, with comfortable 
accommodations and facilities, should cost (not including the 
car)? Asked of 49.3% of the sample who said they would like 
to own a trailer. 

$200 and under 8.0% 

$200 to $400 21.9 

$400 to $600 26.8 

$600 to $800 11.8 

Over $800 12.3 

Don't know 19. 2 



100.0% of those who 
would like to 
own a trailer. 

6. (US Feb 26 '38) About how many miles did you go in your 
car last year? Asked of a national cross-section of car owners. 
(aipo) 

Below 1,000 miles 1% 

1,000 miles to 5,000 miles 31 

5,000 miles to 10,000 miles 26 

10,000 miles to 15,000 miles .... 15 

15,000 miles to 20,000 miles .... 9 

20,000 miles to 30,000 miles .... 6 

30,000 miles and over 2 

No answer 10 

Median 9,000 miles 

7. (US Feb 26 '38) What was the longest auto trip you made 
last year? Asked of a national cross-section of car owners, (aipo) 

Under 250 miles 20% 

250 to 1,000 miles 45 

Over 1,000 miles 22 

No answer 13 

Median 500 miles 



[32] 



8. (US Jan 6 '42) Do you own a car (or truck)? (aipo) 

Yes, car or truck 58% No 42% 

9. (US Jan 6 '42) It the government passes regulations which 
make it impossible for you to use your car, would this make 
any great difference to you? Asked of a national cross-section 
of car owners, (aipo) 

Yes 46% No 54% 

10. (US Jan 6 '42) How [would the government regulation 
making it impossible to use your car make a difference to you]? 
Asked of 46% of a sample of car owners who thought the gov- 
ernment regulation would make a difference, (aipo) 

No answer 1% 

Yes, needed for transportation 11 

Yes, needed for business 28 

No other means of transportation ... 6 

46% 

11. (US Jan 6 '42) About how many miles does your car go a 
month? Asked of a national cross-section of car owners, (aipo) 

Median 750 miles 

12. (US Jan 6 '42) Have you made plans to cut down on the 
number of miles you drive your car? Asked of a national cross- 
section of car owners, (aipo) 

Yes 53%, No 46%, Not using car 1% 

13. (US Jan 16 '42) How much do you plan to cut down on 
your car mileage? Asked of 53%, of a sample of car owners who 
plan to cut down on the number of miles they drive their cars. 
(aipo) 

Median 45% reduction 

14. (US Feb 10 '42 and Canada Mar 18 '42) Have you cut 
down on your car mileage from what you would normally 
drive at this time of the year? Asked of a national cross-section 
of car owners, (aipo and cipo) 

Yes No 

United States 73% 27% 

Canada 68 32 

15. (US Feb 10 '42) About how much [have you cut down on 
your car mileage]? Asked of a national cross-section of car 
owners who have cut down — 73% of the sample is represented. 
(aipo) 



Median. 



Approximately 25% to 30% 



16. (US Feb 10 '42) Have you cut down on the speed of your 
driving? Asked of a national cross-section of car owners, (aipo) 



Yes 63'5 



No 37% 



17. (US Sept 16 '42) Do you have an automobile in your family 
which is still being used? (norc) 

Yes 70% No 30% 

18. (US Sept 16 '42) Do you or your family use it [your car] 
to get to work or in your business? Asked of a national cross- 
section of car owners whose cars were still in use. (norc) 



Yes 77' 



70 



No 23% 



19. (US Sept 16 '42) Are you a member of a car pool — that is, 
do you take turns driving your friends or neighbors to work, 
or shopping, or any other places? Asked of a national cross- 
section of car owners whose cars were still in use. (norc) 
Yes 26%o No 74% 



20. (US Sept 16 '42) If the government said you would have 
to stop driving your car while the war lasts, would it be a 
real hardship on you or your family? Asked of a national cross- 
section of car owners whose cars are still in use. (norc) 

Yes 38%o No 62% Don't know* 

* Less thjn 0.5%. 

21. (US Sept 29 '42) Would you be willing to take the bumpers 
off your car and give them to the scrap metal drive? Asked of 
a national cross-section of car owners. 55% of the sample is 
represented, (aipo) 

Yes 56%, No 38%, No opinion 6%, 

22. (US Dec 11 '42) Do you have an automobile in your im- 
mediate family? Those who had cars were asked: Is it still 
being used? (norc) 

Don' t own 
Yes No a car 

Old-rationed areas 52% 8% 40% 

New-rationed areas 74 3 23 

23. (US Dec 11 '42) Why aren't you using your car now? Asked 
of those who were no longer using their cars — 8% of the sam- 
ple in the old-rationed areas and 3% of the sample in the new- 
rationed areas are represented, (norc) 

Old-rationed Ntw-rationed 

areas anas 

Gasoline shortage 3% *% 

Rubber shortage 2 1 

No necessity 2 * 

Expense 1 * 

Miscellaneous 1 1 

Not ascertainable * — 

9%** 3% 

* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 8 as some respondents gave more 
than one answer. 

24. (US Dec 11 '42) Does the rationing of gasoline mean a real 
inconvenience to you? Asked of those who were still using their 
cars — 52% of the sample in the old-rationed areas and 74%. of 
the sample in the new-rationed areas are represented, (norc) 

Yts No Don' t know 

Old-rationed areas 22%o 29% 1%, = 52% 

New-rationed areas 22 51 1 = 74 

25. (US Dec 11 '42) Do you, or does anyone in your family, 
have to use your car for necessary driving? Asked of those who 
were still using their cars — 52% of the sample in the old- 
rationed areas and 74% of the sample in the new-rationed areas 
are represented, (norc) 

Yes No 

Old-rationed areas 44% 8%o = 52% 

New-rationed areas 59 15 =74 

26. (US Dec 11 '42) What sort of necessary driving? Asked of 
those who had to use their cars for necessary driving — 44% of 
the sample in the old-rationed areas and 59% of the sample in 
the new-rationed areas are represented, (norc) 

Old- New- 
rationed rationed 
areas areas 

Transportation to and from work 15% 21% 

Transportation during business hours. . . 22 29 

Shopping 6 10 

Health; invalids 2 3 



[33] 



Old- New- 

rationed rationed 
areas areas 

Taking children to school 1% 3% 

Visiting 2 1 

Miscellaneous 2 3 

Not ascertainable — * 

50%** 70%** 

* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 44 and 59 respectively because some 
respondents gave more than one answer. 

27. (US Dec 11 '42) Would there be any other way (he, she, 
they) could get around, or do you have to use your car? Asked 
of the 44% in the old-rationed areas and the 59% in the new- 
rationed areas who had to use their cars for necessary driving. 
(norc) 

Other No other No 

way way answer 

Old-rationed areas 9% 34% 1% = 44% 

New-rationed areas 9 49 1 = 59 

28. (US Dec 11 '42) Does your ration card allow you to get 
all the gasoline you need for necessary driving? Asked of 52% 
of the sample in the old-rationed areas and 74% of the sample 
in the new-rationed areas who were still using their cars, (norc) 

Yes No Don t know 

Old-rationed areas 33% 18% 1% = 52% 

New-rationed areas 48 22 4 = 74 

29. (US Dec 11 '42) About how much longer do you think 
your tires will last? Asked of 52% of the sample in the old- 
rationed areas and 74% of the sample in the new-rationed areas 
who were still using their cars, (norc) 

Old-rationed New-rationed 

areas areas 

7 mos. or less 33% 20% 

8 mos.-l year 25 34 

13 mos. -2 years 27 31 

Over 2 years 4 11 

Not ascettainable 11 4 



100%* 100%* 

* 100% of those who had an automobile in their family that was 
still being used. 

30. (US July 23 '43) Do you think the ban on pleasure driving 
is necessary, or should it be lifted? Asked only in areas where 
pleasure driving was banned — 28% of a national sample is 
represented, (norc) 

Necessary 11% Should be lifted 15% Don't know 2% = 28% 

31. (US July 23 '43) Why [do you think the ban is necessary]? 
Asked of 11% of the sample who thought the ban on pleasure 
driving in their area is necessary, (norc) 

To conserve gasoline for the war, for armed 

forces, for war work 5% 

KjL. To save rubber tires 1 

^p People should not go pleasure driving 1 

There is a shortage of gasoline 1 

People would take advantage of the situation 

if there were no ban 1 

Specific statement that ban should be enforced * 

Miscellaneous 1 

Not ascertainable 1 



* Less than 0.5%. 



11% 



32. (US July 23 '43) Why [do you think the ban should be 
lifted]? Asked of 15% of the sample who thought the ban on 
pleasure driving in their area should be lifted, (norc) 

Should be allowed to use allotment as he 
sees fit 7% 

Need recreation because of hard work — helps 
morale 4 

Ban is not enforced anyway 

Ban is not necessary — no shortage exists 

Ban should be modified 

Should be equality of sacfifice 

Miscellaneous 

Not ascertainable * 

16%** 

* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 15 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

33. (US July 23 '43) Do you think there ought to be a ban on 
pleasure driving around here? Asked only in areas where there 
was no ban on pleasure driving — 72% of the sample is repre- 
sented, (norc) 

Yes 24% No 44% Don't know 4% = 72% 

34. (US July 23 '43) Do you have an automobile in your im- 
mediate family? Those who had cars were asked: Is it still 
being used? (norc) 

Yes 65% No 4% Don't own a car 31% 

35. (US July 23 '43) Why aren't you using your car now? 
Asked of 4% of the sample who had an automobile in their 
immediate family which was not being used, (norc) 

Because of gasoline shortage 1% 

Because of rubber shortage 1 

Because of no necessity 1 

Driver of car no longer here * 

Pleasure driving ban * 

Miscellaneous 1 

Not ascertainable 1 

5%** 

* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 4 as some respondents gave more 
than one answer. 

36. (US July 23 '43) Do you, or does anyone in your family, 
have to use your car for necessary driving? Asked of 65% of 
the sample who had an automobile in their immediate family 
which was still being used, (norc) 

Yes 57% No 8% = 65% 

37. (US July 23 '43) What sort of necessary driving [do you 
have to use your car for]? Asked of 57% of the sample who 
had to use their car for necessary driving, (norc) 

Transportation during business day. . 31% 

Transportation to and from work ... 20 

Shopping 14 

Health; invalids; etc 4 

Civilian defense work 1 

Visiting 1 

Taking children to school * 

Miscellaneous 3 

Not ascertainable * 

74%** 

* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to mote than 57 as some respondents gave more 
than one answer. 



[ -'i-l ] 



38. (US July 23 '43) Does your ration card allow you to get 
all the gasoline you need for necessary driving? Asked of 57% 
of the sample who had to use their car for necessary driving. 
(norc) 

Yes 41% No 15% Don't know 1% = 57% 

39. (US July 23 '43) How many gallons [of gasoline] a week 
would you need for necessary driving? Asked of 15%( of the 
sample whose ration cards did not allow them all the gasoline 
they needed for necessary driving, (norc) 

4 gallons 1% 

5 to 9 gallons 6 

10 to 14 gallons 2 

15 to 19 gallons 1 

20 to 24 gallons 1 

25 to 34 gallons 1 

35 and over 1 

Not ascertainable 2 

•iJ/o 

40. (US July 23 '43) Have you had any trouble getting parts 
for your car? Asked of 65% of the sample who had an auto- 
mobile in their immediate family which was still being used. 
(norc) 

Yes 9% No 53% Don't know 3% = 65%, 

41. (US July 23 '43) Did you finally get them [the parts for 
your car]? Asked of 9% of the sample who have had trouble 
getting parts for their car. (norc) 

Yes 4%, No 4% No answer 1% = 9% 

42. (US July 23 '43) Have you had any trouble with garage 
service in general? Asked of 65% of the sample who had an 
automobile in their immediate family which was still being 
used, (norc) 

Yes 12% No 50% Don't know 3% = 65% 

43. (US July 23 '43) What [garage service trouble have you 
had]? Asked of 12% of the sample who have had trouble with 
garage service, (norc) 

Slow service 6% 

Poor workmanship 3 

Inability to get work done. . 3 

12% 

44. (US July 23 '43) Do you think your car has been hurt any 
because it hasn't been driven so much? Asked of 65% of the 
sample who had an automobile in their immediate family 
which was still being used, (norc) 

Yes 8% No 55% Don't know 2% = 65% 

45. (US July 23 '43) How [has your car been hurt]? Asked of 
8% of the sample who thought their car had been hurt because 
it hadn't been driven much, (norc) 

Battery trouble 5% 

Cars deteriorate faster when not in use. ... 1 

Tires deteriorate 1 

Carbon collects in engine 1 

8% 

46. (US Dec 18 '43) Do you have an automobile in your im- 
mediate family? Those who had cars were asked: Is it still 
being used? (norc) 

Don't own 
Yes No a car 

Old-rationed areas 60% 6% 34% 

New-rationed areas 65 3 32 



47. (US Dec 18 '43) Why aren't you using your car now? 
Asked of those who were no longer using their cars — 3% of 
the sample in the newly rationed areas and 6% of the old- 
rationed areas arc represented, (nouc) 

Old-rationsd New-rationed 

areas areas 

Because of rubber shortage 1% 1% ^- 

Because of expense * 1 ^H 

Because of gasoline shortage 2 * ^H 

Because of no necessity 1 * ^H 

Driver of car no longer here 1 * 

Miscellaneous 1 1 

Don't know 1 * 

7%** 3% 

* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 6 beciuse some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

48. (US Dec 18 '43) Do you, or does anyone in your family, 
use your car for necessary driving? Asked of those who were 
still using their cars — 65% of the sample in the newly rationed 
areas and 60% in the old-rationed areas are represented, (norc) 

Yes No 

Old-rationed areas 56% 4% = 60% 

New-rationed areas 59 6 =65 

49. (US Dec 18 '43) Do your ration coupons allow you to get 
all the gasoline you need for necessary driving? Asked of 59% 
of the sample in the new-rationed areas and 56%. in the old- 
rationed areas who used their cars for necessary driving, (norc) 

Yes No Don't know 

Old-rationed areas 33% 22% 1% =56% 

New-rationed areas 41 18 * = 59 

♦Less than 0.5%. 

50. (US Dec 18 '43) Is your car being used regularly in a car- 
pool arrangement? Asked of 59% of the sample in the newly 
rationed areas and 56%, in the old-rationed areas who used 
their cars for necessary driving, (norc) 

Yes No 

Old-rationed areas 9% 47% = 56% 

New-rationed areas 8 51 =59 

51. (US Dec 18 '43) How many people are there in the car-pool? 
Asked of the car-pool members — 8% of the sample in the new- 
rationed areas and 9% in the old-rationed areas are represented. 
(norc) 

Old-rationed New-rationed 
areas areas 

2 people 2%o 1% 

3 people 2 2 

4 people 2 2 

5 or more 2 2 

Don't know 1 1 



9% 



8% 



52. (US Dec 18 '43) Do all these people ride in the car pretty 
regularly when it's used in the pool? Asked of the car-pool 
members — 8% of the sample in the new-rationed areas and 9% 
in the old-rationed areas are represented, (norc) 

Yes No No answer 

Old-rationed areas 7% * 2% =9% 

• New-rationed areas 8 * * =8 

* Less than 0.5%. 



[35] 



63. (US Apr 28 '44) Do you have an automobile in your im- 
mediate family? Those who had cars were asked: Is it still 
being used? (norc) 

Yes 61% No 3% Don't own a car 36% 

54. (US Apr 28 '44) Is your car being used regularly in a car- 
pool arrangement? Asked of a national cross-section of car 
owners whose cars were still in use. (norc) 
Yes 16% No 84% 

66. (US Apr 28 '44) Why [is your car] not [being used in a 
car-pool]? Asked of 84% of a sample of car owners whose cars 
were still in use but not in a car- pool, (norc) 

Nature of work won't permit; hours; type of 

work; etc .' 28% 

No one near who goes to the same place at the 

same time 19 

Car is not used for essential driving 17 

Car-pool is not necessary 5 

Car-pool won't work; is not practical 3 

Car used irregularly for work 2 

Rides with someone else 2 

Objection to car-pooling; inconvenient 2 

Not in war work or essential work 1 

Miscellaneous 2 

Don't know 6 

87%'' 
* Percentages add to more than 84 because some of the respondents 
gave more than one answer. 

66. (US Mar 22 '45) Do you expect the automobiles that are 
put out about a year after the war is over will be quite different 
fi:om the 1942 models or about the same? (nyht) (Canada 
Aug 3 '45) Do you think the cars manufactured in the next 
few years will be very different from what they were before 
the war, or do you think they will be about the same? (cipo) 

Different 

United States 41.3% 

Canada 42.0 

Accidents 

1. (US Dec 28 '35) As a means of reducing the number and 
severity of automobile accidents, would you favor any of these 
measures: strict driver's tests, including regular physical and 
mental examination; installation of "governors" in cars pre- 
venting speeds greater than fifty miles per hour; more severe 
penalties for violations of traffic laws; special marking of cars 
whose drivers have been at fault in accidents; compulsory auto- 
mobile liability insurance in every state; uniform traffic laws 
and regulations for all states? (Mar 2 '39) To reduce automo- 
bile accidents, would you favor any of the following measures: 
installing "speed governors" on motors so that cars could not 
go faster than fifty miles an hour; jail sentences for drunken 
drivers; strict laws against pedestrians crossing streets in the 
middle of the block or against traffic lights; uniform traffic 
laws for all states? A separate cross-section was asked about: 
compulsory automobile liability insurance in every state; take 
driver's licenses away from drunken drivers; more severe pun- 
ishment for violation of traffic laws; strict drivers' tests includ- 
ing regular physical and mental examination; special marking 
for cars whose drivers have been at fault in accidents, (aipo) 



ibout the 


Undecided 


same 


or uncertain 


52.7% 


(>.Qf7o 


44.0 


14.0 



Yes 



No 



OPINIONS ON SPEED GOVERNORS 

National total 

Dec '35 68% 32% 

Mar '39 67 33 



Yts No 

Car owners 

Dec '35 70% 30% 

Mar '39 61 39 

OPINIONS ON SPEED GOVERNORS IN 
DEC '35 EY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 69% 31% 

Middle Atlantic 66 34 

East central 61 39 

West central 71 29 

South 72 28 

Mountain 66 34 

Pacific coast 58 42 

OPINIONS ON UNIFORM TRAFFIC LAWS 

National total 

Dec '35 95% 5% 

Mar '39 92 8 

Car owners 

Dec '35 95 5 

OPINIONS ON UNIFORM TRAFFIC LAWS IN 
DEC '35 BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 94% 6% 

Middle Atlantic 95 5 

East central 94 6 

West central 94 6 

South 95 5 

Mountain 98 2 

Pacific coast 93 7 

OPINIONS ON COMPULSORY AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE 

National total 

Dec '35 73% 27% 

Mar '39 76 24 

Car owners 

Dec '35 71 29 

Mar '39 72 28 

OPINIONS ON AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE IN 
DEC '35 BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 73% 27% 

Middle Atlantic 73 27 

East central 79 21 

West central 68 32 

South 73 27 

Mountain 61 39 

Pacific coast 76 24 

OPINIONS ON SEVERE PENALTIES 

National total 

Dec '35 82% 18% 

Mar '39 69 31 

Car owners 

Dec '35 86 14 

OPINIONS ON SEVERE PENALTIES IN 
DEC '35 BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 78% 22% 

Middle Atlantic 73 27 

East central 80 20 

West central 82 18 

South 89 11 

Mountain 86 14 

Pacific coast 83 17 

OPINIONS ON STRICT DRIVERS' TESTS 

National total 

Dec '35 86% 14% 

Mar '39 87 13 

Car owners 

Dec '35 84 16 

Mar '39 86 14 



[36] 



Yes 



No 



OPINIONS ON STRICT DRIVERS TESTS IN 
DEC '35 BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 87% 13% 

Middle Atlantic 86 14 

East central 85 15 

West central 84 16 

South 89 11 

Mountain 83 17 

Pacific coast 86 14 

OPINIONS ON SPECIAL MARKINGS 

National total 

Dec '35 70% 30% 

Mar '39 50 50 

Car owners 

Dec '35 77 23 

OPINIONS ON SPECIAL MARKINGS IN 
DEC '35 BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 61% 39% 

Middle Atlantic 61 39 

East central 65 35 

West central 72 28 

South 78 22 

Mountain 73 27 

Pacific coast 67 33 

OPINIONS ON JAIL SENTENCES IN MAR '39 

National total 90% 10% 

OPINIONS ON STRICT LAWS AGAINST 
PEDESTRIANS IN MAR '39 

National total 89% 11% 

Car owners 90 10 

OPINIONS ON LICENSES TAKEN AWAY 
FROM DRUNKEN DRIVERS IN MAR '39 

National total 95% 5% 

Car owners 95 5 

2. (US Jan 25 '37) What do you consider the biggest cause of 
automobile accidents? (aipo) 

Carelessness 29% 

Drunken diiving 24 

Speeding 19 

Reckless driving 9 

Inexperienced drivers 4 

Violations of traffic laws 

Old cars 

Young drivers 

Poor roads ' 

Lax driving laws 

All others 6 

No opinion 4 

3. (Great Britain May '39) What one thing do you think would 
help most to reduce road accidents? (bipo) 

Greater caution; common sense 28% 

Lower speed limit 8 

Wider roads; more by-passes 8 

Cyclists' tracks; rear lights; taxing 

cyclists 6 

Stricter driving tests 5 

Heavier penalties 5 

Reduce number of cars 5 

Taxing high-powered cars 4 

Separate roads for fast traffic 4 

Crossings 3 

More police 3 



Increase one-way traffic 2% 

Bridges; subways 2 

Better road lighting 1 

Better brakes 1 

No parking in busy streets 1 

Miscellaneous 4 

No opinion 10 

4. (US June 16 '39) Have you ever had an accident while you 
were driving? Asked of a national cross-section of car drivers. 
(aipo) 



National total. 



Yes No 

40% 60% 



Men 44% 56% 

Women 32 68 



Laws and Regulations 



No 


Don' t knou 


23.9% 

27.0 

193 


5.8% 
3.9 

8.7 



1. (US Apr '36) As a safety measure, would you be in favor of 
having the speed of automobiles mechanically limited to fifty 
miles an hour? (for) 

Yes 
National total. . . . 70.3% 

Car owners 69. 1 

Non-car owners . . . 72.0 

2. (US Feb 14 '38) Do you ever give rides to hitch-hikers? 
Asked of a national cross-section of car drivers, (aipo) 

Yes 43% No 57% 

3. (US Feb 14 '38) Do you think strict laws should be enforced 
against hitch-hikers? Asked of a national cross-section of car 
drivers, (aipo) 

Yes 54% No 46% = 100% No opinion 12% 

4. (US Dec 16 '38) Should motorists be required to hav^ their 
headlights and brakes inspected every few months by a state 
inspection service? (aipo) 

Yes No 

National total 90% 10% 

By car owners 88 12 

5. (US June 16 '39) What is a safe speed for driving on a normal 
stretch of good str,aight road outside of town and without 
crossroads? (aipo) 

Median 
National total 50 miles per hour 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 50 miles per hour 

Middle Atlantic 50 miles per hour 

East central 50 miles per hour 

West central 45 miles per hour 

South 45 miles per hour 

West 50 miles per hour 

6. (US June 16 '39) What is the fastest speed that you have 
ever driven an automobile? Asked of a national cross-section of 
car drivers, (aipo) 

Median 
National total 70 miles per hour 

BY SEX 

Men 75 miles per hour 

Women 65 miles per hour 

7. (US Sept 16 '42) Do you think there should be a law pre- 
venting people from driving faster than thirty-five miles per 
hour as long as the war lasts? (norc) 

Yes 83% No 13% Don't know 4% 



[37] 



8. (US Nov 8 '42) Do you approve or disapprove of a thirty- 
five-mile speed limit on the highways now? (norc) 
Approve 93% Disapprove 6% Don't know 1% 

9. (US Nov 8 '42 and Dec 11 '42) As you know, there is sup- 
posed to be a thirty-five-mile speed limit all over the country. 
Do you think practically everyone will obey this, or do you 
think a lot of drivers will go faster? (norc) 

Yes, will No, will Don't 

obey go faster know 

National total Nov '42 47% 50% 3% 

Old-rationed areas Dec '42 38 58 4 

New-rationed areas Dec '42. ... 57 42 1 

10. (US Nov 19 '42) As you know, there is supposed to be a 
thirty-five-mile speed limit throughout the nation. Do you 
think this thirty-five-mile speed limit will do enough to save 
tires without rationing gasoline all over the country? (norc) 

Yes 43% No 44% Don't know 13% 

11. (Sweden Apr '44) Do you think it desirable to change from 
left-hand to right-hand traffic in Sweden? (sgi) 

Desirable Undesirable No opinion 
National total 25% 52% 23% 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Country 21% 55% 24% 

Towns 30 47 23 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

North Sweden 21% 48% 31% 

Dalecarlia 18 53 29 

Malar district 31 48 21 

Stockholm 33 47 20 

East Gotland 18 64 18 

Skane 22 56 22 

West Gotland 31 41 28 

12. (Sweden Apr '44) Why [do you think it desirable or unde- 
sirable to change to right-hand traffic in Sweden]? Asked of 
25% of the sample who thought it desirable and 52% of the 
sample who thought it undesirable, (sgi) 

OPINIONS OF THOSE WHO WANTED TO CHANGE 

For the sake of international unity; we should not differ 

from the rest of Europe 20% 

Other reasons 5 

25% 

OPINIONS OF THOSE WHO DIDn't WANT TO CHANGE 

National 

total Country Town 

Unnecessary; just extra trouble. .. 24% 27% 20% 

Risk of accidents 18 20 16 

Too expensive 5 5 5 

Other reasons 5 3 6 

52% 55% 47% 

13. (US Sept 19 '45) What do you think should be the auto- 
mobile speed limit, if any, in this state now? (aipo) 

15 miles and under 1% 

20 miles per hour 1 

25 miles per hour 2 

30 miles per hour 3 

35 miles per hour 19 

40 miles per hour 18 

45 miles per hour 14 

50 miles per hour 25 



55 miles per hour 2% 

60 miles per hour 7 

65 miles per hour 1 

70 miles per hour 1 

Don't know 6 

Median 45 miles per hour 

14. (US Sept 19 '45) During the war the automobile speed 
limit was reduced to thirty-five miles an hour. Do you think 
this limit should be kept, or should it be returned to what it 
was before the war? (aipo) 
Kept 49% Returned 43% No opinion 8% 

16. (Canada Dec 19 '45) What do you think should be the 
speed limit, if any, on open highways? (cipo) 

Under 35 miles per hour. . . . 13% 

40 miles per hour 29 

45 miles per hour 8 

50 miles per hour 25 

Over 50 miles per hour 9 

No limit 8 

No opinion 8 

16. (Great Britain Feb 16 '46) Would you approve or disap- 
prove of a speed limit on open roads? (bipo) 

Approve Disapprove Don t know 
National total 59% 



Men . . . 
Women . 



BY SEX 

56% 
62 



21-29 years 

30-49 years 57 

50 years and over. . . 65 



BY AGE 

48% 



33% 



40% 
26 



44% 

36 

25 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher 56% 43% 

Middle 54 43 

Lower 61 28 

BY CAR DRIVERS AND NON-DRIVERS 

Drivers 47% 52% 

Non-drivers 65 23 



8% 



4% 
12 



8% 
7 
10 

1% 

3 

11 

1% 
12 



17. (Great Britain Feb 16 '46) What [speed limit would you 
approve of]? Asked of 59% of the total sample who approved 
of a speed limit, (bipo) 

Under 30 miles per hour. . . . 3% 

30 miles per hour 11 

35 miles per hour 5 

40 miles per hour 14 

45 miles per hour 5 

50 miles per hour 8 

55 miles per hour 1 

60 miles per hour 4 

Over 60 miles per hour 1 

No answer 7 

59% 

18. (Sweden Mar '46) In peacetime, buses and trucks are not 
allowed to exceed a speed of fifty kilometers per hour, while 
there is no such limit for private cars. Do you think this has 
made the road less safe and that there should be a speed limit 
for private cars also, or do you consider the present rules satis- 
factory? (sGi) 



[38] 



Speed limit 
for private 

cars Not Not 

desirable necessary desirable 

National total 62% 23% 8% 

BY METHOD OF TRANSPORTATION 

Motorists 45% 36% 18% 

Cyclists 67 21 5 

Motorcyclists 39 44 16 

Pedestrians 70 12 5 



Don't 

know 

1% 

1% 
7 
1 
13 



BASEBALL 



1. (US Oct 4 '37) Do you follow big-league baseball? The 41% 
who said they were fans were asked: In your opinion, who 
was the most valuable player in the big leagues this year? (aipo) 

Don't follow the game 59% 

Joe DiMaggio 9 

Lou Gehrig 6 

CarlHubbell 5 

Joe Med wick 3 

Vernon Gomez 2 

Charles Gehringer 2 

Charles Hartnett 1 

All others 4 

Didn't name anyone 9 

2. (US Apr 13 '38) Do you follow big-league baseball? The 
45% who said they were fans were asked: Which team do you 
think will win in the American League? Which team do you 
think will win in the National League? (aipo) 



American League 

Don't follow the game. . 55^ 

New York Yankees .... 28 

Detroit Tigers 1 

Cleveland Indians * 

Chicago White Sox 1 

Boston Red Sox * 

St. Louis Browns * 

Philadelphia Athletics. . 1 

No opinion 14 

*Less than 0.5%. 



National League 

Don't follow the game. . 55% 

St. Louis Cardinals 13 

Pittsburgh Pirates 13 

Chicago Cubs 5 

Brooklyn Dodgers 1 

Philadelphia Phillies... 1 

New York Giants * 

Boston Bees * 

No opinion 12 



3. (US Oct 17 '38) Do you happen to follow big-league base- 
ball? The 41% of the sample who said they were fans were 
asked: Has the fact that the Yankees have won the world 
series three years straight lessened your interest in big-league 
baseball? (aipo) 

Yes 9% No 32% Don't follow the game 59% 

4. (US May 6 '41) Do you think big-league baseball players 
should be exempted from the draft until the present season is 
over? (aipo) 

Yes 16% No 84% = 100% No opinion 7% 

5. (Canada July 25 '42) In the United States, professional base- 
ball games are played on Sunday. Would you approve or dis- 
approve if professional baseball were allowed in Canada on 
Sunday? (cipo) 



Approve Disapprove Undecided 
National total 49% 42% 9% 

BY AGE 

21-29 years 66% 25% 9% 

30-39 years 59 33 8 

40-49 years 50 40 10 

50-59 years 41 49 10 

60 years and over .33 61 6 

BY RELIGION 

Disapprove and Undecided 
Roman Catholics. . . 52% 48% 

Anglicans 52 48 

United Church 34 66 

6. (US Mar 24 '43 and Jan 17 "45) Do you think that profes- 
sional baseball should be continued during the war, or should 
it be stopped until after the war? In 1945 two comparable cross- 
sections were used. The other was asked: Do you think that 
professional baseball should be continued or discontinued dur- 
ing the war? 1945 results were combined, (aipo) 

Continued Stopped Undecided 

Mar '43 59% 28% 13% 

Jan '45 46 41 13 

OPINIONS OF BASEBALL FANS 

**Mar '43 85% 13% 2% 

*Jan '45 69 29 2 

1945 RESULTS BY AGE 

21-29 years 57% 30% 13% 

30-49 years 49 38 13 

50 years and over, .37 49 14 

1945 RESULTS BY SEX 

Men 51% 38% 11% 

Women 42 42 16 

* 33% of the sample. 
** 34% of the sample. 

7. (US June 26 '46) Would you like to see baseball players join 
labor unions? (aipo) 

Would like Would not like 
to see players to see players 
join unions join unions 

National total 21% 79% 

Union members 34 66 

8. (US Sept 11 '46) Do you follow major-league baseball regu- 
larly? (aipo) 

Yes 30% No 70% 

9. (US Sept 11 '46) If the St. Louis Cardinals play the Boston 
Red Sox in the world series, which would you like to see win? 
Asked of 30% of the sample who said they followed the game. 
(aipo) 

Cardinals 38% Red Sox 55% Don't care 7% = 100% of 

the baseball fans 

10. (US Sept 11 '46) If the Brooklyn Dodgers play the Boston 
Red Sox in the world series, which would you like to see win? 
Asked of 30% of the sample who said they followed the game. 
(aipo) 



Dodgers 43% Red Sox 47% 



Don't care 10% = 100% of 
the baseball fans 



[39] 



BATHS 



1. (Denmark July 2 '44) Have you done any sea-bathing this 
summer? (dgi) 

Yes 46.7% No 53.3% 

2. (Hungary May '46) Do you visit open-air swimming pools 
regularly or only sometimes? Asked of a cross-section of Buda- 
pest residents, (hipor) 

BY TYPE of income AND SEX 

Regularly Sometimes 

Fixed income 

Men 60.8% 39.2% 

Women 49.8 50.2 

Variable income 

Men 55.5% 44.5 

Women 56.0 44.0 

3. (Hungary May '46) Does open-air bathing promote people's 
working ability? Asked of a cross-section of Budapest residents. 
(hipor) 

by type of income and sex 

Yes No Partly 
Fixed income 

Men 77.0% 11.9% 11.1% 

Women 87.7 7.3 5.0 

Variable income 

Men 83.7 10.0 6.3 

Women 80.1 16.3 3.6 

4. (Hungary May '46) Does open-air bathing replace the sum- 
mer holiday? Asked of a cross-section of Budapest residents. 
(hipor) 

by type of income and sex 

/ 

Yes No Partly 

Fixed income 

Men 36.3% 41.2% 22.5% 

Women 33.6 40.1 26.3 

Variable income 

Men 36.5 43.0 20.5 

Women 34.0 44.7 21.3 



Feb 


'39 


Nov 


'42 


Nov 


'43 



BIBLE 



1. (us Feb 23 '39) Have you, yourself, read the Bible or any 
part of it within the last month? (aipo) 

Yes 35% No 60% Read it every day 5% 

2. (US Feb 23 '39) Have you read the Bible all the way 
through? (aipo) 

Yes 26% No 74% 

3. (US Feb 23 '39) Which do you like better— the Old Testa- 
ment or the New Testament? A comparable cross-section was 
asked: Do you like the Old Testament or the New Testament 
better? Results were combined, (aipo) 

Old Testament 20% 

New Testament 44 

Same 15 

No opinion 21 

4. (US Feb 23 '39; Nov 17 '42; Nov 23 '43) What book or part 
of the Bible do you think is the most interesting? (aipo) 



New Testament Old Testament Unwilling to 

or fart of it or part of it make a choice 

27% 16% 57%* 

30 23 47 

29 26 45 

* Includes 7% comprising too few mentions of parts of the Bible to 
add to 0.5%. 

5. (US Nov 17 '42 and Nov 23 '43) Have you, yourself, read 
the Bible at home within the last year? (Nov 15 '44) Have you, 
yourself, read any part of the Bible at home within the last 
year? (aipo) 

Yes No 

Nov '42 59% 41% 

Nov '43 64 36 

Nov '44 62 38 

OPINIONS BY AGE 

Nov '42 

21-29 years 48% 52% 

30-49 years 58 42 

50 years and over 71 29 

Nov '43 

21-29 years 57 43 

30-49 years 60 40 

50 years and over 71 29 

6. (US Nov 17 '42; Nov 23 '43; Nov 15 '44) How often [have 
you read the Bible within the last year]? (aipo) 

Nov '41 Nov '43 Nov '44 

Haven't read it in the last year. . 41% 36% 38% 

Every day 11 13 10 

More than 55 times a year 4 7 6 

50-55 times a year 11 14 12 

13-50 times a year 3 2 2 

12 times a year 5 4 3 

2-11 times a year 8 5 6 

Once a year 1 1 3 

Frequently 3 4 3 

Seldom 9 11 12 

Didn't say 4 3 5 

7. (US Nov 17 '42 and Nov 23 '43) Have you changed your 
Bible-reading habits since we got into the war? Those who said 
they had changed their Bible-reading habits were asked: How? 
(aipo) 

Nov '42 Nov '43 

Read it more often 5% 7% 

Read it more seriously; depend on religion 

more 1 2 

Read it less often, too busy with other 

things 1 2 

Read it for its predictions (Revelation); read 

it for a better understanding of the war; 

Old Testament history, etc 1 1 

Haven't changed reading habit 91 88 

Don't know 1 — 

8. (Sweden Aug '43) Do you think that what happened during 
the war was prophesied in the Bible? (sgi) 

Don't know 
Don't that part of 
Yes No know the Bible 

National total 27% 32% 32% 9% 

BY SEX 

Men 19% 41% 30% 10% 

Women 34 23 34 9 



[40] 



Yis 



No 



Don't know 
Don't that part of 
know the Bible 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 14% 53% 26% 7% 

Middle class 29 32 31 8 

Workers 26 30 34 10 

9. (Denmark Mar '44) One of Moses' Ten Commandments is 
Thou shalt honor thy father and mother. Which Command- 
ment is it? (dgi) 

Fourth Commandment 38.4% 

Sixth Commandment 2.7 

Third Commandment 2.6 

Fifth Commandment 2.5 

Seventh Commandment 1.7 

First Commandment 0.9 

Tenth Commandment 0.7 

Second Commandment 0.6 

Eighth Commandment 0.3 

Ninth Commandment 0.2 

Eleventh Commandment 0.1 

Don't know 49.3 

10. (Canada Sept 15 '45) Here are a few questions about the 
Bible — just to see what the average Canadian knows about it. 
Can you tell me in your own words what three of the Ten 
Commandments are? What were the names of Adam's sons? 
(cipo) 

BY SEX 

The Ten Commandments Men Women 



Named three 62% 

Named only two 19 

Named only one 5 

Couldn't name any 14 

Adam' s sons 

Named Cain 66 

Named Abel 66 

Named Seth 5 

Named none 32 



72% 
18 

4 

6 

75 

74 
6 

24 



169%* 179%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because most respondents named 
more than one son. 

11. (Czechoslovakia July '46) Do you own a Bible? (czipo) 

Yes No 

Total questioned 35.4% 64.6% 

BY AGE 

18-29 years 30.0% 70.0% 

30-49 years 34.8 65-2 

50 years and over 39.6 60.4 

BY OCCLTPATION 

Laborers 28.0% 72.0% 

White-collar— higher grade 50.5 49.5 

White-collar— lower grade ... . 25.0 750 

Farmers 31.8 68.2 

Business and professional 46.2 53.8 

12. (Czechoslovakia July '46) Do you read the Bible? (czipo) 

Regularly Sometimes Never 
Total questioned 4.6% 28.0% 67.4% 

BY AGE 

18-29 years 3.3% 24.0% 72.7% 

30-49 years 3.2 27.2 69.6 

50 years and over 7.4 312 61.4 



Regularly Sometimes Never 
BY OCCUPATION 

Laborers 3.5% 23.1% 73.4% 

White-collar— higher grade ... 57 390 553 

White-collar— lower grade .. . 0.6 22.5 76.9 

Farmers 4.3 26.4 69.3 

Business and professional 7.7 32.6 59.7 



BICYCLES 



1. (Great Britain Oct '38) Are you in favor of special tracks 
for cyclists on main roads? (bipo) 

Yes 75% No 13% No opinion 12% 

2. (Great Britain Apr '39) Should cycles be required by law to 
have red rear lamps? (bipo) 

Yes 83% No 11% No opinion 6% 

3. (Great Britain Oct '40) Do you think there should be a tax 
on bicycles? (bipo) 

Yes 55% No 38% Don't know 7% 

4. (Great Britain Oct '40) How much should the yearly tax 
[on bicycles] be? Asked of 55% of the sample who thought 
there should be a tax on bicycles, (bipo) 

2/6 54% 

5/- 35 

10/- 7 

Other 4 



100% of those who thought there 
should be a tax on bicycles 

5. (US May 30 '42) Do you or does someone in your family 
own a bicycle? Those who said someone in their family owned 
a bicycle were asked: How many [bicycles]? (aipo) (Great 
Britain May '46) In your home, how many bicycles are there? 
(bipo) 

United States Great Britain 

One 18% 29% 

Two 4 20 

More than two 2 12 

None 76 39 

6. (US May 30 '42) Does any member of your family use it 
[bicycle] to get to work? Asked of 24% of the sample who 
owned bicycles, (aipo) 

Yes 5% No 19% = 24% 

7. (US May 30 '42) Could you use it [your bicycle] for that 
purpose? Asked of 19% of the sample who owned bicycles 
but did not use them to get to work, (aipo) 

Yes 10% No 8% No opinion 1% = 19% 

8. (Sweden June '43) Do you have a bicycle of your own? If 
so, how often do you use it? (sgi) 

Daily or Daily or From time 

practically practically to time. Have 

daily all daily most seldom no 

year round of the year or never bicycle 

National total 33% 24% 18% 25% 

BY SEX 

Men 45% 25% 14% 16% 

Women 21 24 21 34 



[41] 



Daily or Daily or From time 

practically practically to time. Have 

daily all daily most seldom no 

year round of the year or never bicycle 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Towns 25% 20% 21% 34% 

Country 38 27 15 20 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

North Sweden 33% 31% 20% 16% 

Malar district 22 29 21 28 

East Gotland 38 25 15 22 

Skane 57 14 17 12 

West Gotland 37 25 18 20 

9. (Sweden June '43) Is it necessary for you to have a bicycle 
to get to work, or do you actually use it during your work? 
Asked of a national cross-section of bicycle owners. 75% of 
the sample is represented, (sgi) 

Yes No Don't know 

National total 39% 57% 4% 

BY SEX 

Men 51% 46% 3% 

Women 24 71 5 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 21% 76% 3% 

Middle class 33 61 6 

Workers 46 51 3 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Towns 40% 57% 3% 

Country 39 56 5 

10. (Sweden Mar '46) What do you think of the suggestion 
that no one should be allowed to cycle in public thoroughfares 
without having passed a test showing that he or she knows 
the traffic regulations and can ride a bicycle? (sgi) 

Should 

Should be Unneces- not be Don't 

carried out sary carried out know 

National total 55% 28% 12% 5% 

BY METHOD OF TRANSPORTATION 

Motorists 53% 32% 13% 2% 

Cyclists 54 29 13 4 

Motorcyclists 62 24 13 1 

Pedestrians 57 26 8 9 



BIRTH 



BILL OF RIGHTS 



1. (us Nov '43 and Nov '45) What do you know about the 
Bill of Rights? Do you know anything it says? Have you ever 
heard of it? Results from the three questions are combined. 
In Nov '45 only the first of the three questions was asked. 
(norc) 

Nov '43 Nov '45 

Correct answers 23% 21% 

Confused 7 4 

Heard but don't know 39 36 

Wrong 4 5 

Part wrong, part right 4 3 

Never heard of it 20 28 

Don't know 3 3 



1. (Sweden Mar '46) When you had your last child, did you 
have it at home, at a hospital, or nursing home? Asked of a 
national cross-section of mothers, (sgi) 

At Nursing Other 

home Hospital home places 

National total 44% 49% 4% 3% 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 28% 68% 2% 2% 

Middle class 42 50 4 4 

Workers 47 46 4 3 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Large towns 22% 76% 1% 1% 

Other towns 38 53 4 5 

Country districts: 

*A 45 39 8 8 

B 53 45 2 — 

C 53 44 1 2 

D 53 25 14 8 

* A — districts where 75% of the population are farmers, farm work- 
ers, etc. 

B — districts where 50%-75% of the population are farmers, farm 
workers, etc. 

C — districts where less than 50% of the population are farmers, 
farm workers, etc. and where there are thinly populated areas 
comprising as much as two-thirds of the total population. 

D — areas comprising at least two-thirds of the population. 



BIRTH CONTROL 



1. (US May 2 '36) Should the distribution of information of 
birth control be made legal? (aipo) 

No 

Yes No opinion 

National total 70% 30% = 100% 9% 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Farmers 61% 39% 

Small towns 72 28 

Cities 71 29 

STATE BY STATE 

Nevada 90% 10% 

Arizona 90 10 

Washington 82 18 

Colorado 81 19 

Montana 80 20 

California 80 20 

Oregon 79 21 

New Mexico 78 22 

Georgia 78 22 

Connecticut 78 22 

New Jersey 77 23 

Florida 74 26 

Texas 74 26 

Maine 73 27 

Vermont 73 27 

New York 73 27 

Delaware 73 27 



Yes No 

Nebraska 73% 27% 

Tennessee 72 28 

Arkansas 72 28 

North Carolina 72 28 

Alabama 71 29 

Virginia 71 29 

West Virginia 70 30 

Mississippi 70 30 

Idaho 70 30 

Wyoming 70 30 

Utah 70 30 

Kentucky 69 31 

Maryland 69 31 

Louisiana 69 31 

South Carolina 68 32 

Ohio 68 32 

Pennsylvania 67 33 

Indiana 65 35 

Illinois 65 35 

Iowa 65 35 

Missouri 64 36 

Kansas 64 36 

Oklahoma 64 36 

Michigan 64 36 

Wisconsin 63 37 

New Hampshire. ... 62 38 

Rhode Island 62 38 

Minnesota 61 39 

Massachusetts 59 41 

North Dakota 54 46 

South Dakota 53 47 



2. (US July '36) Do you believe in the teaching and practice 
of birth control? (for) 

Don't 
Yes No know 

National total 63% 23% 14% 

Roman Catholics only. . . 42.8 450 12.2 

3. (US July 5 '37) Do you favor the birth-control movement? 
(aipo) (Great Britain Jan '38) Are you in favor of birth 
control? (bipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

United States 71% 29% = 100% 14% 

Great Britain 69 31 =100 26 

4. (US Oct 8 '38 and Dec 22 '39) Would you like to see a gov- 
ernment agency furnish birth-control information to married 
people who want it? (aipo) (Great Britain Mar '39) Should 
responsible public centers for free information on birth control 
be available to married people? (bipo) (US Dec 22 '39) Would 
you like to see government health clinics furnish birth-control 
information to married people who want it? (aipo) (US Jan 
11 '40) Would you approve or disapprove of having govern- 
ment health clinics furnish birth-control information to mar- 
ried people who want it? (aipo) (US Aug '43) Do you believe 
that knowledge about birth control should or should not be 
made available to all married women? Asked of a national 
cross-section of women aged 21-35 years, (for) (US Dec 15 
'43) Would you approve or disapprove of having governmental 
clinics furnish birth-control information to married people who 
want it? (alpo) (US Nov 21 '45) Would you approve or dis- 
approve of having government health clinics furnish birth- 
control information to married people in this country who 
want it? (Aipa) 



[42] 

No In No 

opinion favor Against opinion 

US Oct 8 '38 72% 28% = 100%, 14%o 

Britain Mar 3 '39. 73 12 15 =100% 

*US Dec 22 '39. . . 72 28 =100 11 

**US Dec 22 '39 . . 80 20 = 100 11 

US Jan 11 '40 77 23 = 100 11 

US Aug '43 84.9 10.0 5.1=100 

US Dec 15 '43. . 61 23 16 = 100 

US Nov 21 '45. . 61 23 16 = 100 

OPINIONS OF AMERICAN WOMEN IN JAN '40 BY AGE 

Under 30 years .. . 85% 15% — =100% 

Over 30 years 65 35 — = 100 

OPINIONS OF AMERICAN WOMEN IN AUG '43 BY EDUCATION 

College 92.6% 4.9% 2.5% = 100% 

Grammar 70.2 18.2 11.6 =100 

Catholic women . . 69.0 24.4 6.6 =100 

* Government to furnish information. 

** Government health clinics to furnish information. 

5. (US Aug '43) Do you believe that knowledge about birth 
control should or should not be kept away from unmarried 
women? Asked of 84.9% of a national sample of women aged 
21-35 years who thought that knowledge about birth control 
should be made available to all married women, (for) 

No 
Should Shouldn't opinion 
National total 23.3%o 69.8% 6.9% = 100%* 

' BY EDUCATION 

College women 15.5% 78.5% 6.0% = 100%* 

Grammar school only . . 33.6 553 11.1 =100* 

Catholic women 33.6 58.9 7.5 =100* 

* 100% of the women who believe birth-control information should 
be made available to all married women. 

6. (Sweden Feb '45) Ought a woman under all circumstances 
have the right to dispose of her child, i.e. have the right of 
abortion with the help of a doctor, or should abortion be 
allowed only in cases where the mother's life is in danger? 
(sGi) 

In all In case 

circum- As of Don't 

stances now danger know 

National total 9% 70% 11% 10% 

BY SEX 

Men 11% 67% 12% 10% 

Women 7 73 11 9 

BY AGE 

20-24 years , 12% 70% 9% 9% 

25-29 years 9 64 19 8 

30-49 years 11 70 12 7 

50-64 years 6 72 8 14 

65 years and over. . . 6 74 5 15 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Country 6% 77%o 7% 10%, 

Large towns 15 51 21 13 

Other towns 12 67 14 7 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 7% 69% 19% 5% 

Middle class 7 73 H 9 

Workers 12 67 11 10 

7. (Sweden Feb '45) Should abortion be legal for a girl who 
has been seduced? Asked of 80% of total sample who thought 
abortion laws should remain as they are or who said they 
didn't know what should be done, (sgi) 



[43] 



Legal Illegal Don't know 

National total 17% 66% 17% = 100% 

of those 
questioned 

BY SEX 

Men 20% 62% 18% 

Women 15 69 16 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 12% 80% 8% 

Middle class 13 70 17 

Workers 22 60 18 

8. (US Nov 21 '45) Should the United Nations organization 
educate the German people in birth-control methods? (aipo) 

Yes 39% No 34% No opinion 27% 

9. (US Nov 21 '45) Should the United Nations organization 
educate the Japanese people in birth-control methods? (aipo) 

Yes 47% No 29% No opinion 24% 



BIRTHRATE 

1. (France June '39) What do you consi 
(or causes) of the falling birthrate in our 



a ^ 

•S ^ 

'S I 

% % 

Cost of living 52 49 

Women working out- 
side home 14 14 

Lack of public assist- 
ance for large fami- 
lies 11 11 

Uncertainty of eco- 
nomic future 10 11 

Unemployment 4 5 

Selfishness of young 

people 34 27 

Other moral causes. . . 12 11 

Lack of religion 4 3.5 

Insufficient marriages. 3 3.5 

International insecu- 
rity 16 20 

Belief there is no rea- 
son to increase 
birthrate 8 3.5 

Lack of legislation fa- 
voring large fami- 
lies 1 1 

Use of contraceptives. 5 4.5 

Abortion 4 35 

Poor health of parents 4 35 

Poor health of chil- 
dren 2 1 

Spread of instruction . 2.5 2 

Various other re- 
sponses 7.5 4.5 

No answer 4 — 



Percentages... 198* 178.5* 187.5* 192.5* 222.5* 168.5* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 



2. (France June '39) What do 
for this situation [the falling 



you consider possible remedies 
birthrate in France]? (fipo) 



1 consi 


idcr 


to 


be the 


cause 


in 


our 


country? (fipo) 


















5 

S 




8 


1 

2 










OS 


S 






o 




O 
•O 


o 


% 




% 




% 


% 


50 




57 




53 


38 



15 



10 



11.5 



32 



11 



12.5 


10.5 


10 


3 


3.5 


2.5 


4 


3 


25 


28 


36 


49 


10 


135 


13.5 


12 


2 


1.5 


13.5 


— 


2 


2.5 


2.5 


2 



19 



19 



15.5 12 



1 


1 


1 


— 


7 


4 


7 


2 


5 


4 


6 


6 


3.5 


2.5 


4.5 


3 


2 


1.5 





2 


3.5 


1 


2 


1.5 


4.5 


10 


6 


6 


6 


35 


1 


3 



Public assistance. 

General improve- 
ment in economic 
situation 19 10 

Prohibition of femi- 
nine labor, wives 
stay home 18 12 

Special taxes on sin- 
gle persons and 
childless couples. . 6 3 

Privileges for fathers 4.5 5 

Moral re-education 

of young people. .11 3 

General propaganda 
in favor of family 
spirit 9 10 

Take measures to as- 
sure international 
security 14 14 

Encourage agricul- 
ture 55 2 

Encourage families 
by appointing fa- 
thers to govern- 
ment office 4 4 

Develop a policy fa- 
vorable to house- 
holders, low cost . 3 5 

Stamping out of 
abortion, strict 
control of the 
medical profession 5 2 

Increase of free medi- 
cal services to nurs- 
ing mothers and 
infants 3.5 2 

Spread knowledge of 
child-rearing 
among young girls .75 1 

Prohibition of the 
sale of contracep- 
tives 75 1 

There is no remedy. .5 5. 

No answer 8 5. 



fi 


i; 


5 


S 


i: 


1 




<s 


"S 


"S 


"3 
















« 


^ 


=^ 


^ 


^ 


v^ 




Os 


Ov 


CN 


On 




^ 


7 


'? 


1 


V 


^ 


12: 


O 


o 








rs 


fn 


>»- 


*^ 


•o 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


51 


56 


41 


40 


48 


44 



23 25 16.5 11 



10 15 15 27 



5 4.5 4 7 12 

5 2.5 35 3 

5 10 12.5 15 22 



3.5 7 15 5 

16 19 9 11 

2 8 3.5 3 

.5 4.5 2.5 8 — 

2 3 13 

5 4 7 6 

4.5 1.5 5 3 




Percentages... 168* 142.5* 143.5* 159.5* 162.5* 163.0* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

3. (US Mar 19 '41) What do you think are the main reasons 
why couples do not have mote children? (aipo) 

Economic reasons 57% 

Interference with one's freedom 20 

Uncertainty of the future 5 

Poor health 2 

Others 3 

Dislike children 1 

Too many children already 1 

No answer 11 



[44] 



4. (Great Britain Apr '42) What do you think is the main 
reason why parents nowadays are not anxious to have large 
families? (bipo) 

Incomes too small for large families . 26% 

Can educate small family better 14 

Insecurity of all kinds 6 

War; why bring up cannon fodder. . . 13 

Lack of faith in the future, 6 

Young people want freedom 12 

Too much responsibility and bother. 6 

People have too much sense 1 

Miscellaneous 9 

No answer 7 

5. (Sweden Dec '42) What do you think is the main reason 
for the childbirth rate having sunk after the year 1900? (sGi) 












? ? ^ 

'^ 2; *- 

2 ^^'^ 

V ^ "^ ^* 

">- -*; 5:0 $; 

■a ^ Si '-' 



"2 
5 



^ 3 









National total... 16% 5% 3% 2% 8% 22% 3% 41% 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Towns 19% 8% 5% 2% 5% 20% 3% 38% 

Country 14 3 2 2 10 23 3 43 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 



Upper class . . 
Middle class . 
Workers 



26% 13% 4% 3% 12% 9% 5% 28% 
19 4 3 3 10 17 4 40 
12 5 4 2 6 27 2 42 



BY MARITAL STATUS 



Married men. . . . 

Married women . 

Married people 
with 1-2 chil- 
dren 

Married people 
with 3 or more 
children 



18% 
14 



16 



4% 
4 



2% 
3 



'% 22% 
3 23 



25 



3% 38% 
1 41 



37 



15 



3 


3 


3 


11 


21 


3 


41 


6 


2 


3 


5 


22 


2 


43 



No children 17 



6. (Sweden Dec '42) Do you know how many children are 
needed per marriage to prevent the population from decreas- 
ing? (sGi) 

2 3^5 Don't 

children children children or more know 

National total ... 4% 25% 31% 8% 32%, 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 1% 29% 43% 

Middle class 3 26 32 

Workers 5 23 30 

7. (Great Britain Aug 22 '43) Is there anything you think can 
be done to encourage parents to have more children? (bipo) 

Decent housing; better living conditions 18% 

Family allowances 16 

Social security; remove the fear of unemployment. . 13 

Adequate income 9 

State aid 6 

This is a private matter; should be left to individ- 
uals to decide for themselves 4 



9% 


18% 


9 


30 


7 


35 



Help for mothers; day nurseries; etc 3% 

Fewer wars 3 

Should not be encouraged; who wants children 

nowadays 2 

It would only be for cannon-fodder 1 

Free education for all 1 

Young people think only of dancing, a good time, 

etc 1 

No, a large family ties you down; a large family 

is a millstone; etc 1 

Miscellaneous 5 

Don't know 17 

8. (Australia May-June '44) What is the main cause of Aus- 
tralia's low birthrate? (apop) 

Selfishness; pleasure-seeking birth control 28% 

Insecurity; fear of depression 15 

Low wages; cost of living 14 

Housing shortage; flat life 11 

No encouragement; unhelpful government 5 

No domestic help; no freedom 2 

Women working 2 

High medical costs 1 

Educate small family well 1 

Common sense; workers waking up 1 

Other answers 6 

No idea 14 

9. (Australia Aug-Sept '44) What do you think is the main 
cause of Australia's low birthrate? (apop) 

Insufficient income; economic insecurity 37% 

Selfishness; pleasure-seeking 31 

Poor housing; flat life 18 

Other answers 8 

No opinion 6 

10. (Australia Nov '44) What do you suggest would help 
most to increase Australia's birthrate? (apop) 

Economic security and full employment 22% 

Better housing; lower rentals 17 

Government allowances for families or marriage 

loans 15 

Better living conditions 10 

Higher wages; cheaper living 9 

No agreement on any particular solution 27 

11. (Germany Feb '46) Why did National Socialism encourage 
people to have lots of children? (omgus) 

For war; to raise soldiers 45% 

To expand; to colonize; spread German thought 

throughout the world 12 

Country is strong only with large population to 

make people strong 22 

For future strength of Germany; to build Germany 

for after the war; make up for war losses 9 

To have more party members 1 

To build nazism on youth; needed more youth to 

strengthen the party 8 

Other.'! ' 1 

Don't know, no opinion 10 

No answer 2 



110%* 



* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 



[45] 



BLACK MARKET 



1. (Great Britain Jan 16 '42) Would you approve or disapprove 
if all persons convicted of black-market dealings in food were 
sent to prison without the option of a fine? (bipo) 
Approve 82% Disapprove 10% Don't know 8% 

2. (US May 7 '43) There's been a lot of talk lately about black 
markets in meat. Do you think these black markets are really 
serious? Asked of a national cross-section of women, (norc) 
Yes 56% No 11% Don't know 33% 

3. (US May 7 '43) From what you've heard, how would you 
say the black market works? Asked of a national cross-section 
of women, (norc) 

Meat is sold at exorbitant prices 32% 

Meat is stolen 4 

Meat is sold to consumer directly by farmer 2 

Unlicensed or unauthorized dealer is involved .... 17 

Ration coupons are not required 14 

Meat is not governmentally inspected 12 

Meat is of inferior quality 11 

Unspecified illegal practices 4 

Miscellaneous 1 

Not ascertainable 40 



137%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer, 

4. (US May 7 '43) Who do you think is most to blame for 
black markets? Asked of a national cross-section of women. 
(norc) 

People who buy 29% 

The farmer 4 

Meat slaughterers and packers 2 

The wholesaler 2 

The retailer 5 

Not ascertainable — just people who sell 12 

Racketeers 8 

The government 5 

Miscellaneous 5 

Don't know or no answer 38 



110%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

5. (US May 7 '43) Can you think of one or two things you 
yourself might do to try to put a stop to black markets in meat? 
What? Asked of a national cross-section of women, (norc) 

Don't patronize them 29% 

Report illegal practices to authorities 13 

Don't pay more than ceiling prices 10 

Buy from reliable tradesman 9 

Buy only government-inspected meat 7 

Don't buy without ration points 4 

Urge others not to buy from black markets 4 

Keep consumption down 3 

Miscellaneous 2 

Respondent can't or won't do anything 3 

No or don't know 35 

No answer 1 



6. (US May 22 '43) Have you come across any stores that are 
charging higher prices than the government allows? (norc) 
Yes 12% No 75% Don't know 13% 

7. (US May 22 '43) On what sort of things [are stores charg- 
ing higher prices than are allowed]? Asked of 12% of the 
sample who said they had come actoss stores that were charging 
higher prices than were allowed, (norc) 

Meat in general 5% 

Specific meats 1 

Vegetables in general 2 

Potatoes 2 

Corn, peas, beans * 

Other specific vegetables * 

Fruits 1 

Canned foods in general 1 

Specific canned foods 1 

Dairy products and shortening 1 

Miscellaneous foods 3 

Clothing 1 

Soap * 

Hardware and auto supplies * 

Miscellaneous, other than food 1 

Not ascertainable * 



19%** 

* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percencages add to more than 12 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

8. (US May 22 '43) What did you do when you found out the 
price was too high? Asked of 12% of the sample who said 
they had come actoss stores that were charging higher prices 
than were allowed, (norc) 

Did nothing; paid the prices 3% 

Expressions of futility or necessity 2 

Showed knowledge that something should be done 

but paid the price 1 

Didn't buy — no mention of different store 4 

Shopped around or changed stores 1 

Complained to merchant 1 

Complained to merchant unsuccessfully 1 

Made official complaint * 

13%** 

* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 12 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

9. (Great Britain July 12 '43) Lord Woolton says that no 
black markets exist in this country. Do you agree or disagree? 
(bipo) 

Agree 12% Disagree 72% Don't know 16% 

10. (Australia Dec '43) Judging by your own experience, do 
you think there are any serious black markets in Australia? 
(apop) 

Yes 42% No 58% 

11. (Sweden Sept '44) Do you know anyone in your immedi- 
ate surroundings who has been able to buy rationed goods 
during the last six months without ration cards? (sgi) 

Will not 
Yes No answer 

National total 16% 67% 17% 



120%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 



Men . . . 
Women . 



BY SEX 

18% 66% 16% 

14 68 18 



[46] 



Yes No 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 25% 53% 

Middle class 18 65 

Workers 14 69 



Will not 
answer 

22% 

17 

17 



12. (Sweden Sept '44) What commodity was concerned [in 
black-market operations] the last time you heard of such a 
thing? Asked of 16% of the sample who said they knew some- 
one who had been able to buy rationed goods without ration 
cards, (soi) 

Eggs 9% 

Butter 3 

Coffee 3 

Wheat flour 2 

Sugar 2 

Meat 1 

Tobacco 1 

Shoes 1 

Rye flour; cereals 1 

Will not answer 17 

40%* 
* Percentages add to more than 16 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

13. (Denmark Nov 12 '44) Have you ever bought anything 
directly or indirectly from the black market? (dgi) 

Yes 10.3% No 89.77o 

14. (Denmark Nov 12 '44) Have you any sympathy lor any 
form of black-market transactions? (dgi) 

Yes 7.3% No 92.7% 

15. (Denmark Nov 12 '44) What kind [of black-market trans- 
actions are you in sympathy with]? Asked of 73% of the 
sample who said they sympathized with some transactions. 
(dgi) 

Tobacco 22.4% 

Sugar cards 17-3 

Butter cards 12.1 

Tires 11.2 

Fuel cards 6.7 

Stocking cards 6.4 

Clothing 6.4 

Footwear 5-2 

Tea 3.0 

Alcohol 33 

Petrol 3.3 

Coffee 2.7 



100.0% of those who 
sympathize with black-market transactions 

16. (Denmark Nov 12 '44) What kind of goods are you most 

tempted to buy on the black market? (dgi) 

Tobacco 27.0% 

Sugar cards 24.6 

Butter cards 13. 1 

Tires 12.2 

Fuel cards 2.2 

Stocking cards 31 

Clothing 8.1 

Footwear 1.4 

Coffee 4.6 

Sundries 3.7 



17. (Denmark Nov 12 "44) Do you consider it as lawbreaking 
if you deal directly or indirectly with the black market? (dgi) 

Yes 67.4% No 25.8% Don't know 6.8% 

18. (France May 1 '45) Do you think there should be an active 
campaign against restaurants which (1) do a little black- 
marketing; (2) are big operators in the black market? (fipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

A little black-marketing 56% 39% 5% 

Big operators in black-market- 
ing 97 2 1 

19. (US May 2 '45) Will you tell me briefly what you under- 
stand by the term "black market"? (aipo) 

Illegal sale outside of ration control; black market sells 
at higher than ceiling prices and without coupons or 

ration points 18% 

Sale of goods at higher than ceiling prices 28 

Sale of goods without coupons or ration points 17 

A racket; illegal marketing; illegal practice 30 

Profiteering 1 

Miscellaneous 2 

Didn't say .• 4 

20. (US May 2 '45) Do you think that buying at black-market 
prices is sometimes justified? (aipo) 

Sometimes Not No 

justified justified opinion 
National total 21% 74% 5% 

BY SEX 

Men 23%, 

Women 18 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Farmers 18% 

Towns under 10,000 population 21 

10,000-100,000 19 

Over 100,000 23 

21. (US May 2 '45) Under what conditions do you think it 
[buying in the black market] is justified? Asked of 21% of 
the sample who thought that buying at black-market prices 
was sometimes justified, (aipo) 

When you have a real need for goods and can't get them 

any other way, such as illness, etc 12% 

When you can't get goods otherwise; where distribution 

of goods has broken down 4 

When the rationing board is unfair after an appeal 2 

Miscellaneous 2 

Didn't say 1 

21% 

22. (Netherlands Jan '46) Do you seriously object to the black 
market? (nfs) 

Yes 90% No 7% No opinion 3% 

23. (Netherlands Jan '46) In your opinion, is there more, as 
much, or less business being done in the black market now 
than before the monetary clean-up? (nfs) 

More 4% 

As much 21 

Less 63 

No opinion 12 

24. (Netherlands Jan '46) In what commodities and what 
coupons is this black-market business carried on? (nfs) 



71% 


6% 


77 


5 


73% 


9% 


73 


6 


78 


3 


73 


4 



[47] 



Foodstuffs 58% 

Luxuries 57 

Other commodities 32 



147%* 



* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

25. (Netherlands Jan '46) By which side are things mostly 
offered [on the black market] — by shopkeepers, by acquaint- 
ances, or by unknown people? (nfs) 

Shopkeepers 9% 

Acquaintances 20 

Unknown people 49 

No answer 29 



107%* 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

26. (Netherlands Jan '46) What do you think of the action 
taken against the black market — is it too strong, good, or 
not strong enough? (nfs) 

Too strong 3% 

Good 27 

Not strong enough 58 

No opinion 12 

27. (Netherlands Jan '46) Should stronger measures be taken 
against the public buying in the Black market? (nfs) 

Yes 56% No 31% No opinion 13% 

28. (Germany Jan 31 '46; May 8 '46; July 1 '46) Do you think 
that the black market has an influence on the economic situa- 
tion? (OMGUS) 

Yes No No opinion 

Jan '46 64% 13% 23% 

May '46 68 11 21 

July '46 88 3 9 

In January and in May '46, those who thought the black 
market had an influence on the economic situation were asked: 
What influence has it? 64% of the January sample and 68% 
of the May sample are represented. 

Jan '46 May '46 
Will cause inflation; prices will go up; peo- 
ple with money will be OK, while the 

poor will have nothing 19% 19% 

Will create shortages of food, etc.; nothing 

left to buy in the open market 18 42 

Will disrupt rationing and distribution 

system 10 1 

Bad idea 3 ■ 1 

Can't do anything for money, must always 

barter 10 5 

Workers — people refuse to take jobs, black 

market more profitable — 1 

Other replies 1 — 

Thought the black market had an influence 

but didn't say what 4 2 

65%* 71%* 

* Percentages add to more than 64 and 68 because some respondents 
gave more than one answer. 

29. (Germany Jan 31 '46 and May 8 '46) Do you think that 
the black market is responsible for your not being able to buy 
many things you might otherwise be able to get? (omgus) 



Yes No No opinion 

Jan '46 56% 24% 20% 

May '46 51 26 23 

In May '46 those who thought the black market responsible 
were asked: What are you unable to buy because of the black 
market? 51% of the sample was asked the question. 
Thought the black market responsible but 

didn't name any products 4% 

Food 20 

Clothing and textiles 22 

Shoes 14 

Tobacco 6 

Household equipment; furniture; con- 
sumer goods; etc 10 

Farm and business equipment 2 

Everything; can't buy anything 4 

Other answers * 

82%** 

* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 51 because some respondents named 
more than one product. 

30. (Germany Jan 31 '46; Mar 22 '46; May 8 '46) Do you 
think there are black-market activities in your community? 
In January and May those who said they thought thete were 
such activities were asked: Are they considerable or unim- 
portant? (oMGUs) 

Yes, Yes, Yes, Don't 

consid- unim- unspeci- Total know or 

erahle portant fied yes No no answer 

Jan '46 15% 24% 3% = 42% 51% 7% 

Mar '46 — — — 30 53 17 

May '46 17 19 8 = 44 29 27 

In Mar '46 the 30% who thought there were black-market 
activities in their communities were asked: What makes you 
think so? 
Because it's everywhere; there are black markets all 

over Germany 4% 

People talk about it; one hears a great deal about it; 
many people talk and know all about the black- 
market prices 12 

One reads about it in the newspapers 2 

Because there are things that people need but are un- 
able to buy; because one can't get anything without 
something to trade, can't get anything just for money 5 
Because many people — foreigners, etc. — don't work and 

at the same time have lots of money 1 

Because you can buy American goods anywhere * 

Because I've seen it; I'm a shopkeeper and naturally 

know about it 4 

Othet answers 1 

Don't know, no opinion, can't say 1 

No answer 1 

31%** 

* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 30 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

31. (Germany Mar 22 '46) Where do the goods which are on 
the black market come from? (omgus) 

From other countries, from foreign countries 6% 

From other zones 1 

From the producers; from manufacturers, from facto- 
ries; from farmers; goods that should go into regular 
distribution channels but never get there 23 



[48] 



Stolen goods, from plundering and theft 16% 

From the Americans; from the occupation troops 11 

From people who have to sell things in order to live; 

unemployed, etc 3 

Don't know, can't say, no opinion 40 

No answer 8 



108%* 

* Percentages adJ to more than ICX) because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

32. (Germany Mar 22 '46) What kind of people sell these 

goods on the black market? (omgus) 

Foreigners — Poles, etc 17% 

Big-time operators and hustlers; low people; nobody 
with any character 12 

People who don't want to work; people who are al- 
lergic to work 20 

Shopkeepers 2 

People who have the opportunity, anybody who has 
the opportunity 1 

Unemployed, people who have no jobs or professions; 
those who have no other choice 3 

Don't know, no opinion, can't say 32 

No answer 9 



106%* 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

33. (Germany Jan 31 '46 and May 8 '46) Do you think every- 
thing possible is being done by the authorities to put an end 
to black-market activities? (omgus) 

No opinion 
Yes No or no answer 

Jan '46 60% 14% 26% 

May '46 62 21 17 

34. (Czechoslovakia Dec '46) Have you come across cases of 
black-market dealings lately? (czipo) 

Yes 59% No 41% 

35. (Czechoslovakia Dec '46) Do you believe, on the basis of 
your own experience, that the black market has grown, shrunk, 
or remained the same during the past year? (cziPo) 

Extended 21% 

Shrunk 42 

The same 19 

Don't know 18 

36. (Czechoslovakia Dec '46) Judging from vour own experi- 
ence, what goods are most frequently sold on the black market 
now? (czipo) 

Textiles 43% 

Foodstuffs 19 

Cigarettes 10 

Shoes 7 

Other goods 6 

Don't know 15 



2. (Great Britain Dec '39) Would you still be in favor if it 
[the blackout] increased the risk of an air attack? Asked of 
75% of the sample who were in favor of curtailing the black- 
out, (bipo) 

Yes 37% No 50% Don't know 13% 

3. (Great Britain Jan '40) Have you suffered any physical in- 
jury because of the blackout? (bipo) 

Yes 18% No 82% 

4. (Great Britain Jan '40) In your opinion, is the blackout 
properly observed in your neighborhood? (bipo) 

Yes 71% No 24% Don't know 5% 

5. (US Jan 22 '41) New York City is planning to have a prac- 
tice blackout next month. Do you think all towns and cities 
in your state should have practice blackouts every few months? 
(aipo) 

Yes 42% No 45% Don't know 13% 

6. (Australia June '42) Do you think the brownout is too 
severe, about right, or not dark enough? (apop) 

Too severe 34% 

About right 41 

Not dark enough 12 

Blackout or nothing 8 

No answer 5 

7. (Great Britain Aug 22 '43) Do you think the coming winter 
will be the last winter of blackout in Europe? (bipo) 

Yes 55% No 26% Don't know 19% 

8. (Great Britain Nov '44) Having regard to the present war 
situation, do you think that blackout restrictions should be 
lifted entirely or left as they are? (bipo) 

Lifted 64% Same 30% Don't know 6% 



BONDS 



Taxation 

1. (us Feb '41) Do you think Congress should forbid any 
further issuance of tax-exempt federal bonds without waiting 
for a constitutional amendment to halt the issuance of tax- 
exempt state and local bonds? Asked of a national cross-section 
of executives, (for) 

Yes 66.3% No 31.2% No answer 2.5% 

2. (US Feb '41) Do you favor ending tax exemption on gov- 
ernment bonds despite the fact that, if you are now rich or 
have hopes of becoming rich, the elimination would deprive 
you of any opportunity to escape the high-bracket surtaxes? 
Asked of a national cross-section of executives, (for) 

Yes 77. 9% No 20.1% No answer 2.0% 



BLACKOUTS IN WAR 



BOOKS AND READING 



1. (Great Britain Dec '39) Are you in favor of the blackout 
being made less strict? (bipo) 

Yes 75% No 23% Don't know 2% 



1. (US Mar 15 '37) Do you happen to be reading any book 
at this time? (aipo) 

Yes 29% No 68% No answer 3% 



[49] 



f 



2. (US Mar 15 '37) What book [are you reading now]? Asked 
of a national cross-section of those who were reading a book 
at the time. 29% of the total sample represented, (aipo) 

Gone with the Wind 21% 

The Bible 3 

Anthony Adverse 2 

Green Light 2 

The American Doctor's Odyssey. ... 1 

Nine Old Men 1 

Drums along the Mohawk 1 

The Good Earth 1 

It Can't Happen Here 1 

White Banners 1 

How to Win Friends and Influence 

People 1 

Magnificent Obsession 1 

All others and no answer 64 

100% of those 
who were reading a book 

3. (US July 12 '37 and Oct 18 '38) What is the most interesting 
book you have ever read? (aipo) 

July '37 Oct '38 

The Bible 26% 19% 

Gone with the Wind 22 16 

Anthony Adverse 5 3 

The Good Earth 3 1 

Magnificent Obsession 2 — 

Tale of Two Cities 2 1 

Green Light 2 

Les Miserables 2 — 

BenHur 1 1 

David Copperfield 1 — 

The Citadel — 2 

How to Win Friends and Influ- 
ence People — 1 

Northwest Passage — 1 

Little Women — 1 

All others 34 13 

100% 
No answer 55% 41 

100% 

4. (Great Britain Feb '38) What book of all you have read 
impressed you most? (bipo) 

The The Somll All No 

Bible Citadel and Son others answer 
National 

total.... 16% 3% 2% 79% =100% 57% 

BY SEX 

Men 14% 3% — 83% = 100% 50% 

Women... 19 2 4% 75 =100 65 

5. (US Jan 25 '39) Do you intend to read the book Gone with 
the Wind? (aipo) 

Yes 23% 

No 47 

No opinion 8 

Already read it 22 

6. (US Jan 25 '39) Who do you think was the most interesting 
character? Asked of 22% of the sample who had already read 
Gone with the Wind, (aipo) 



Scarlett 11% 

Butler 8 

No answer 2 

Others 1 

22% 

7. (Great Britain Feb '40) Do you find time to read books? 
(bipo) 

Yes 62% No 38% 

8. (Great Britain Feb '40) How did you get hold of the last 
book you read? Cbipo) 

Local public library 35% 

Subscription library 9 

A second-shop library 20 

Bought it 15 

Lent by a friend 21 

9. (US Jan 23 '42) Have you read any play by Shakespeare 
since you left school? (aipo) 

Yes 18% 

No 81 

No answer 1 

Still in school * 

* Less than 0.5%. 

10. (Sweden Feb '42) How many books have you read this 
autumn and winter? (sGi) 

More than 
None 1-3 books 3 books 
National total. . . 46% 21% 33% 



BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 



Towns . . 
Country . 



Old men 

Young men . . . , 
Old women . 
Young women . 



37% 
52 

BY SEX 

48% 
31 
57 
41 



20% 
21 



20% 
23 
19 
22 



43% 
27 

32% 
46 
24 
37 



11. (Sweden Feb '42) Have you been a member of a reading 
circle this winter? (sgi) 

Yes No 

National total 7% 93% 



.... 7% 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 
Towns 10% 

Country 5 

BY ECONOMIC status 

Upper class 32% 

Middle class 10 

Others 3 



90% 
95 

68% 

90 

97 



12. (Sweden Feb '42) Do you buy or borrow books? (sgi) 



National total. 



Buy 

16% 



Borrow 



Both 



BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Towns 18% 31% 21% 

Country 14 24 19 



Neither 
38% 

30% 
43 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 



Upper class 33% 17% 

Middle class 17 22 

Workers 13 31 



42% 8^ 

24 37 

14 42 



L 



[50] 



13. (Sweden May '42) What was the name of the book you 
read last? Asked of a national cross-section of young people. 
(sGi) 

BY SEX 

Boys Girls 

Do not read books 39.0% 35-0% 

Books for the young 4.7 6.6 

Adventure books 134 53 

Exotic stories and travel 4.5 — 

Detective stories 11.2 2.9 

Historical novels of no real literary 

value 6.7 97 

Historical novels of literary value . . 67 — 

Love stories of literary value 37 11.7 

Love stories of no real literary value 6.3 11.6 

Sigge Starck — 55 

Biographies and memoirs 2.8 2.7 

Social books of literary value 93 116 

Social books; classics — 33 

Jack London 35 — 

Others 2.2 2.7 



114.0%* 108.6%* 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

14. (Sweden Feb '43) Have you read anything besides news- 
papers during the past week? (sg:) 

Yes No 

National total 64% 36% 

BY SEX 

Men 61% 39% 

Women 66 34 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

upper class 87% 13% 

Middle class 68 32 

Workers 59 41 

15. (Sweden Feb '43) What have you read [besides newspapers 
during the past week]? Asked of 64% of the sample who said 
they had read something besides newspapers, (soi) 

Novels; amusing books 25% 

The Bible; other religious literature. 19 

Trade literature 3 

Topical political stuff 3 

Poetry 2 

Magazines; trade papers 30 

82%* 

* Percentages add to more than 64 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

16. (US June 2 '43) Do you happen to know who wrote the 
book One World? (aipo) 

Yes 42.0% No 58.0% 

17. (US June 2 '43) Do you intend to read it [One World]? 
(aipo) 

Yes 41.0% No 52.0% Akeady have 7.0% 

18. (Sweden Feb '44) How many books — not borrowed — have 
you in your home? (Including the Bible, hymnbooks, and 
cookbooks) (sGi) 

Fewer 6-10 11-25 26-100 101-300 Over 
than 6 books books books books 500 
National total . 7% 11% 25% 36% 17% 4% 



Upper class . . 
Middle class . 
Workers 



Fewer 6-10 11-25 26-100 101-500 Over 

than 6 books books books books 500 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

- - 5% 16% 44% 35% 

3% 7%> 18 40 26 6 

12 16 30 34 8 — 



BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Towns 5% 9% 18% 38% 

Country 9 13 29 34 

19. (Sweden Feb '44) What books, besides religious and trade 
literature, have you read during the last fortnight? (soi) 



24% 
12 



6% 
3 



^ ^ 
^ ^ 



% % % 



% % 



20 

4 



11 

4 



,5 »?: •^ 

% % % 

Love stories with- 
out literary pre- 
tensions 3 2 4 

Love stories of a 
higher quality, 
family and so- 
cial novels 8 8 7 

General reading. .3 2 3 

Novels with pres- 
ent war as back- 
ground 2 2 2 

Topical political 
literatvire 

Historical novels 

Classical literature 

Poetry 

Travel books 1 

Humorous books . 

Adventure and spy 
stories 1 

Detective novels 

Miscellaneous . . 

Don't remember 
titles 

No fiction 71 



Percentages 111.5* 109* 108* 110* 110* 105* 114* 102* 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents men- 
tioned more than one book. 

20. (Denmark Dec 10 '44) How many books have you in 
your home? (dgi) 

No books 20% 

1-25 books 23 

25-50 books 20 

51-100 books 16 

More than 100 books 21 

21. (Denmark Dec 10 '44) Where did you buy the last book 
you bought? (dgi) 

Book shop 71% 

Book agent 11 

Publisher 4 

Postal order 9 

Miscellaneous 5 

22. (France Dec 16 '44) Do you read detective stories? (fipo) 

Often 15% 

Rarely 37 

Never 46 

No answer 2 



4 


6 




14 


5 


3 


8 


2 




4 




11 


5 


2 


7 


1 




2 




3 


1 


2 


2 


1 


0.5 


1 


— 


1 


1 


— 


1 


— 




2 




3 


2 


1 


2 


1 




2 




1 


2 


1 


2 


1 




1 




1 


1 


1 


1 


— 




1 




2 


1 


1 


1 


— 


6 


2 




4 


2 


1 


3 


1 


5 


6 




10 


6 


4 


5 


5 


71 


68 


74 


30 


66 


77 


60 


78 



[51] 



23. (US Jan 17 '45) Have you heard of a book called The Robe? 
(aipo) 

Yes 40% No 60% 

24. (US Jan 17 '45) Can you tell me who wrote it [The Robe]? 
Can you tell me anything else about it? Both questions were 
asked of 40% of the sample who said they had heard of The 
Robe. Results of both questions are tabulated below, (aipo) 

Admitted never heard of . . . 2% 

Don't know 41 

Douglas 37 

Christ: Robe 13 

Best seller 1 

Religious story 18 

Roman 1 

Life of Christ 11 

Historical 1 

All other answers 4 



129%* 

* Percentages are based on the number of respondents who had 
heard of The Robe and add to more than 100 because some gave more 
than one answer. 

25. (US Jan 17 '45) Do you intend to read it [The Robe]? Asked 
of 40% of the sample who had heard of The Robe, (aipo) 

Yes 33% 

No 42 

Have read 23 

Admitted they had never 
heard of it 2 



100% of those 
who had heard of The Robe 

26. (US Jan 17 '45) Have you ever heard of a book called 
Forever Amber? (aipo) 

Yes 33% No 67% 

27. (US Jan 17 '45) Can you tell me who wrote it [Forever 
Amber]? Can you tell me anything else about it? Both questions 
were asked of 33% of the sample who had heard of Forever 
Amber. Results are tabulated below, (aipo) 

Admitted never heard of . . . 14% 

Don't know 42 

Kathleen Winsor 12 

Best seller 2 

Life in England 4 

English court 6 

Romance 1 

About a prostitute 21 

Ail other answers 8 



f 



110%* 
* Percentages are based on the number of respondents who had heard 
of the book and add to more than 100 because some gave more than 
one answer. 

28. (US Jan 17 '45) Do you intend to read it [Forever Amber]? 
Asked of 33% of the sample who had heard of the book, (aipo) 

Yes 40% 

No 51 

Admitted they had never 
heard of it 2 

Have read it 7 



29. (Canada Mar 24 '45) Are you reading any book now, or 
have you read any in the past week? (cipo) 

Yes 40% No 60% 

30. (Denmark Apr 15 '45) Have you read one or more books 
of fiction this winter? (dgi) 

Yes 54.8% No 45.2% 

31. (Denmark Apr 15 '45) Which book did you like the best? 
Asked of 54.8% of the sample who had read one or more 
books of fiction this winter, (dgi) 

After Dew Comes Rain 3.8% 

That None Should Die 3.1 

God's Blind Eye 1.6 

Gone with the Wind 1.2 

This Above All 1.8 

The Son from the Vineyard 1.2 

Tidal Waters 1.1 

The Singing Woods behind Them 1.1 

Morten Korch 1.1 

The Robe 1.0 

Kathrina 1.0 

Others 48.7 

Don't know 33. 3 



100% of those 
who had heard of the book 



100.0% 
of those who had read one or more books 
of fiction this winter 

32. (US Aug 22 '45) Have you had a chance to read a book 
during recent months? (aipo) 

Yes, read book 38% No 61% No answer 1% 

33. (US Aug 22 '45) Is there any current book which you 
would especially like to read? (aipo) 

No 57% 

Brave Men 3 

Forever Amber 2 

Story of the Bible 1 

Here Is Your War 1 

History of World War II . . . 1 

The Robe 1 

Valley of Decision 1 

One World 1 

A Lion in the Streets 1 

Captain from Castile 1 

A Tree Grows in Brooklyn . 1 

So Weil Remembered 1 

All others 13 

No answer 15 

34. (US Nov 10 '45) What recent books have you heard dis- 
cussed most among your friends? (aipo) 

None 52% 

Forever Amber 10 

A Tree Grows in Brooklyn . 3 

Brave Men 3 

Valley of Decision 1 

The Robe 1 

Immortal Wife 1 

Here Is Your War 1 

Black Boy 1 

The Bible 1 

Captain from Castile 1 

Up Front 1 

All others 10 

No answer 14 

36. (Germany Jan 21 '46) Have you read any books recently? 

(OMGUS) 



[52] 



Yts No 

Radio listeners 39% 61% 

Non-listeners 34 66 

36. (Germany Feb 14 '46) Have you read Meiti Kampp (omgus) 

Yes, completely 7% 

Yes, partly 16 

No .' 76 

No answer 1 

37. (Germany Feb 14 '46) What kind of books do you like 
best? (oMGUs) 

None; not interested; don't like to read 15% 

Novels; short stories; novelettes; love stories; 

historical novels 44 

Biographies 3 

Religious books 10 

Medical; chemistry; technical books 6 

Travel; nature; mountain climbing stories. ... 9 
Adventure; hunting; wildwcst; "whodunits" 3 
Science and philosophy; reconstruction; future 8 
Other: Nordic books; read everything; foreign 

authors; lectures; art; drama; history books 10 

Political books 2 

No answer 6 



116%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

38. (Germany Feb 14 '46) Which of the following subjects 
would at present interest you most in a book? (omgus) 

Technical books 1% 

Politics 13 

Farming and gardening. ... 23 

Art 15 

Music 13 

Novels and stories 52 

Books of current interest ... 13 

Economics 17 

Travel 25 

Religion 23 

Philosophy 5 

Other answers 1 

No answer 10 



211%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents men- 
tioned more than one type of book. 

39. (Germany Feb 14 '46) Have you read any books yet which 
have appeared since the end of the war? (omgus) 

Yes 3% 

No 93 

Don't know 2 

No answer 2 

40. (Germany Feb 14 '46) Is there a bookstore in this com- 
munity where one can buy books which have been brought 
out by German publishers? Those who said there was such a 
store in their community were asked: Which have you bought? 
(omgus) 

No answer 2% 

No 66 

Don't know 20 

No book, none, nothing ... 10 

Bought one book 1 

Bought more than one book 1 



41. (Germany Feb 14 '46) German publishers intend to bring 
out a number of books dealing with present-day problems of 
Germany. Which of these problems would you like to see 
handled in such books? (omgus) 

No answer 30% 

Reconstruction; future of Germany; future of 

Europe 44 

Food ' 2 

Youth and education 6 

Economic matters; trade (international, do- 
mestic) 9 

Labor problems; union organization 1 

History of last twelve years; how war started; 

what has happened during war 4 

Problems of displaced and evacuated persons. . 2 
Emigration from Germany; information about 

United States * 

Other: art; religion; future of our soldiers; 

morale 8 

Farmers' problems; technical books 2 

Personal problems; women; family life 1 



109%** 

* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

42. (Germany Feb 14 '46) Which books do you think are 
harmful to German youth? (omgus) 

No answer 2% 

War books; militaristic books; soldier books; 

hero-worshipping books 35 , 

Love stories; immoral; indecent; erotic; doc- 
tor's books; too sophisticated books 25 

Cheap literature; adventure; joke books; crim- 
inal books 15 

Nazi books; books written during war; during 
Third Reich; Hitler's books 17 

Political books; biased politics; communistic 
books 7 

Anti-religious books 2 



103%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

43. (Hungary May '46) What books should be bought?* 
Asked in Budapest and suburbs, (hlpor) 

Adults by Social Status and Sex 

SMALL 

educated bourgeois workers 

Men Women Men Women Men Women 
Old Hungarian 

writers 81.8% 87.9% 81.8% 81.4% 57.5% 66.3% 

New Hungarian 

prose....''. 83.7 96.6 87.3 84.2 67.9 84.1 

New Hungarian 

poets 82.5 79.3 72.5 69.2 51.6 63.4 

Translations from 

French 46.2 51.0 36.2 37.1 17.5 20.0 

Translations from 

German 20.6 16.5 15-9 20.7 8.7 5.9 

Translations from 

English 36.2 57.5 34.6 38.5 20.8 32.6 

Translations from 

American 20.8 23.9 15.3 19.2 23.3 25.7 

Translations from 

Russian 13.1 7.6 14.8 12.8 14.1 8.9 



[53] 



EDUCATED 

Men Women 
Popular scientific 

works 3.1% 7.6% 

Sociology 26.8 35.8 

Natural science. . . 18.1 10.9 

Art 27.5 29.3 

Travel 26.2 15.2 

Technical 19.3 13.8 

Other; no answer. 8.1 3.1 



SMALL 
BOURGEOIS 

Men Women 
4.9% 10.0% 



WORKERS 

Men Women 



22.5 
6.5 
14.8 
23.6 
19.7 



15.0 
13.5 
25.7 
31.4 
11.4 
2.8 



5.0% 
20.4 

5.8 

8.7 
19.6 
21.6 

3.3 



6.9% 

8.9 

1.9 
13.8 
42.6 

4.9 

2.9 



BUDAPEST AND SUBURBAN CHILDREN BY SEX 



Boys 



Girls 
36.2% 



Old Hungarian writers 32.9% 

New Hungarian prose 39.1 37.0 

New Hungarian poets 29.8 74.4 

Translation from French 48.0 19.1 

Translation from German 45.3 19.6 

Translation from English 39-5 25.9 

Translation from American 44.4 15.2 

Translation from Russian 39.5 9.3 

Popular scientific works 10.4 2.9 

Sociology 34.5 7.2 

Natural science 13.5 7.2 

Art 22.8 18.6 

Travel '. 16.2 8.4 

Technical 22.6 7.2 

Other; no answer 17.3 13.8 

* Many respondents mentioned more than one type of book. 

44. (Great Britain Sept 14 '46) Do you happen to be reading 
a novel or other book at the moment? (bipo) 

Yes Nc 

National total 45%, 55%; 

BY SEX 

Men 44% 56% 

Women 47 53 

BY AGE 

21-29 years 55%, 45%o 

30-49 years 50 50 

50 years and over 36 64 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 



Higher 

Middle 

Lower 

Very poor 

45. (Great Britain Sept 14 '46) 
book you are now reading]? As 
said they were reading a novel 
(bipo) 



69% 31% 

62 38 

38 62 

29 71 



What is it [the novel or other 
ked of 45% of the sample who 
or other book at the moment. 



Modern fiction (general) 

Detective stories; crime; mys- 
tery; thrillers 

Classic fiction; poetry 

Biography; memoirs 

Travel books 

War books 

Technical and scientific books. . 

Politics; history; social science; 
philosophy 

Religious books 

Miscellaneous 



National 






total 


Men 


Women 


23% 


16% 


1^0 


6 


6 


6 


5 


5 


4 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


4 


— 


3 


5 


2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 



45% 



44% 



47% 



46. (Great Britain Sept 14 '46) Did you borrow it [the book 
you are reading] or is it your own? Asked of 45% of the sam- 
ple who said they were reading a novel or other book at the 
moment, (bipo) 

Subscri^- 
Public Id-shop tion Bor- 
Own library library library rowed Total 
National total . 12% 14% 5% 4% 10% 45% 

BY SEX 

Men 14% 14% 4% 4% 8% 44% 

Women 10 15 7 4 11 47 

BY AGE 

21-29 years ... . 18% 17% 6% 3%, 11% 55% 

30-49 years 12 16 6 4 12 50 

50 years and 

over 11 10 4 4 7 36 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher 31% 11% 2% 12% 13% 697o 

Middle 20 16 7 7 12 62 

Lower 8 14 5 2 9 38 

Very poor 6 11 5 1 6 29 

47. (Czechoslovakia Oct '46) How many books do you have 
in your family library? (czipo) 

None 17% 

1-10 books 26 

10-100 books 38 

Over 100 books 19 

48. (Czechoslovakia Oct '46) How many books have you 
bought this year? (czipo) 

Two More 
None One to five than five 

Total questioned 50% 13%, 23% 14% 

BY OCCUPATION 

Laborers 61%, 16% 17%, 6%, 

White-collar 31 10 33 26 

Farmers 61 12 18 9 

Business and professional. . 32 9 33 26 

49. (Czechoslovakia Oct '46) What prompted you to buy your 
last book? (czipo) 

Advertisement 5.0% 

Press criticism 9.5 

Shop window display 20.0 

Recommendation of a friend 16.0 

Book-cover notice 0.5 

Other suggestions 20.0 

No answer 29-0 

50. (Czechoslovakia Oct '46) Do you prefer books of Czecho- 
slovak authors or translations of foreign writers? (cziPo) 

No general No 
Czechoslovak Foreign opinion answer 

Total questioned... 46%, 6%o 43%, 5%o 

BY AGE 

18-29 years 39% 10% 46% 5% 

30-49 years 47 6 42 5 

50 years and over. . . 48 4 42 6 

51. (Czechoslovakia Oct '46) What book would you take with 
you to a desert island? (czipo) 



[54] 



Don't know 37% 

Works by well known Czechs 10 

The Bible 8 

Histories; encyclopedias; dictionaries. ... 8 
Books by T. G. Masaryk or Eduard Benes 3 

Robinson Crusoe 2 

Gone with the Wind 2 

The Rains Came 1 

Books by Dostoyevski and Munthe 1 

Other 26 



BOOTS AND SHOES 



1. (us July 11 '42) Do you ever wear overshoes, or rubbers, 
or rubber boots? (norc) 

Overshoes 45% 

Rubbers 32 

Rubber boots 13 

Don't wear any 32 

122%* 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

2. (US July 11 '42) How long have you had them [overshoes, 
rubbers, rubber boots]? Asked of a national cross-section of 
people who said they wore overshoes or rubbers or rubber 
boots. 68% of the sample is represented, (norc) 

Overshoes Rubbers Rubber hoots 

Under 6 months 3% 6% 11% 

6 months to 9 months 11 14 12 

10 months to 1 year 20 23 24 

13 months to 2 years 30 27 21 

25 months to 3 years 16 14 9 

37 months to 5 years 14 9 8 

Over 5 years 5 4 9 

Don't know 1 3 6 

3. (US Oct 22 '43 and May 18 '44) Do you think the ration- 
ing of shoes has been handled very well, only fairly well, or 
poorly? The 1943 question was asked of a national cross- 
section of women, (norc) 

Oct '4i May '44 

Very well 69% 76% 

Only fairly well 15 10 

Poorly 13 9 

Don't know 3 5 

4. (US Oct 22 '43 and May 18 '44) In what way hasn't it 
[shoe rationing] been handled as well as it could have been? 
The question was asked of those who thought shoe rationing 
had been handled poorly or only fairly well — 28% of the 1943 
sample of women and 19% of the 1944 sample are represented. 
(norc) 

Oct '4} May '44 
Points too high, should have more points, 

ration too small 4% 4% 

Too few points for children, children need 

more 19 11 

Poor distribution * 1 

Individual allotments arc unfair, unequal 2 — 

Black-market practices * — 

Rationing stimulated buying 1 — 

Answers in terms of shortages 2 — 

Rationing not necessary — 1 



Miscellaneous 

Not ascertainable or don't know. 



Oct '43 
1% 



May '44 

1% 
2 



29%** 20%** 

* Less than 0.3%. 

** Percentages add to more than 28 and 19 because some of the re- 
spondents gave more than one answer. 

5. (US Oct 22 '43 and May 18 '44) Who do you think is mainly 
responsible [for the only fair or poor handling of shoe ration- 
ing]? The question was asked of those who thought shoe 
rationing had been handled poorly or only fairly well — 28% 
of the 1943 sample of women and 19% of the 1944 sample are 
represented, (norc) 

Oct '43 May '44 

General government bureaucracy 3% — 

People in charge of rationing (national). . 3 5% 

OPA 5 3 

Big producers and packers 1 1 

Small dealers and storekeepers * — 

Consumers 1 1 

Local ration board 1 1 

Miscellaneous 1 * 

Not ascertainable or don't know 13 8 

28% 19% 

* Less than 0.5%. 

6. (US Dec 10 '43) Of course, we know there isn't enough for 
everyone to have all he wants, but how about shoes? Does 
your ration allow you and your family as much as you need, 
less than you need, or more than you need? (June 2 '44) Does 
your ration allow you to get all the rationed shoes your family 
really needs? Both questions asked of a national cross-section 
of women who did the family marketing, (norc) 

Dec '43 June '44 

As much 72% 72% 

Less 24 27 

More 4 1 

Don't know or don't use * * 

* Less than O.STe- 

7. (US Dec 10 '43 and June 2 '44) Have you ever tried to get 
any extra allowances of shoes from your ration board? This 
question was asked of those women marketers who said their 
ration didn't allow them and their families enough shoes — 
24% of the 1943 sample and 27% of the 1944 sample were 
questioned, (norc) 

Dec '43 June '44 

Yes 5% 8% 

No 19 18 

Don't know — 1 



24% 



27% 



8. (US Dec 10 '43 and June 2 '44) What happened [when you 
asked your ration board for extra shoe allowances]? This ques- 
tion was asked of those women marketers who had asked for 
extra shoe allowances — 5% of the 1943 sample and 8% of the 
1944 sample are represented, (norc) 



Dec '43 

Got allotment asked for 3% 

Got allotment but criticize procedure * 

Only got part of allotment asked for * 

Plea was denied 1 

Plea denied and respondent feels unfairly 

treated * 



June '44 

5% 
1 



[55] 



Dec '43 June '44 

Haven't heard from board — ** 

Miscellaneous * ** 

Don't know * 1% 

. * = 1% 

5% 8% 

** Less than 0.5%. 

9. (Netherlands Dec 12 '45) In general, are you satisfied or 
dissatisfied with the system and working of the distribution 
of boots and shoes? (nipo) 

Satisfied 28% Dissatisfied 61% No opinion 11% 

10. (Germany July 25 '46) How many pairs of shoes do you 
have that are fit to wear? (omgus) 

No answer 3% 

1 pair 40 

2 pairs 40 

3 pajrs 12 

4 pairs 4 

5 pairs 1 

6 pairs * 

Have no shoes; borrowed them * 

* Less than 0.5%. 

11. (Germany July 25 '46) How many more pairs of shoes 
do you have that could be repaired? (omgus) 

1 pair 43% 

2 pairs 13 

3 pairs 2 

4-5-6 pairs 1 

Have no shoes 7 

None that need repairing. . . 34 

12. (Germany July 25 '46) How many pairs of shoes suited 
for winter wear do you absolutely need to get through next 
winter? (omgus) 

Ipair 55% 

2 pairs 33 

3 pairs 2 

4-5-6 pairs 1 

Need none 9 

13. (Germany July 25 '46) How many pairs of shoes fit for 
winter wear do you have that you can use? (omgus) 

Ipair 41% 

2 pairs 11 

r 3 pairs 2 

I 4-5-6 pairs 1 

> No shoes 46 



101%* 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

14. (Belgium July-Oct '46) When buying shoes are you aware 
of, or do you take note of, the official price (maximum legal 
price)? (iNsoc) 

Don't 

Always Often Rarely Never know 

National total 40% 11% 11% 25% 13% 

BY ENVIRONMENT 

Urban 39% 10% 11% 26% 14% 

Rural 39 13 12 25 11 

Industrial 42 12 11 22 13 



Always Often l 

BY OCCUPATION 

Farmers 34% 16% 

Workers 37 11 

White-collar 35 12 

Businessmen 46 8 

Professional 30 9 

Living on income. . 48 9 

Housewives 45 11 







Don't 


Rarely 


Never 


know 


12% 


27% 


11% 


13 


21 


18 


12 


27 


14 


9 


24 


13 


8 


40 


13 


8 


24 


11 



12 



27 



16. (Belgium July-Oct '46) When buying [shoes] with ration 
stamps or certificates of entitlement, do you ever have to pay 
more than the fixed official price (maximum legal price)? 
(iNsoc) 

Don't 

Always Often Rarely Never know 

National total ... . 5% 11% 10% 42% 32% 

BY ENVIRONMENT 

Urban 5% 11% 10% 41% 33% 

Rural 6 14 11 40 29 

Industrial 4 7 10 45 34 

BY OCCUPATION 

Farmers 7% 18% 11% 34% 30% 

Workers 4 10 10 39 37 

White-collar 8 8 10 41 33 

Businessmen 4 10 16 42 28 

Professional 6 15 4 45 30 

Living on income. . 4 11 11 46 28 

Housewives 5 11 10 48 26 

16. (Belgium July-Oct '46) Did you ever buy [shoes] without 
ration stamps or certificates? (insoc) 



Often Rarely 

National total 23% 29% 

BY ENVIRONMENT 

Urban 23% 27% 

Rural 28 29 

Industrial 14 33 

BY OCCUPATION 

Farmers 39% 29% 

Workers 17 29 

White-collar 22 33 

Businessmen 27 34 

Professional 31 27 

Living on income 15 24 





Don't 


Never 


know 


40% 


8% 


41% 


9% 


37 


6 


45 


8 


27% 


5% 


43 


11 


38 


7 


28 


11 


33 


9 


54 


7 



BOUNTIES, MILITARY 



1. (us Nov 2 '35) Do you favor immediate cash payment of 
the soldiers' bonus? (aipo) 

Yes No 

National total 55% 45% 

BY politics 

Republican 49% 51% 

Democratic 59 41 



L 



[5G] 



Yes No 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 50.5% 49.5% 

Middle Atlantic 56 44 

East central 56 44 

West central 53 47 

South 57 43 

Mountain 57 43 

Pacific coast 52 48 

2. (US Jan '36) Do you favor the payment of the bonus now 
or when it is due in 1945? (for) 



National total . . 

BY 

Northeast 

Midwest 


Now 
■ ■ 45.0% 

GEOGRAPHICAL 

. . 37.7% 
. . 46.1 


When clue 
40.4% 

SECTION 

48.8% 

40.1 

32.3 

34.7 

44.1 

38.8 


Don' t know 
14.6% 

13.5% 
13. 8 


Southeast 

Southwest 

West 

Pacific coast . . . . 


. . 47.1 
. . 56.5 
. . 36.4 
. . 46.0 


20.6 

8.8 

19.5 

15.2 



3. (US Jan 4 '44) A bill in Congress provides that members of 
the armed forces be given a certain sum of money by the gov- 
ernment when they leave the service. Do you approve or dis- 
approve of this idea? (alpo) 

Approve 88% Disapprove 8% Undecided 4% 

4. (US Jan 4 '44) Here are the amounts that have been pro- 
posed for servicemen who have served outside the United States 
—$500 for 18 months or more, S400 for 12 to 18 months, 
$300 for less than 12 months; for servicemen who have served 
only in the United States — $300 for 12 months or more, $200 
for less than 12 months. Do you think these amounts are too 
*arge, too small, or about right? (aipo) 

Oppose any payment 8% 

Too large 3 

Too small 11 

About right 64 

Undecided 7 

Qualified approval 7 

6. (US Jan 4 '44) Would you, personally, be willing to pay 
higher taxes in order to make these payments [to veterans] 
possible? (aipo) 

Yes 70% No 20% Undecided 10% 

6. (US Mar 27 '46) Would you be willing to pay higher taxes 
to have your state government pay a bonus to war veterans of 
this state? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

National total 52% 39% 9% 



BY VETERAN STATUS 

Veterans 

Rest of population 



63% 33% 



50 



41 



4% 
9 



7. (US Mar 27 '46) How much do you think the [veterans'] 

bonus should be? (aipo) 

Unwilling to pay higher tax for bo- 
nus or no opinion on the subject. . . 48% 

$100 and under 3 

Over $100 to $200 4 

Over $200 to $300 6 

Over $300 to under $500 1 

$500 9 

Over $400 to under $1,000 2 

$1,000 5 



Over $1,000 to $2,000 2% 

Over $2,000 1 

Miscellaneous 5 

Don't know or no answer 14 

Median $200* 
* This includes the views of the total sample. 

8. (US Mar 27 '46) Would you favor or oppose a lottery run 
by the state to pay veterans' bonuses? Asked of 52% of the 
simple who would be willing to pay higher taxes to have the 
state government pay a bonus to war veterans of the state. 
(aipo) 

Favor 25% 

Oppose 21 

No answer 2 

No opinion 4 

52% 



BRAZIL 



Appropriations and Expenditures 

1. (Brazil Nov '46) If you were an official executive and had 
to reduce governmental expenses by cutting down budgets of 
three Ministries, at which of them wolild you rather do the 
cutting? (ibope) 

Ministry of War 23% 

Air forces 17 

Justice 15 

Navy 14 

Treasury 11 

Labor 7 

Transport 4 

Health and education 4 

Agriculture 2 

State Department 1 

Don't know 61 

No cutting at all 1 

Cut all of them 1 

Increase all budgets 1 

162%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

2. (Brazil Nov '46) If you were an official executive in charge 
of distributing a special appropriation, to which of the fol- 
lowing would you distribute it? (ibope) 

Foundation of new schools 44% 

Foundation of new hospital 25 

Construction of new highways 9 

Agricultural implements 9 

Steel and iron works 2 

Oil research and drilling 1 

Settlement of immigrants 1 

Civil aviation > 1 

Military equipment 1 

Government staff 1 

Don't know 6 

3. (Brazil Nov '46) Do you think the money the government 
invested in building up the steel and iron works of Volta 
Redonda was well used or wasted? (ibope) 

Well used 74% Wasted 6% No opinion 20% 



[57] 



4. (Brazil Nov '46) Do you think the money invested by the 
government in building up the national factory of aviation 
motors was well used or wasted? (ibope) 
Well used 66% Wasted 11% No opinion 23% 



BREAD 



1. (Sweden Apr '42) Would you prefer that fewer kinds of 
bread were made if this would mean lower prices? (sgi) 

Yes No No opinion 

National total . . . 57% 10% 33% 



BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Towns 68% 14% 

Country 51 8 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 627o 12% 



Middle class. 
Others . 



Men . . . 
Women . 



54 
59 

BY SEX 

60% 
55 



10 
10 

10% 
10 



18% 
41 



26% 

36 

31 

30% 
35 



2. (Sweden Apr '42) Would you prefer that fewer kinds of 
cakes were made if this would mean lower prices? (sgi) 

Yes 53% No 11% No opinion 36% 

3. (Great Britain Jan 24 '43) Lord Woolton says that we must 
eat less bread. Do you think people will cut down voluntarily, 
or should there be rationing? (bipo) 

Voluntary 47% Ration 42% Don't know 11% 

4. (Australia Apr '43) Do you object to day-baking if it means 
that bread baked yesterday is delivered today? (apop) 
Don't object 64% Object 28% Undecided 8% 

5. (Australia Oct '43) Do you find that zoning of bread and 
milk is working out fairly well? Asked in the zoned districts. 
(apop) 

Satisfied with both 59% 

Satisfied with bread 17 

Satisfied with milk 3 

Dissatisfied 16 

Undecided 5 

6. (Australia Oct '43) Would you like it [bread and milk 
zoning] continued after the war? Asked in the zoned districts. 
(apop) 

Favored 34% Oppose 49% Undecided 17% 

7. (Australia June-July '45) Would you like zoning of bread 
to continue after the war? Asked in the zoned districts, (apop) 
Opposed 55% In favor 30% Indifferent 15% 

8. (Australia Nov '45) Would you mind if zoning of bread 
continues? Asked in the zoned districts, (apop) 



Men . . . 
Women. 



Opposed 
69% 
55 



In favor 

31% 
45 



M. Pincau 23% 

The Ministers of Food 20 

The De Gaulle government. 21 

The farmers 12 

The black market 3 

The administration 2 

The capitalists 1 

The Americans 1 

Other answers 4 

No answer 16 



9. (France Feb 16 '46) In your opinion, is anyone responsible 
for the present bread crisis? Who? (fipo) 



103%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

10. (France Feb 16 '46) What quantity of bread do you con- 
sider neces/ary for your nourishment each day? (fipo) 

BY SEX 

Men Women 

Less than 350 grams 6% 17% 

350-450 grams 30 43 

450-550 grams , 40 30 

550-650 grams 8 3 

650-750 grams 5 2 

750-850 grams 6 3 

850 grams and over 5 2 

Median 520 grams 450 grams 

MEDIAN BY AGE 

20-34 years 540 grams 

35-49 years 520 grams 

50-64 years 510 grams 

65 years and over 470 grams 

11. (US Mar 27 '46) Have you heard or read anything which 
told exactly how much less bread you are to use? How much 
less bread? Results for the two questions have been combined. 
(aipo) 

Yes 30% No 69% No answer 1% 

Median 20% less bread 

12. (Great Britain Apr '46) Would you approve or disapprove 
if rationing of bread were introduced into this country? (bipo) 
Approve 41% Disapprove 50% Don't know 9% 

13. (Great Britain Apr '46) Do you think it would be possible 
to make bread rationing work? (bipo) 

Yes 51% No 35% Don't know 14% 

14. (Great Britain Apr '46) What do you think would be a 
reasonable weekly ration [of bread] for each person? (bipo) 

2-3 lbs. per week 17% 

4 lbs. per week 19 

5 lbs. per week 13 

6 lbs. per week 14 

7 lbs. per week 21 

More than 7 lbs 11 

Don't know 5 

15. (US Apr 10 '46) Have you heard or read anything which 
told exactly how much less bread you are to use? How much 
less bread? Results for these two questions have been com- 
bined, (aipo) 

Yes 27% No 62% Don't know 9% No answer 2% 
Median 25% less bread 

16. (Belgium July-Oct '46) Did you ever buy bread or flour 
without ration stamps or certificates? (insoc) 



[58] 



Don't 

Often Rarely Never know 

National total 17.3% 23.4% 53.2% 6.1% 

BY ENVIRONMENT 

Urban 15.2% 20.1% 57.1% 7.6% 

Rural 21.6 23.7 50.0 4.7 

Industrial 15.0 293 50.2 55 

BY OCCUPATION 

Farmers 18.2% 19.6%, 57.7%o 4.5% 

Workers 22.5 24.1 44.7 8.7 

White-collar 14.5 25.5 52.6 7.4 

Businessmen 12.2 291 511 7.6 

Living on income 8.6 18.4 67.5 55 

Professional 10.0 21.1 58.9 10.0 

Housewives 17.3 22.5 59.0 1.2 

17. (Great Britain Aug '46) How are you and your family 
managing on bread rationing? (bipo) 

Very Fairly With 

well well difficulty Badly 

National total 33% 43% 18% 6% 

BY SEX 

Men 34% 44% 17% 5% 

Women 33 41 20 6 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher 37% 48% 11% 4% 

Middle 36 44 15 5 

Lower 32 42 20 6 

Very poor 29 41 22 8 

BY POLITICS 

Conservative 27% 46% 20% 7% 

Labor 39 39 17 5 

Liberal 32 47 15 6 

Other voters 34 34 32 — 

Non-voters 31 42 19 8 

18. (Great Britain Sept 14 '46) If bread rationing stops, should 
cakes also be off the ration, or should they still be rationed? 

(bipo^ 

^ -^ Off Still Dotit 

ration rationed know 

National total 40% 50% 10% 

BY SEX 

Men 40% 43% 17% 

Women 39 58 3 

BY AGE 

21-29 years • 38% 52% 10% 

30-49 years 38 52 10 

50 years and over 42 48 10 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher 40% 43% 17% 

Middle 39 52 9 

Lower 40 50 10 

Very poor 44 44 12 

Housewives 37% 60% 3% 



BUDGET 



U.S. 

1. (us Dec 18 '35 and Apr 12 '37) Do you think it necessary 
at this time to balance the budget and start reducing the 
national debt? (aipo) 



No No opinion 

30% = 100% 
29 = 100 



14% 



Yts 

Dec '35 70% 

Apr '37 71 

DEC '35 RESULTS BY POLITICS 

Democratic 55% 45% 

Republican 89 H 

DEC '35 RESULTS BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 75%, 25% 

Middle Atlantic 70 30 

East central 72 28 

West central 71 29 

South 67 33 

Mountain 70 30 

Pacific coast 66 34 

2. (US Dec 28 '35 and Apr 12 '37) Should this [balancing the 
budget] be done by higher taxes, government economies, or 
both? The question was asked of those who thought it neces- 
sary to balance the budget and start reducing the national 
debt— 70% of the 1935 sample and 71% of the 1937 sample 
arc represented, (aipo) 

Dec '3J Apr '37 

Higher taxes 2%, 2%, 

Government economies 80 72 

Both 18 26 



100%* 100%* 

* 100% of those who thought it necessary to balance the budget and 
start reducing the national debt. 

3. (US Nov 13 '36) Do you think it necessary for the new 
administration to balance the budget? (aipo) 

Yes 70% No 30% 

4. (US Nov 13 '36) In your opinion, whose responsibility for 
balancing the budget is greater, the President's or Congress'? 
(aipo) 

President 38% Congress 62% = 100% No opinions 19% 

5. (US Jan 25 '37) Do you believe it necessary to reduce the 
national debt at this time in order to prepare for future emer- 
gency borrowing? (aipo) 

Yes 65% No 35% = 100% No opinion 25% 

6. (US Jan 25 '37) In your estimation, how much is the na- 
tional debt today? (Mar 29 '44) About how much do you 
think the national public debt is now? (aipo) 



iP37 results 

Under 100 millions 3% 

lOa 999 millions 1 

1-9 billions 5 

10-19 billions 5 

20-29 billions 5 

30-39 billions 23 

40-49 billions 5 

50-99 billions 4 

100 billions and over. . . 1 

No opinion 48 



1944 results 

In the millions 6% 

Under 100 billions 18 

100 to under 150 billions 12 

150 to under 175 billions 5 

175 to under 200 billions 3 

200 billions (correct). . . 9 
Over 200 including 225 

billions 1 

Over 225 including 250 

billions 3 

Over 250 including 300 

billions 3 

Over 300 billions 3 

Billions 5 

No estimate 32 

Median 100 to 150 billions 

7. (US Apr 19 '37) Would you favor increasing income taxes 
as a means of balancing the national budget? (aipo) 

Yes 52% No 39% No opinion 9% 



[59] 



8. (US Apr 26 '37) As a means of balancing the national 
budget, which of these two ways do you prefer: national sales 
tax or increasing income taxes? (aipo) 

National sales tax 31% Income taxes 58% No opinion 11% 

9. (US Aug 16 '37) Do you think this administration will be 
able to balance the national budget during the next year? 
(aipo) 

Yes No 

National total 16% 84% 

BY POLITICS 

Democratic 24% 76%, 

Republican 6 94 

10. (US Dec 23 '38) Do you think the Roosevelt administra- 
tion will balance the federal budget by 1940? (aipo) 

Yes 11% No 89% = 100% No opinion 18%, 

11. (US Mar '39) If you were a member of the incoming 
Congress, would you vote yes or no on a bill to reduce fed- 
eral spending to the point where the national budget is bal- 
anced? (for) 

Yes No Don't know 

National total 61.3%o 17.4% 21.3% 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Prosperous 76.3% 

Upper middle 67.1 

Lower middle 62.2 

Poor 54.8 

Negroes 40.2 

Unemployed 57.5 

BY ATTITUDES TOWARD ROOSEVELT 

Roosevelt essential 45-6% 

Good outweighs bad 54.4 

Usefulness over 77.5 

Roosevelt a calamity 84.6 

12. (US Nov 15 '39) Should the federal government increase 
taxes at this time in order to balance its budget or should it 
borrow money to make up the deficit? A comparable cross- 
section was asked the question in the following form: Do you 
think the federal government should borrow money at this 
time to make up the deficit, or should the government increase 
taxes in order to balance the budget? Results were combined. 
(aipo) 

Increase taxes 31% 

Borrow money 31 

No opinion 33 

No answer 5 

13. (US Dec 22 '39) At present, the federal government is 
spending several billion dollars more than it takes in each 
year. If the Republicans win the next presidential election, 
do you think they will make the government's income equal 
expenses within two years? (aipo) 

Yes, strongly felt 4% 

Yes, not strongly 8 

No, strongly felt 38 

No, not strongly 30 

Don't know 20 

14. (US Dec 22 '39) If the Democrats win the next presiden- 
tial election, do you think they will make the government's 
income equal expenses within two years? (aipo) 

Yes, strongly felt 2% 

Yes, not strongly 4 

No, strongly felt 48 



11.1% 


12.6% 


17.8 


15.1 


17.8 


20.0 


18.3 


26.9 


19.5 


40.3 


20.0 


22.5 


DSEVELT 

22.3% 


32.1% 


21.8 


23.8 


12.3 


10.2 


7.4 


8.0 



No, not strongly 27% 

Don ' t know 18 

No answer 1 

15. (US Jan 30 '40) Which political partv do you think is 
more likely to balance the federal government's budget in the 
next four years — the Republicans or the Democrats? (aipo) 

Repub- Demo- Don't 

licans crats Neither know 

National total 42% 23%o 35%o = 100% 16% 

BY POLITICS 

Democratic 15% 41% 44% 

Republican 75 4 21 

16. (US Apr '40) Which of these statements comes closest to 
describing your feelings: (1) The federal budget should be 
balanced immediately at all costs. (2) The government should 
make whatever changes are necessary in spending and taxation 
to bring the budget into balance. (3) We should continue with 
an unbalanced budget until real recovery has set in. (for) 

State- State- State- Don't 

7nent 1 ment 2 ment 3 know 
National total 9.1%o 48.4%, 25.9% 16.6% 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Prosperous 12.3% 

Upper middle 10.3 

Lower middle 9-3 

Poor 6.0 

Negro 9.1 

17. (US May '40) How would you want this [balancing the 
budget] done? Asked of a national cross-section of people who 
thought the next administration should balance the budget. 
(for) 

By 
reducing By 

exfendi- increasing 
tures taxes 

National total 71.1% 



63.7% 


16.7% 


7.3% 


60.7 


19.6 


9.4 


50.4 


27.0 


13.3 


38.1 


33.4 


22.5 


23.5 


25.9 


41.5 



4.0% 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Prosperous 68.7% 1.7% 

Poor 68.0 5.7 



Don't 
Both know 

15.0% 9.9% 



23.3% 
12.6 



6.3% 
13.7 



18. (US Oct '43) With which of these two statements are you 
more nearly in agreement: (1) There is no difference between 
government and private debt. In both cases, current budgets 
should be balanced as soon as possible — otherwise ruin follows. 
(2) Provided we have an expanding national income, it is not 
necessary to fear the expansion of government debt in the way 
that we fear an unbalanced private or business budget. Asked 
of a national cross-section of business executives, (for) 

Statement 1 86.2% Statement 2 13.8%o 

19. (US Aug 14 '46) Can you tell me what is meant by bal- 
ancing the federal budget? (aipo) 

Incorrect or 
Correct don't know 
National totai 49% 51% 

BY EDUCATION 

College 77%, 23%o 

High school 55 45 

Grammar school or no school. . . 37 63 

20. (US Aug 14 '46) Some people say that if we're going to 
balance the federal budget we've got to keep income taxes at 
the present rates. Others say it's more important to cut income 



[60] 



taxes than it is to balance the budget. Which do vou think 
is the more important to do in the coming year — balance tile 
budget or cut income taxes? (aipo) 

Favor Favor 

balancing cutting No 

budget tax opinion 

National total 71% 20% 9% 

BY OCCUPATION 

Professional and business 78% 15% 7% 

Farmers 75 17 8 

White-collar 72 21 7 

Manual workers 64 25 11 



BUDGET, HOUSEHOLD 



1. (Sweden Feb '43) Do you try to budget your expenses? (sGi) 

Yts No 

National total 54% 46% 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 64% 36% 

Middle class 60 40 

Workers 49 51 

BY AGE 

20-29 years 49% 51% 

30-49 years 56 44 

50 years and over 54 46 

2. (Australia Nov '43) If a wife doesn't spend all the house- 
keeping money, who should own what's left? (apop) 

Wife Husband Both Spend it Un- 
oivn it own it share it on home decided 
National total . . . 60% 5% 25% 7% 3% 

BY SEX 

Spend it on home 
and Undecided 

Men 51% 9% 28% 12% 

Women 69 1 21 9 

3. (Great Britain Nov 20 '43) Do you think that wives should 
be allowed to keep any savings out of housekeeping money? 
(bipo) 

Yes 78% No 157o Don't know 7% 

4. (Great Britain Nov 20 '43) Does your wife know how 
much you earn each week? Asked of a national cross-section 
of husbands, (bipo) 

Yes 75% No 25% 

5. (Great Britain Nov 20 '43) Does your husband tell you 
how much he earns each week? Asked of a national cross- 
section of wives, (bipo) 

Yes 72% No 28% 

6. (Great Britain Nov 20 '43) How do you arrange about the 
spending of money? (bipo) 

Wife fixed 49% Husband fixed 17% Differs 34% 

7. (Sweden June '45) Does your wife (do you) receive a cer- 
tain sum for household expenses? Asked of a national cross- 
section of men and married women who were not breadwinners 
outside their homes, (sgi) 



National total 



Men . . . 
Women. 



Yes 

40% 

BY SEX 

42% 
39 



No 
56<:'; 

54% 
57 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 50% 46% 

Middle class 35 61 

Workers 44 52 



No answer 

4% 

4% 
4 

4% 
4 

4 



8. (Sweden June '45) Does your wife (do you) get this money 
[certain sum for household expenses] every month, every week, 
or once a fortnight? Asked of a national cross-section of men 
and married women who were not breadwinners outside their 
homes, but who received a fixed household allowance. 40% 
of the sample is represented, (sgi) 

Every Every Once a Other 
month week fortnight replies 
National total 33% 46% 17% 4% = 100%* 

BY SEX 

37% 41% 18% 4% 



Men 

Women 29 



52 



15 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 61% 19% t''^- 

Middle class 47 36 

Workers 23 55 



17% 3% 
12 5 

19 3 

* Percentages are based on the total number of men and married 

women who were not breadwinners outside of their homes, but who 

received a fixed household allowance. 

9. (Sweden June '45) How much [household expense money 
does your wife or you receive]? Asked of a national cross- 
section of men and married women who were not breadwinners 
outside their homes, but who received a fixed household allow- 
ance. 40% of the sample is represented, (sgi) 

Less than 20 kr. a week** . . 2% 

20-29 kr. a week 14 

30-39 kr. a week 37 

40-49 kr. a week 17 

50-59 kr. a week 15 

60 kr. a week or more 11 

Wife gets whole salary 4 



* Percentages are based on the total number of men and married 
women who were not breadwinners outside their homes, but who re- 
ceived a fixed household allowance. 

** The krona was approximately 23 cents in American money at this 
time. 

10. (Denmark June 15 '46) Does your wife receive a fixed sum 
weekly or monthly for [household] expenses? Asked of a na- 
tional cross-section of married men. (dgi) 

Yes 41% No 59% 

11. (Denmark June 15 '46) What amount, approximately, does 
your wife receive? Asked of 41% of the sample of married men 
whose wives received a fixed sum weekly or monthly for house- 
hold expenses, (dgi) 

Less than 150 kr.* 11% 

150-179 kr 20 

180-239 kr 40 

240-299 kr 15 

300-349 kr 9 

More than 350 kr 5 



100% of those 
whose wives received a fixed sum monthly 
for household expenses 



HOUSEKEEPING MONEY PER NUMBER OF PERSONS 





2 people 


(average). . 


. 180 kr. 






3 people 


(average) . . 


. 213 kr. 






4 people 


(average) . . 


. 237 kr. 






5 people 


(average). . 


. 256 kr. 






6 people 


or over 


. 295 kr. 




* The Danish krone was 


approximately 21 cents in American 


money 


at this time. 











12. (US June 26 '46 and Great Britain Dec '46) In some fami- 
lies the wife manages most of the money while in others the 
husband does. Who manages most of the money in your house- 
hold? Asked of a national cross-section of married people. 
(aipo and bipo) 

Husband Wife Both 

US 29% 32% 39% 

Great Britain 22 54 24 

44% 
39 

47 
34 

24% 
23 



AMERICAN OPINIONS BY OCCUPATION 



Professional and business. 

White-collar 

Farmers 

Manual workers 



30% 
29 
37 
24 



26% 
32 

16 

42 



BRITISH OPINIONS BY MARITAL STATUS 

Husbands 26% 50% 

Wives 18 59 



13. (US June 26 "46) Do you think this is the best arrange- 
ment [of management of money] in your case? (aipo) (Great 
Britain Dec '46) Do you think that this is the best arrange- 
ment? (bipo) Asked of the same sample as the preceding ques- 
tion. 



OPINION in the united STATES 

Yes No 



National total 93' 



7o 



4% 



No opinion 
3% 



OPINION IN GREAT BRITAIN 

Families in which the husband 

manages most of the money. . 86% 10% 4% 

Families in which the wife man- 
ages most of the money 92 4 4 

Families in which the money is 

managed equally 93 3 4 

14. (US Aug '46) Who do you think should have the most 
to say in deciding how the family money is to be spent, the 
husband or the wife? (for) 







BY SEX 










Hus- 




Both 


De- 


Don't 




band 


Wife 


the same 


pends 


know 


Men 


.... 27.2% 


16.2% 


46.1% 


SA7o 


2.1% 


Women 


.... 11.0 


23.3 


552 


7.7 


2.8 


BUSINESS CYCLES 



\ 



1. (US May 9 36) Are the acts and policies of the present 
administration helping or hindering recovery? (aipo) 

Helping Hindering 

National total 55% 45% 

BY POLITICS 

Democratic 93% 7% 

Republican 10 90 

Socialist 48 52 

Others 24 76 



[61] 

Helping Hindering 

STATE BY STATE 

South Carolina 87% 13% 

Mississippi 83 17 

Texas 82 18 

Alabama 82 18 

Georgia 81 19 

Tennessee 81 19 

Utah 80 20 

North Carolina 78 22 

Oregon 78 22 

Kentucky 77 23 

Arkansas 76 24 

Florida 75 25 

Washington 75 25 

Louisiana 73 27 

New Mexico 72 28 

Montana 69 31 

Missouri 68 32 

Virginia 68 32 

Arizona 68 32 

Minnesota 64 36 

Michigan 62 38 

Ohio 61 39 

Indiana. 60 40 

Oklahoma 59 41 

Illinois 58 42 

Idaho 58 42 

Wisconsin 57 43 

California 57 43 

Delaware 55 45 

West Virginia 55 45 

Wyoming 53 47 

Nebraska 51 49 

Iowa 50 50 

South Dakota 50 50 

Vermont 49 51 

New York 49 51 

Kansas 49 51 

North Dakota 49 51 

Pennsylvania 48 52 

Colorado 48 52 

Connecticut 47 53 

Massachusetts 46 54 

Nevada 46 54 

New Hampshire 45 55 

New Jersey 45 55 

Maryland 45 55 

Maine 44 56 

Rhode Island 42 58 

2. (US July '36; Jan '37; Apr '37) Do you believe the depres- 
sion is over? (for) 

Don't 

Yes Partly No know 

July '36 16.3% 36.3% 40.8% 6.6% 

Jan '37 25.5 34.8 31.9 7.8 

Apr '37 26.3 51.4 19.8 2.5 

3. (US July '36) Do you believe the present state of affairs is 
due to or in spite of the policies of the government? (for) 

Due In Don't 

to spite of Both know 

BY OPINIONS ABOUT THE DEPRESSION 

The depression is over 28.8% 45.2% 17.4% 8.6% 

The depression is not over. . 22.6 38.3 19.0 20.1 

The depression is partly over 22.4 398 26.2 11.6 



[62] 



Due In Don't 

to spite of Both know 

DY CURRENT ECONOMIC STATUS 

Personally better off than in 

the last two or three years 24.5% 44.3% 18.4% 12.8% 

Not better off 23.9 34.9 19.5 21.7 

Same 199 353 25.8 19.0 

4. (US Nov 1 '36) Do you think there will be another serious 
depression? (aipo) 

Yes No 

National total 67% 33% 

DV POLITICS 

Democratic 56% 44% 

Republican 84 16 

Socialist 88 12 

Lemke voters 40 60 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Farmers 65% 35% 

Small towns 72 28 

Cities 67 33 

6. (US Nov 4 '36) In what year [do you think the depression 
will come]? Asked of 67% of the sample who thought there 
would be another serious depression, (aipo) 

1936-1940 21% 

1941-1945 27 

1946-1950 30 

1951-1956 12 

Later than 1956 10 



100% of those 
who thought there would be another 
depression 

6. (US Oct 18 '37, Dec 13 '37, Mar 8 '38) Do you expect gen- 
eral business conditions will be better or worse during the next 
six months? (Jan 19 '38 and Apr 27 '38) Do you think business 
will be better or worse six months from now? (Aug 8 '39) 
Do you personally expect business conditions throughout the 
country to be more prosperous or less prosperous during the 
next six months than they are now? (aipo) 

Better Worse No opinion 

Oct '37 64% 36% =100% 19% 

Dec '37 58 42 15 

Jan '38 78 22 17 

Mar '38 76 24 24 

Apr '38 69 31 29 

Aug '39 64 36 9 

OCT '37, DEC '37, JAN '38, AUG '39 OPINIONS BY 
GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 

Oct '37 67% 33% 

Dec '37 69 31 

Jan '38 77 23 

Aug '39 80 20 

Middle Atlantic 

Oct '37 60 40 

Dec '37 62 38 

Jan '38 79 21 

Aug '39 66 34 

East central 

Oct '37 60 40 

Dec '37 66 • 34 

Jan '38 81 19 

Aug '39 61 39 



Better 

West central 

Oct '37 70% 

Dec '37 55 

Jan '38 76 

Aug '39 55 

South 

Oct '37 67 

Dec '37 48 

Jan '38 75 

Aug '39 72 

Mountain 

Oct '37 65 

Dec '37 31 

Jan '38 82 

West 

Aug '39 63 

Pacific coast 

Oct '37 78 

Dec '37 50 

Jan '38 77 



Worse 

30% 
45 
24 
45 

33 
52 
25 
28 

35 

69 
18 

37 

22 
50 

23 



No opinion 



OCT '37 OPINIONS BY POLITICS 

Democratic 69% 31% 

Republican 51 49 

7. (US Nov 12 '37) Have you noticed any decline in business 
in this community during the last two months? (aipo) 

Yes No 

National total 63% 37% 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 69% 31% 

Middle Atlantic 60 40 

East central 70 30 

West central 61 39 

South 63 37 

Mountain 61 39 

Pacific coast 59 41 

8. (US Nov 12 "37) Do you think the Roosevelt administra- 
tion is to blame for this decline [in business during the last 
two months]? Asked of 63% of the sample who had noticed 
a decline in business. (Mar 8 '38) Do you think the Roosevelt 
administration is to blame for the present decline in business — 
entirely, partly, or not at all? (aipo) 



Entirely Partly 

Nov '37 19% 39% 

Mar '38 12 49 



Not 
at all 
42% 
33 



No 
opinion 

6% 



100%* 



NOV '37 opinions by geographical section 



New England . . . . 
Middle Atlantic. . 

East central 

West central 

South 

Mountain 

Pacific coast 



16% 

18 

20 

18 

19 

23 

14 



41% 

41 

39 

45 

35 

32 

40 



43% = 100%* 

41 

41 

37 

46 

45 

46 



NOV '37 opinions by politics 

Democratic 6% 31% 63% 

Republican 40 49 11 

* 100% of those who had noticed a decline. 

9. (US Dec 28 '37 and Mar 15 '38) Should the principal blame 
for the present decline in business be placed on business, on 
labor, on the Roosevelt administration, or on natural economic 
forces? The '38 question read "most of the blame" instead of 
"principal blame." (aipo) 



\ 



[63] 





'Roosevelt 








adminis- 


Economic 


No 


Labor 


tration 


forces 


opinion 


12% 


21% 


27% 


19% 


12 


21 


11 


23* 



Business 

Dec '37 21% 

Mar "38 17 

* No opinion included persons who could not decide upon one single 
cause. They amount to 8% of the total vote. 

10. (Great Britain Jan '38) Do you think England will have 
a decline in business this year, like that now occurring in the 
United States? (bipo) 



Yes 13% 



No 50% 



No opinion 37% 



11. (US Apr 6 '38) If you were in President Roosevelt's place, 
what would you do to fight the depression? (aipo) 

Remove restrictions on business initiative. . . . 27% 

Just what he is doing 11 

Reduce government spending and try to bal- 
ance budget 10 

Increase government spending 7 

Reduce taxes 5 

All other suggestions 40 



100% 



No opinion 50% 

12. (US Apr 6 '38) Would you call the present state of busi- 
ness a recession or a depression? (aipo) 

Recession Depression No opinion 

National total 42% 58% = 100% 12% 

BY POLITICS 

Republican 28% 72% 

Democratic 50 50 

13. (US Apr 6 '38) Do you think it is fair to call it [present 
state of business] the Roosevelt recession (depression)? (aipo) 
Yes 43% No 57% = 100% No opinion 10% 

14. (US Apr 6 '38) Do you think it was fair to call the 1929 
slump in business the Hoover depression? (aipo) 

Yes 24% No 65% No opinion 11% 

15. (US May 25 '38) Do you think we have passed the worst 
point in the present depression? (aipo) 

Yes 34% No 47% No opinion 19% 

16. (US May 25 '38) About when do you think business will 
pick up again? A comparable cross-section was asked: About 
when do you think another rise in business will begin? Results 
were combined, (aipo) 

No opinion 46% 

Fall 1938 13 

Summer 1938 8 

1940 8 

End of 1938 5 

End of present administration 4 

Has begun 3 

1941 2 

[, Other answers 11 

17. (US May 27 '38) What is your own explanation of the 
cause of the present depression? (aipo) 

Policies of the present administration; spending; etc 30% 

Lack of cooperation between government and business . . 12 

Lack of confidence; unwillingness to spend; etc 9 

Lack of purchasing power; unequal distribution of 

wealth; etc '. . ■ . 7 

Business; sit-down strike by capital 7 



Technological unemployment 5% 

Aftermath of war 5 

Labor trouble; strikes; CIO; etc 5 

Overproduction 3 

Natural causes; business cycle; etc 3 

People living beyond their means 2 

Lack of cooperation between business and labor 2 

Political graft 2 

All others 8 



No opinion . 



100% 

30% 

Blaming 

Roosevelt Blaming 

and all other Blaming 

New Deal causes business 



BY POLITICS 



All 1936 Republicans 53% 

All 1936 Democrats 15 

1936 Democrats now Repub- 
licans 38 



47% 
85 

62 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper 42% 48% 

Middle 31 58 

Lower 21 63 



10% 

11 

16 



18. (US June 21 '38) Do you think business would be better 
or worse today if we had a Republican president? (May 18 '39 
and Nov 18 '39) Do you think business would be more pros- 
perous or less prosperous if we had a Republican president in 
the White House? A comparable cross-section was asked the 
question in the following form: Do vou think business would 
be better or worse if we had a Republican president in the 
White House? Results were combined, (aipo) 



June '38. 
May '39. 
Nov '39. 



More 

prosperous 

or better 

60% 

50 

41 



Less 
prosperous 
or worse 
40% 
26 
27 



About 
the same 

24% 
32 



MAY '39 AND NOV '39 OPINIONS BY POLITICS 

Republican 

May '39 85% 

Nov '39 79 

Democratic 

May '39 29 

Nov '39 



3% 
2 



12% 
19 



10 



42 
50 



29 
40 



MAY '39 OPINIONS BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 62% 20% 18% 

Middle class 54 22 24 

Lower class 40 34 26 

Reliefers 37 38 25 

19. (US July '38) Do you think that economic conditions in 
this country are better or worse now than they were a year 
ago? (for) 

IN COMPARISON WITH APR '38 

Apr '38 July '3S 

Better 25.3% 16.3% 

Same 17.2 18.1 

Worse 51.0 60.2 

Don't know 6.5 54 

20. (US July '38) Do you think better times are coming soon 
— perhaps within the next twelve months? (for) 



L 



[G4] 



Yes 36.6% 

Depends 19.6 

No 24.3 

Don't know 19-5 

21. (US July '38) What do you think will bring it [better 
times] about? Asked of 56.2% of the sample who thought 
better times were coming soon or gave qualified answers, (for) 

Got'trn- 
Indus trial merit Don't 

activity activity Other know 

National 
total 36.9% 32.7% 21.3% 9.1% = 100.0%* 

BY SELECTED OCCUPATIONS 

Executives.. 39.4% 28.9% 28.4% 3.3% = 100.0%* 
Factory labor 37.0 34.0 14.0 15-0 = 100.0* 

* 100% of those who thought there was a possibility of better times 
coming soon. 

22. (US Jan 23 '39) Do you think that, to improve business 
conditions, it would be better to follow the leadership of big 
businessmen or the leadership of the Roosevelt administration? 
(aipo) 

Business 48% 

Administration 33 

No opinion 14 

Other answers 5 

23. (US Mar 2 "39 and May 10 '39) Do you think the attitude 
of the Roosevelt administration toward business is delaying 
business recovery? A comparable cross-section was asked the 
same question about businessmen instead of business. Results 
were combined, (aipo) 

Yes, Yes, 

a lot a little No No opinion 

Mar '39.... 41% 26% 33% = 100% 20% 

May '36.... 63% 37 = 100 16 

24. (US Apr '39) Which of these do you think is the main 
thing now holding hack greater prosperity in this country? 
(for) 

The Leaders of Events Don't 

New Deal business Labor abroad know 
National total... 233% 25.1%, 17.5% 11.1% 23-0% = 100% 

BY OPINIONS ABOUT WH.\T THE ADMINISTRATION SHOULD DO 

Continue with more re- 
forms along same lines. . 2.8%o 28.8%o 19.8% 235%) 

Make necessary improve- 
ments, but try nothing 
new 29.1 49.3 41.6 48.7 

Let conservatives undo 
damage already done. . . 62.4 12.1 28.1 17.3 

Don't know 5.7 9.8 105 10.5 

100% 100% 100% 100% 

25. (US May '39) With which of these two statements dc 
you come closest to agreeing — the policies of the administra- 
tion have so affected the confidence of businessmen that re- 
covery has been seriously held back; businessmen generally 
have been unjustly blaming the administration for their 
troubles? (for) 

Adr?iinis- 

tration Business 

delays fears are Don't 

recovery unfounded know 

National total 39.3% 37.4% 23.3% = 100% 



Adminis- 
tration Business 
delays fears are Don' t 
recovery unfounded know 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Prosperous 63.0% 27.5% 9.3% = 100% 

Poor 28.4 42.4 29.2 =100 

BY SELECTED OCCITPATIONS 

Executives 64.87e 25.6% 9.6% = 100% 

Farm labor 22.2 453 32.5 =100 

BY OPINIONS ABOUT ROOSEVELT 

Roosevelt, or man like 

him, is essential 5.2% 22.8% 

Roosevelt's good out- 
weighs bad 21 .6 63. 9 

His usefulness is now 

over 47.1 10.4 

More Roosevelt is a ca- 
lamity 26.1 2.9 

100% 100% 

BY POLITICAL PREFERENCE* 

Garner 55.6% 52.8%, 

La Guardia ,. 22.7 26.3 

No choice 21.7 20.9 

100% 100% 

Hull 32.6% 55.6% 

Vandenberg 39.9 14.1 

No choice 27.5 30.3 



100% 100% 
* As indicated in answer to the question: If you had to choose be- 
tween these two men to succeed President Roosevelt in 1940, which 
one would you prefer as you feel now? 

26. (US May 10 '39) Do you think the attitude of business 
toward the Roosevelt administration is delaying business re- 
covery? (aipo) 

Yes 69% No 31% = 100% No opinion 17% 

27. (US Jan '40) Do you think that general business condi- 
tions have improved, grown worse, or stayed the same during 
the past few months? (for) 

Don t know 

about 

business 

11.4% 



Business Business Business 
improved the same worse 

National total .. . 42.5% 34.1% ' 12.0% 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Prosperous 56.9% 23.3% 9.0% 

Poor 34.5 38.4 12.1 

Negroes 23.7 39.3 16.9 

BY SELECTED OCCUPATIONS 

Executives 71.7% 19.2% 7.6% 

Unemployed 38.1 33.2 18.5 

Farm labor 25.2 47.6 14.6 



10.8% 

15.0 

20.1 



1.5% 
10.2 
12.6 



28. (US July 29 '41) Do you think we are likely to have 
greater prosperity or another depression after the present war? 
A comparable cross-section was asked the question omitting 
the word "greater." Results were combined, (aipo) 



Prosperity 13^ 



Depression 77^; 



No opinion 10% 



[65] 



29. (US May 21 '42) Which do you think the United States 
will have for the first two or three years after the war — 
depression or prosperity? (aipo) 

Depression Prosperity No opinion 
National total 43% 45% 12% 



BY OCCUPATION 



Business and professional .... 34% 

White-collar 39 

Workers 42 

Farmers 51 



57% 
50 
44 
36 



9% 
11 
14 
13 



30. (US May 30 '42) Do you think there'll be a depression 
right after the war? Those who believed there would be a 
depression were asked: Do you think it will be worse than 
the one that started in 1932, or not as bad as that one? (norc) 

Won't be a depression 36% 

Don't know whether or not there will be a depression. . 13 

Depression will be worse than 1932 24 

Will be the same 8 

Won't be as bad 13 

Don't know whether things will be better or worse 6 

31. (US July 1 '42) Do you think there will be a depression 
after the war? Those who believed there would be a depression 
were asked: Do you think it will be a worse depression than 
the one that started in 1929, or not as bad as that one? (norc) 

Won't be a depression 16% 

Don't know whether or not there will be a depression . . 8 

Depression will be worse than 1929 36 

Will be the same 9 

Won't be as bad 25 

Don't know whether things will be better or worse 6 

32. (US Sept 24 '42) The way things look now, do you think 
this war will be followed by a depression? Those who believed 
there would be a depression were asked: Do you think the 
government might be able to prevent such a depression? (norc) 

Don't believe there will be a depression 29% 

Don't know whether or not there will be a depression , . 12 

Government might be able to prevent a depression 26 

Government won't be able to prevent a depression 24 

Don't know whether or not the government will be able 

to prevent a depression 9 

33. (US Sept 24 '42) What makes you think so [that the war 
will not be followed by a depression]? Asked of 29% of the 
sample who didn't think that there would be a depression 
after the war. (norc) 

Need for consumer goods after the war will prevent de- 
pression 13% 

Need of men to serve in standing army will prevent de- 
pression 5 

Need for rebuilding the world will prevent a depression 3 

Economic planning in general 9 

Reservoir of savings 4 

Miscellaneous 1 

Not ascertainable 2 



37%* 



* Percentages add to more than 29 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer, 

34. (US Jan 11 '43, June 18 '43, Nov 15 '43) Do you think it 
will be possible for this country to have prosperity after the 
war at the same time that other countries are having depres- 
sions? (norc) 



Yes 

Jan '43 46% 

June '43 44 

Nov '43 45 



No Don't know 
39% 15% 

45 11 

40 15 



35. (US Oct '43) It seems likely that immediately after the 
war there will be a mixed condition of economic expansion 
and contraction, depending on the area and industry. Granted 
a period of two years for this condition, do you think we will 
eventually go into a general boom or a general slump? Asked 
of a national cross-section of business executives, (for) 

Responiient' s 
All business business 

A general boom ... , 70.3% 66.7% 

A general slump. . . . 17. 6 18.6 

Don't know 12.1 14.7 

36. (US Oct '43) If we have a depression after the war, what 
do you think is likely to be the reaction of the American 
public? Asked of a national cross-section of business executives. 
(for) 

Demand relief from government 72.4% 

Rapid growth of a political labor party 41.1 

Grin and bear it 29.4 

Rioting and disorder 12.4 

Rise of a new type of leader in the tradition of Huey 

Long, Father Coughlin, etc 11.8 

Vote Socialist or Communist 6.9 

All other ? 10.5 



184.5%* 
* People giving more than one answer account for the total of more 
tfian 100. 

37. (US Oct '43) In the event of a new depression what one 
or several of these means would you advocate to alleviate it? 
Asked of a national cross-section of business executives, (for) 

Economy by government departments 77.3% 

Lower corporate taxes 51. 9 

A cooperative credit and employment effort on the part 

of business 53.6 

A huge public-works program 27.1 

A spread-the-work program 24.1 

Liberalization of consumer credit 17.8 

Liberalization of bank credit 15.2 

Government subsidies to business 3.4 

Greater government regulation of business 1.3 

Devaluation of the dollar 1.3 

All other 13.2 



286.2%* 



* Some respondents gave more than one answer which accounts for 
the total of more than 100. 

38. (US July '44) A national cross-section of college students 
were asked their opinions about the following statement: If 
we separated the economy of this country from that of other 
nations, we could avoid world depressions and preserve our 
system of free competition, (for) 

Approve 3% Disapprove 89% Uncertain 8% 

39. (US Aug '44 and Jan '46) Do you expect we will probably 
have a widespread depression within ten years or so or do you 
think we probably will be able to avoid it? (Jan '45) Do you 
expect we probably shall have a widespread depression within 
ten years or so after the war is over, or do you think we prob- 
ably shall be able to avoid it? (Aug '45) Do you expect we 
will have a widespread depression within ten years or so after 
the whole war is over, or do you think we probably will be 
able to avoid it? (for) 



[ o« ] 



Will 


Don't 


avoid it 


know 


33.9% 


13.5% 


40.9 


10.2 


41.0 


14.8 


41.5 


13.7 



Will havi 

dcprtssion 

Aug '44 50.6% 

Jan '45 48.9 

Aug '45 44.2 

Jan '46 44.8 

JAN '45 RESULTS BY POLITICAL PREFERENCE 

Roosevelt 38.7% 50.5% 10.8% 

Dewey 62.1 30.4 7.5 

40. (Canada July 12 '44) Which of these things do you think 
is most likely to follow this war — a short period of depression, 
a long period of depression, a short period of prosperity, or a 
long period of prosperity? (cipo) 

Short prosperity 37% 

Long prosperity 18 

Long depression 18 

Short depression 16 

Undecided 11 

41. (Canada Sept 6 '44) Which of these do you think is the 
best way to keep up employment and avoid a depression after 
the war — remove wartime controls on business and industry; 
keep wartime controls on business and industry; the govern- 
ment to start large programs of public works; the government 
to take over the ownership of business and industry? (ciPo) 

Remove controls 17% 

Keep controls 19 

Public works 41 

Government ownership. ... 14 

Undecided 9 

42. (US Apr 18 '45) A business leader says that after the war 
we will have at least five to seven years of prosperity. Do you 
agree or disagree with this statement? (aipo) 

Agree 61% Disagree 26% No opinion 13% 

43. (US Apr 18 '45) A government advisor says that after the 
war we will have at least five to seven years of prosperity. 
Do you agree or disagree with this statement? (aipo) 
Agree 60% Disagree 28%- No opinion 12% 

44. (US Aug '45) With which of these statements do you 
come closest to agreeing — the United States is such a great 
and powerful country that she can be prosperous even though 
most other countries are having a depression; although the 
United States is a great and powerful country she cannot be 
prosperous for long if most other countries are having a de- 
pression? (for) 

US cannot hi pros- 
US can he perous if most other 
prosperous countries are having Don't 
alone a depression know 

National total 23.0% 65.7% 11.3% 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Prosperous 17.1% 81.3% 

Upper middle 17.3 78.7 

Lower middle 22.9 69.3 

Poor 28.9 49.7 



1.6% 
4.0 
7.8 
21.4 



BY EDUCATION 



51.8% 

68.9 

83.8 



22.2% 
5.7 
2.8 



Grade school 26.0% 

High school 25.4 

College 13.4 

45. (US Sept '45) As you know, a lot of things helped bring 
about the last depression. But of these two things, which one 
of them do you think had the most to do with bringing it 
about — do you think too much was produced in this country, 



or didn't people have enough money to buy what was pro 
duced? (norc) 

Too much produced 11%, Not enough money 71% 

Don't know 18% 

46. (US Sept '45) During this time, what do you think was 
one of the main reasons that some people didn't have the kind 
of food, clothing, and housing they needed? Asked of 11%, of 
the sample who thought that too much production was a more 
important cause for the last depression than scarcity of money. 
(norc) 

Not enough money; not enough purchasing power 3% 

Lack of jobs 3 

Wages were too low; wages were below living costs. ... * 

People used up their savings; careless spending 2 

Introduction of new machinery and techniques * 

Overproduction closed the factories 1 

Due to government interference * 

Lack of government planning * 

Some people were satisfied to live on relief * 

Other answers 1 

Don't know 1 

11% 
* Less than 0.5%. 

47. (US Mar '46) Generally speaking, do you think the United 
States is better off when foreign countries are well-to-do, or 
are we just as well off when other countries are having de- 
pressions? (norc) 

Better off 75% Just as well ll'^/o Don't know 8% 

48. (US July 24 '46) Do you think there will be a serious busi- 
ness depression in the United States within the next ten years? 
The 60% who thought there would be a serious depression 
within the next ten years were asked: When do you think this 
depression will come? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

National total 60% 20% 20% 

BY AGE 

21-29 years 64% 17% 19% 

30-49 years 59 21 20 

50 years and over 57 22 21 

BY OCCtrPATION 

Professional and business. . . . 63% 22% 15% 

Farmers 65 17 18 

White-collar 59 23 18 

Manual workers 56 20 24 

BY EDUCATION 

College 70% 20% 10% 

High school 64 20 16 

Grade school or less 55 20 25 

Median 5 years 

49. (France Sept '46) Do you believe that the next five years 
will be an era of crisis or an era of prosperity for France? (fipo) 
Prosperity 29% Crisis 29% Neither 24% No opinion 18% 

50. (Great Britain Sept 14 '46) Do you think that there will 
be or will not be a serious business depression in Britain dur- 
ing the next ten years? (bipo) 

Will Will Don't 

he not he know 

National total 32% 36% 32% 

BY SEX 

Men 33% 42% 25% 

Women 32 29 39 



I 
I 



[67] 



Will Will Oont 

be not be know 

BY AGE 

21-29 years 36% 33% 31% 

30-49 years 32 38 30 

50 years and over 30 34 36 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher :.. 42% 37% 21% 

Middle 39 39 22 

Lower 29 34 37 

Very poor 29 29 42 

BY LABOR STATUS 

Union members 30% 42% 28% 

Non-union members 33 32 35 

51. (Australia Nov 23 '46) In your opinion, is Australia likely 
to have a serious business depression, with a lot of unemploy- 
ment, in the next two years? (apop) 

Yes No Undecided 

National total 28% 54% 18% 

BY SEX 

Men 25% 61% 14% 

Women 30 46 24 

62. (Australia Nov 23 '46) Do you think business and em- 
ployment are fairly normal now or do you believe we arc hav- 
ing a boom? (apop) 

Having Fairly 

a boom normal Undecided 

National total 52% 34% 14% 

BY SEX 

Men 56% 33% 11% 

Women 48 35 17 

BY OCCUPATION 

Farmers 66% 25% 9% 

Business owners and managers 57 29 14 
White-collar and other wage 

earners 51 36 13 

BY POLITICS 

Liberal-Country party 57% 30% 13% 

Labor 49 38 .13 

53. (US Dec 31 '46) Do you think there will be a business de- 
pression in 1947? 31% of the sample who said they expected 
a business depression in 1947 were asked: Well, how serious 
a depression — very serious, fairly serious, or not serious? (aipo) 

Very serious 5% 

Fairly serious 9 

Not too serious 16 

Don't know how serious 1 

Don't expect a depression 61 

No opinion 8 



BUTTER 



1. (Canada Mar 17 '43) At the present time it is against the 
law to sell oleomargarine. Would you like to see oleomargarine 
sold by the stores, or do you favor continuing the present ban? 
(cipo) 



Permit Continue 
sale ban Undecided 

National total . . . 35% 45% 20% 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Farm 25% 54% 21% 

City 38 42 20 

2. (Australia Apr '44) Do you think your family would get 
along all right if the butter ration were reduced from one 
pound to three quarters of a pound fortnightly? (apop) 

Yes 29% No 71% 

3. (US June 2 '44) Does your ration allow you to get all the 
rationed butter your family really needs? Asked of a national 
cross-section of women who do the family marketing, (norc) 

Yes 85% 

No 9 

More 2 

Don't use 4 

Don't know * 

* Less than 0.5%. 

4. (Australia Aug-Sept '44) Do you find you can get along 
fairly well with the reduced butter ration? (apop) 

Yes No 

National total 57% 43% 

BY OCCUPATION 

Business owners, managers, professional 70% 30% 

Farm owners 70 30 

Clerks, shophands 56 44 

Skilled workers 55 45 

Semi-skilled workers 52 48 

Unskilled workers 49 51 

5. (Belgium July-Oct '46) When buying butter are you aware 
of, or do you take note of, the official price (maximum legal 
price)? (iNsoc) 

Don't 
Always Often Rarely Never know 
National total .. . 46.9% 10.4% 8.5% 20.9% 13.3% 

BY ENVIRONMENT 

Urban 47.5% 9.3% 6.9% 21.27o 15.1% 

Rural 44.6 9.2 10.4 24.4 11.4 

Industrial 49.3 14.3 8.7 15.0 12.7 

BY OCCUPATION 

Farmers 41.0% 8.8% 12.4% 27.2% 10.6% 

Workers 45-5 9.7 8.7 17.2 18.9 

White-collar 42.1 14.2 7.4 19.3 17.0 

Business 458 9.2 5-5 22.3 17.2 

Professional 29.6 7.7 12.1 30.8 19.8 

Living on income. 57.1 7.4 7.9 18.4 92 

Housewives 559 12.1 7.4 22.0 2.6 

6. (Belgium July-Oct '46) When buying [butter] with ration 
stamps or certificates of entitlement, do you ever have to pay 
more than the fixed official prices (maximum legal price)? 
(iNsoc) 

Don't 
Always Often Rarely Never know 
National total.. . 3.8% 6.0% 7.2% 62.4% 20.6% 

BY ENVIRONMENT 

Urban 2.7% 5.9% 7.0% "61.6% 22.8% 

Rural 4.7 7.1 7.1 61.7 19.4 

Industrial 4.7 4.7 7.6 64.8 18,2 



[ «8 ] 



Don't 

Always Ojten Kiirely Never know 

BY OCCUPATION 

Farmers 6.4% 5-3% 6.7% 59.7% 21.9% 

Workers 4.3 5-8 7.0 57.6 25.3 

White-collar 3.5 5.8 8.4 59.2 23.1 

Business 1.7 8.8 9.2 55.9 24.4 

Professional 4.4 56 8.9 52.2 28.9 

Living on income. 4.3 6.7 4.9 68.1 16.0 

Housewives 2.6 54 6.4 76.1 9.5 

7. (Belgium July-Oct '46) Did you ever buy [butter] without 
ration stamps or certificates? (insoc) 

Don't 

Often Rarely Never know 

National total 66.8% 14.2% 13.2% 5.8% 

BV ENVIRONMENT 

Urban 71.8% 13.7% 7.5% 7.0% 

Rural 57.9 15-4 21.8 4.9 

Industrial 70.2 13.4 11.8 4.6 

BY OCCUPATION 

Farmers 40.9% 14.7% 39.8% 4.6% 

Workers 65-3 15.8 11.1 7.8 

White-collar 72.8 15.5 5.5 6.2 

Business 79.8 5-5 5-5 9.2 

Professional 78.9 8.9 4.4 7.8 

Housewives 738 14.9 9.9 1.4 



BUYING 



1. (US July •35'^ 
you spend it for 



If you get more money this year, 
(Mst? (for) 



what will 



Clothes 

House repairs . . 

Savings 

Debts 

House furnish- 
ings or equip- 
ment 

Travel 

Automobile. , . . 

General necessi- 
ties 

Food 

Move to other 
place 

Other 

Don't know . . . 



N.,- 
tional 
total 

14.4% 
13.7 
12.4 
12.0 



9.0 
6.7 
6.5 

6.5 

2.0 

1.6 

2.6 

12.6 



Pros- 
perous 

6.2% 
14.2 
12.4 

9.8 



10.2 
13.5 

4.7 

3.6 

0.7 

0.7 

4.4 

19.6 



Upper 
tniddle 
class 
10.7% 
15.7 
13.7 
14.7 



8.4 
8.3 

7.4 

5.7 
0.6 

1.0 

2.6 

11.2 



Lower 
middle 
class 

15.1% 
14.3 
11.5 
11.5 



10.2 
6.0 
6.7 

7.3 
1.3 

1.5 

2.5 

12.1 



Poor 

8.5 

11.9 

9.9 



7.6 
3.6 
5.8 

7.6 
3.8 

3.2 

2.6 

14.3 



Negro 

26.0% 

12.6 

12.6 

10.1 



4.2 
0.8 

4.2 



5.9 

17.7 

1.7 

4.2 



2. (US Oct '36) If you had more income, which of the follow- 
ing would you rather spend it for?* (for) 

Rent 1.1% 

Down payment on new home 20.3 

Daily needs like food and clothing 14.7 

Automobile 5.4 

New furniture 4.1 

Insurance 9.6 

Savings 20.1 

Travel 16.3 



Pay debts 1.0% 

Improvements 2.1 

None of these and other answers 5-3 

* Allowing for double answers, the total came to 128.5. Results 
have here been reduced to the basis of 100 per cent. 

3. (US Apr 27 '38) If you received a gift of one hundred dol- 
lars what would you do with it? (aipo) 

Pay bills 26% 

Spend it 3 

Put it in the bank 12 

Put it toward a house 1 

Buy a car 1 

Buy government bonds 1 

Take a trip 1 

Buy clothes 7 

Take a vacation 1 

Get teeth fixed, false teeth 1 

Use it toward children's education 1 

Put it into my business 1 

Use it to help pay my way through school 2 

Apply it to my mortgage 1 

Improve my property 1 

Hold on to it 1 

Use it to take care of my family, necessities (food, 

clothing) 6 

Household needs 1 

Give it to charity 1 

Pay my taxes 1 

Repair my home 2 

Give it to my wife (her financial judgment is better). . . 1 

Buy a cow and some pigs (livestock) 1 

Buy furniture 1 

Invest it 2 

Others 10 

No opinion 13 

4. (US Apr 27 '38) If you received a gift of five hundred dol- 
lars tomorrow, what would you do with it? (aipo) 

Pay bills 25% 

Spend it 2 

Put it in the bank 11 

Get married ■ 1 

Put it toward a house 4 

Buy a car 4 

Buy government bonds 1 

Take a trip 2 

Buy clothes 3 

Take a vacation ■ 2 

Pay on my notes 1 

Use it toward children's education 2 

Use it to help pay my way through school 2 

Apply it to my mortgage 1 

Improve my property 1 

Hold on to it 1 

Use it to take care of my family, necessities (food, 

clothing) 3 

Household needs 1 

Give it to charity 1 

Pay my taxes 1 

I'd buy a little business and make a living with it 1 

Invest in properties, real estate 1 

Invest it in preferred stock, common stock 1 

Invest it 3 

Invest in farm land 1 

Repair my home 2 

Buy a cow and some pigs, livestock 1 

Buy furniture 1 

Postal savings 1 



[69] 



Put it into my business 1% 

Others 9 

No opinion 9 

5. (US Apr '39) Can you name any large, important thing 
that you would like to have and would probably buy if it 
only cost half as much as it now costs? (for) 

House or home 21 .9% 

Cars and trucks 15.2 

Farm 32 

Household appliances; refrigerators; washing and sew- 
ing machines; stoves 30 

Renovations; additions; plumbing; heating 2.3 

Farm machinery; equipment; etc 1.8 

Radio; phonograph; piano; other musical instruments 1.8 

Furniture and house furnishings 1.5 

Real estate 1.2 

Other answers 7.4 

Don't know 40.7 

6. (US Apr '39) Can you name a smaller, less expensive item 
you would also buy if it cost half its present price? (for) 

Clothes; coats; shoes 9.1% 

Household appliances; sewing and washing machines; 

etc 8.3 

Cars and trucks 7.6 

Radio; phonograph; piano; other musical instruments 6.0 

Furniture and furnishings; rugs; carpets 5-9 

Farm equipment and livestock 1.9 

Renovation; plumbing; heating 1.3 

Other answers 8.7 

Don't know 51-2 

7. (Great Britain May '39) When you buy anything do you 
first find out whether it is made in Britain? (bipo) 

Yes 46% No 54% 

8. (Great Britain May '39) Are there any countries whose 
goods you do not buy? Asked of 46% of the sample who 
checked to see if products are British made, (bipo) 

Germany 15% 

Japan 11 

Germany, Italy, Japan ... 10 

Germany, Italy 3 

Germany, Japan 16 

Prefer British 45 



Clothing; underwear; hosiery 31.0% 

Foods; canned or other preserved foods; staples 29.2 

Household furnishings 26.3 

Linen; rayon; wool; furs; silks; textiles 24.0 

Metals; lumber; plastics 16.9 

All lines 10.0 

Others 8.2 



100% of those who 
checked 

9. (Great Britain Apr '41) Would you approve or disapprove 
of a scheme limiting the amount of money which anybody 
could spend on their needs to, say 25 shillings per week for 
an adult and 15 shillings for a child under fourteen? (bipo) 
Approve 32% Disapprove 55% Don't know 13% 

10. (US Nov '41) Do you see any signs that consumers are 
switching from buying for current needs to stocking up as 
much as they can? Asked of a national cross-section of business 
executives, (for) 

A very few are 43.5% 

Quite a number are 44.2 

Most of them show this tendency 12.3 

11. (US Nov '41) In what lines is this tendency [of consumers 
to switch from buying current needs to stocking up] most 
marked? Asked of a national cross-section of business execu- 
tives who felt that quite a few or most consumers were switch- 
ing from buying current needs to stocking up as much as they 
could. 56.5% of the sample is represented, (for) 



145.6%* 

* Percentages are based on the number of respondents wlio thought 
that quite a few or most consumers were switching to stocking up, and 
add to more than 100 because some gave more than one answer. 

12. (US Nov '41) Have you received complaints from retail 
customers concerning shortages or substitution? Asked of a 
national cross-section of business executives, (for) 

None 17.3% 

Very few 42.7 

Some 30.5 

Many 9.5 

13. (US Nov '41) Have manufacturers helped you by keeping 
you well advised in advance of merchandise shortages or 
changes? Asked of a national cross-section of business execu- 
tives, (for) 

Hardly any have done this consistently. . . . 16.5% 

A few have done it : 28.0 

Many have done it 55.5 

14. (Great Britain Dec 19 '41) Do you have difficulty in find- 
ing time to do your shopping? Asked of a national cross-section 
of women, (bipo) 

Yes 45% No 55% 

15. (US Sept 24 '42) Do you and your family have more money 
coming in now than you did before the war started or not as 
much? (norc) 

More 31% 

About same 43 

Not as much 24 

Don't know 2 

16. (US Sept 24 '42) What are you doing with this extra 
money — spending it or saving it? Asked of 31% of the sample 
who said that they and their family had more money coming 
in now than before the war started, (norc) 

Spending 12% 

Both 9 

Saving 10 

Don't know * 

31% 

* Less than 0.5%. 

17. (US Sept 24 '42) What sort of things are you spending 
the extra money for? Asked of 21% of the sample who said 
they were spending or spending and saving the extra money 
they and their family had coming in since the war started. 
(norc) 

Meeting high cost of living 8% 

Defense bonds 6 

Paying off old debts 4 

Home improvements 3 

Clothing 2 

Business improvements 2 

Food 1 

Family expenditures 1 

Payments on home (except new homes). . 1 



[70] 



Miscellaneous 2% 

Not ascertainable 1 

31%* 

* Percentages add to more than 21 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

18. (US Oct 6 '42) Considering everything you're buying now, 
does it seem this year that you and your family are buying 
more things than you bought last year or fewer things? (norc) 

More things 12% 

Same amount 37 

Fewer things 50 

Don't know 1 

19. (US Oct 6 '42) Might I ask what particular things you 
are buying more of? Asked of 12%, of the sample who said 
they and their family were buying more than last year, (norc) 

Clothing 5%, 

Food 4 

Home improvements 4 

Business improvements 1 

Meeting high cost of living 1 

Family expenditures; increase in fam- 
ily; education; etc 1 

Bonds * 

Payments on homes * 

Old debts ■. * 

Miscellaneous 1 

Not ascertainable * 

17%** 

* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 12 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

20. (US Oct 6 '42) Might I ask what particular things you 
are buying less of? Asked of 50% of the sample who said they 
and their family were buying less than last year, (norc) 

Clothing 34% 

Food 19 

Home improvements 10 

Luxuries and entertainment 8 

General living 7 

Gas; tires; car 6 

Business improvements 1 

Miscellaneous 3 

Not ascertainable 1 

89%* 

* Percentages add to more than 50 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

21. (Australia Dec '42) While daylight saving operates, should 
shopping hours be changed once a week to, say, 11 o'clock 
in the morning to 7 o'clock in the evening? (apop) 

Yes 53% No 39% Don't know 8% 

22. (Australia Oct 30 '42) Should the government continue 
to rely on voluntary reduction of private spending or should 
jt compel people to spend less on non-essentials? (apop) 

Favored voluntary reductions 49% 

Compel less spending 45 

Undecided 6 

23. (Australia Oct 30 '42) Should reduced spending be enforced 
by heavier taxes, compulsory saving, or more rationing of 
goods? Asked of 45% of the sample who favored compulsory 
reduction, (apop) 



Compulsory saving 58% 

Additional rationing 27 

Raised taxes 15 



100% of those 
favoring compulsory reduction 

24. (US Jan 20 '43) Would you mind telling mc who usually 
does the marketing for your family? Asked of a national cross- 
section of women, (norc) 

Respondent 74% 

Husband 9 

Mother 7 

Sister 2 

Maid-housekeeper 2 

Daughter 2 

Father 1 

None (lives at hotel) 1 

Other mentions * 

Miscellaneous 3 

Not ascertainable 1 



102%** 

*Less than 05%. 

** Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

25. (Great Britain June 1 '43) Are you registered with small 
shops, with a chain store, or a cooperative society? (bipo) 

Chain store 52% Small shop 21% Cooperative 35% = 108%* 

* The total is more than 100 because some people were registered 
with more than one type of shop. 

26. (Great Britain June 10 '43) Which, in general, do you 
think gives the best service to the customer [the chain store, 
the small shop, or a cooperative society]? (bipo) 

Chain store 53% Shop 20% Cooperative 27% 

27. (US Sept 9 '43 and Jan 7 '44) Are you living better now — 
that is, are you buying more things, or better things than you 
used to before the war? (norc) 

Don't 
Yes No know 

Sept '43 13% 86% 1% 

Jan '44 9 90 1 

28. (US Jan 7 '44) In what way are you living better? Asked 
of the 9% of the January 1944 sample who said they were 
living better, (norc) 

Clothes 4% 

Food 3 

Home 2 

Furniture 1 

Buying necessities couldn't afford before. . 1 

Pleasure and entertainment * 

Paying off debts * 

Saving money; buying bonds * 

Miscellaneous and not specified 1 

12%** 

* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 9 because some respondents gave 
more than 'one answer. 

29. (US Oct 22 '43) From what you know, do most store- 
keepers save scarce items for their regular customers, or do 
they sell to anyone who comes into the store? Asked of a 
national cross -section of women, (norc) 

Regular customers 47%i Sell to anyone 39% Don't know 14% 



[71 ] 



30. (US Oct 22 '43) Do you think they [storekeepers] should 
save things for their regular customers? Asked of a national 
cross-section of women, (nobc) 

Yes 46% No 49% Don't know 5% 

31. (US Nov 9 '43) What are the first big purchases you 
definitely plan to make after the war is over and things can 
be bought again? (aipo) 

Automobile 24% 

Real estate, home, farm, property, etc 16 

Furniture, piano, bedroom set, furnish home, etc 12 

Refrigerator 9 

Clothing, fur coat, shoes, stockings, etc 4 

Farm machinery, tractors, plows, etc 5 

Washing machine 6 

Repair home 4 

Radio 4 

Stove 4 

Electrical equipment, iron, toaster, vacuum cleaner, ap- 
pliances, etc 3 

Building materials for shed, for home, for garage, etc. . . 2 

Airplane 1 

Furnace 1 

Phonograph 1 

Other 10 

Nothing 19 

Don't know 7 



132%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 



32. (Sweden Dec '43) Is there anything big you want to get 
for yourself when peace comes? (sgi) 

Yes No Don't know 

National total . . . 23% 59% 18% 

BY AGE 

20-29 years 29% 49% 22% 

30-49 years 27 55 18 

50 years and over. 12 72 16 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 32% 51% 17% 

Middle class 25 58 17 

Workers 20 60 20 

33. (Sweden Dec '43) What [would you like for yourself when 
peace comes]? Asked of 23% of the sample who said they 
wanted something big for themselves after the war. (sgi) 

Purchase of house, summerhouse, flat. . . . 45% 

Car 20 

Furniture 12 

Modernizing, improvements 5 

Clothes, furs 4 

Purchase of business 3 

Agricultural implements 2 

Sailing boat, motor boat 2 

Other replies 7 



1 

1 




1 


1 


S 




/o 


% 


err 
/O 


% 


% 


% 


. 21.0 


29.9 


28.4 


22.2 


12.6 


7.8 


. 0.8 


2.2 


0.8 


0.7 


0.7 


0.9 


. 0.7 


1.1 


0.8 


0.7 


0.3 


0.9 


. 13.3 


6.8 


13.4 


13.4 


14.0 


16.2 


. 5.3 


7.1 


5.3 


5.9 


4.5 


2.9 


, 1.4 


1.1 


1.5 


1.1 


1.6 


2.4 


. 1.0 


1.6 


1.3 


1.1 


0.8 


0.2 


. 0.9 


1.6 


1.3 


0.8 


0.6 


0.7 


, 9.2 


5.2 


8.9 


9.4 


10.3 


9.6 


8.6 


6.6 


10.6 


8.1 


9.3 


6.0 


5.1 


5.2 


5.0 


5.7 


5.0 


2.4 


4.5 


2.7 


3.7 


5.0 


4.4 


5.6 


, 4.3 


7.1 


5.3 


4.7 


2.8 


0.7 


3.6 


4.7 


4.7 


3.5 


3.1 


1.3 


3.4 


3.8 


3.3 


4.3 


2.5 


1.6 


2.7 


3.0 


2.6 


3.0 


2.8 


1.3 


! 1.5 


3.8 


1.9 


1.2 


0.8 


2.2 


0.7 


1.1 


1.3 


0.4 


0.3 


1.1 


, 0.3 


1.4 


0.4 


0.2 


0.2 


— 


4.4 


2.5 


2.9 


4.3 


5.0 


8.9 


1.0 
1 


1.4 


1-5 


1.0 


0.4 


0.2 


4.1 


7.9 


4.9 


3.8 


3.0 


3.1 


0.7 


— 


0.3 


0.6 


0.6 


2.7 


0.6 


1.9 


0.9 


0.5 


0.3 


— 


0.4 


— 


0.4 


0.6 


— 


0.7 


0.3 


0.5 


0.4 


0.4 


— 


0.4 


5.7 


9.0 


6.3 


5.8 


4.7 


3.3 


28.5 


21.1 


23.4 


27.1 


37.7 


32.9 


3.2 


3.3 


2.6 


2.7 


4.1 


4.4 



100% of 
those who wanted something big 
for themselves after the war 



34. (US Dec '43) What one or two things do you plan to buy 
as soon as times are peaceful again? (for) 



Car 

Tires 

Truck 

House 

House repair 

Farm 

New heating ar- 
rangement 

Property 

Furniture 

Mechanical refriger 
ator 

Washing machine. . 

Stove 

Miscellaneous elec- 
tric 

Rugs 

Radio 

Miscellaneous furn 
ishings 

Miscellaneous 
household fixtures 

Phonograph and ra 
dio phonograph. 

Air conditioning. . 

Clothes 

Fur coat 

Farm machinery and 
implements. . 

Livestock 

Airplanes, etc. . 

Business 

Boat 

Other 

Don't know. . . 

Nothing 



Percentages. . .137.2* 143.6* 144.1* 138.2* 132.4* 120.4* 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

35. (US Dec 10 '43) Do you do most of your shopping at a 
chain store, or at an independent dealer? Asked of a national 
cross-section of women who did the family marketing, (norc) 

Both 4% 

Chain 45 

Independent 51 

No answer * 

* Less than 0.5%. 

36. (US Dec 10 '43) About how long have you been dealing 
with that store? Asked of 55% of the sample of women mar- 
keters who did most of their shopping at an independent store 
or at both an independent and chain store, (norc) 

Up to 1 year 10% 

Over 1 year to 2 years 7 

Over 2 years to 3 years 5 

Over 3 years to 4 years 3 

Over 4 years to 5 years 4 

Over 5 years to 10 years. ... 12 



[72] 

Over 10 years 11% 

Not ascertainable 3 

55% 

37. (US Dec 10 '43) Do you do most of your shopping in 
person or by phone? Asked of a national cross-section of 
women who did the family marketing, (norc) 
Person 94% Phone 5% No answer 1% 

38. (US Jan 1 '44) Do you do most of the marketing for your 
family? (norc) 

Yes 80% No 20% 

39. (US Jan 21 '44) Do you do any of the marketing or cook- 
ing for your family? (norc) 

Respondent cooks or markets 91% 

Respondent does neither 9 

No answer * 

* Less than 05%. 

40. (Denmark Jan 22 '44) Have you sorted out your shops 
so that you know which you are going to frequent after the 
war and which you will leave? (dgi) 
Yes 26.2% No 62.8% Don't know 11.0% 

41. (Denmark Jan 22 '44) Will you keep your dairy? Asked 
of 26.2%, of the sample who had decided which shops they 
would frequent after the war. (dgi) 
Yes 84.3% No 4.6%, Don't know 11.1% 

= 100% of those who had decided on shops 

42. (Denmark Jan 22 '44) Will you keep your grocer? Asked 
of 26.2% of the sample who had decided which shops they 
would frequent after the war. (dgi) 

Yes 77.5% No 17.0% Don't know 5.5% 

= 100% of those who had decided on shops 

43. (Denmark Jan 22 '44) Will you keep your clothing shop? 
Asked of 26.2% of the sample who had decided which shops 
they would frequent after the war. (dgi) 
Yes 60.4% No 7.3% Don't know 32.3% 

= 100% of those who had decided on shops 

44. (Denmark Jan 22 '44) Will you keep your tobacconist? 
Asked of 26.2% of the sample who had decided which shops 
they would frequent after the war. (n)Gi) 
Yes 56.3% No 23.6% Don't know 20.1% 

= 100% of those who had decided on shops 

45. (Denmark Apr 22 '44) Are you for or against a general 
week-end closing [of shops] from Saturday at 2 o'clock? (dgi) 
For 70.3% Against 17.8% Don't know 11.9% 

46. (Australia May-June '44) After the war, when things can 
be bought again, what is the first big purchase you definitely 
plan to make? (apop) 

No plans 40% 

A home 18 

Clothing 14 

Furniture 7 

A car 6 

A refrigerator 4 

House repairs 3 

Household appliances 2 

A farm 2 

Motor tires 1 

Other answers 3 



47. (US June 2 '44) In the past six months, have you shopped 
for groceries and meats? Asked of women marketers who were 
familiar with ceiling prices, (norc) 

Yes 89% No 11% 

48. (US June 2 "44) During the last year, would you sav 
grocery prices have gone up or down? Asked of women mar- 
keters familiar with ceiling prices, (norc) 

Up 68% 

Stayed same 16 

Down 2 

Not asked the question. ... 11 

Don't know 3 

49. (US June 2 '44) Do you generally find out what the ceil- 
ing prices are before you buy [groceries and meats]? Asked of 
women marketers familiar with ceiling prices, (norc) 

Yes 38% 

No 50 

No answer 1 

Not asked the question .... 11 

50. (US June 2 '44) In the past six months, have you bought 
anything in a department or dry goods store? Asked of women 
marketers familiar with ceiling prices, (norc) 
Yes 82% No 7% Not asked the question 11% 

51. (US June 2 '44) During the last year, would you say de- 
partment store prices have gone up or down? Asked of 82% 
of a sample of women marketers familiar with ceiling prices 
who have bought in department or dry goods stores in the 
previous six months, (norc) 
Up 69% Stayed same 10% Down * Don't know 3% = 82% 

* Less than 0.5%. 

52. (US June 2 '44) Do you generally find out what the ceil- 
ing prices are before you buy in a department (or dry goods) 
store? Asked of 82% of a sample of women marketers familiar 
with ceiling prices who have bought in department or dry 
goods stores in the previous six months, (norc) 
Yes 24% No 57% No answer 1% = 82% 

53. (US June 2 '44) In general, do you think the things you 
buy today are as good quality as the things you got for the 
same price a couple of years ago? Asked of a national cross- 
section of women who did the family marketing, (norc) 
Yes 9% No 87% Don't know 4% 

54. (US June 2 '44) What sort of things [that you buy] aren't 
as good? Asked of 87% of a sample of women marketers who 
thought the quality of goods had gone down, (norc) 

All clothing 52% 

Dry goods 35 

Shoes 26 

Everything 10 

Children's clothes 9 

Hardware 8 

Meats 7 

Furniture 6 

Canned foods 5 

Miscellaneous 14 

Don't know * 



172%* 



* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 87 because some respondents 
more than one answer. 

55. (US June 2 '44) Do you buy most of your groceries 
meats at a chain store or an independent dealer? Asked 
national cross-section of women marketers, (norc) 



gave 

and 
of a 



[73] 



Chain 34% 

Independent 46 

Both 20 

No answer * 

* Less than 0.5%. 

56. (Denmark July 22 '44) Which one of the commodities 
now scarce because of the war, do you miss the most? (dgi) 

Tobacco 13% 

Coffee 10 

Clothing 7 

Working clothes 5 

Bicycle tires 5 

Fabrics 5 

Stockings 5 

Sugar 4 

Underwear 3 

Children's clothes 3 

Tea 2 

Linen, etc 2 

Butter 2 

Wool 1 

Other things 18 

Don't know 15 

57. (Australia Dec '44 to Jan '45) After the war, do you 
think shops should remain open Friday nights till about 
9 p.m.? (apop) 

Oppose late shopping 51% 

Open till 8 p.m 8 

Open till 9 p.m 41 

58. (Australia Dec '44 to Jan '45) And on other weekdays 
[other than Friday], what should be the closing time of shops 
after the war? (apop) 

Close at 5 p.m 15% 

Close at 5:30 p.m 42 

Close at 6 p.m 43 

59. (Australia Dec '44 to Jan '45) And what about Saturday 
(morning) shopping [hours] after the war? (apop) 

Close all Saturday ^2.% 

Close at noon 37 

Close at 12:30 p.m 20 

Close at 1 p.m 19 

Close at 6 p.m 2 

60. (France Jan 1 '45) Do you intend to buy a camera after 
the war? (fipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

Paris 39% 52% 9% 

Provinces 32 60 8 

61. (Great Britain Feb '45) Is there anything you are anxious 
to buy and for which you have looked in the shops without 
finding it? (bipo) 

Household items 26% 

Food 3 

Clothing 13 

Miscellaneous 16 

Others 10 

No reply 32 

62. (Australia June-July '45) Which of these suggestions is 
your idea for week-end shopping after the war — open both 
Friday night and Saturday morning, close both Friday night 
and Saturday morning, open Friday night but close Saturday 
morning, or close Friday night but open Saturday morning? 
A card with the four alternatives was handed the respondent. 
(apop) 



Open Friday night and Saturday morning 24% 

Close Friday night and Saturday morning 6 

Open Friday night but close Saturday morning 20 

Close Friday night but open Saturday morning 45 

No opinion 5 

63. (Australia June-July '45) At what hour should shops close 
on Friday nights? Asked of 44% of the sample who wanted 
shops open on Friday evenings, (apop) 

7 p.m 1% 

8 p.m 17 

9 p.m 74 

10 p.m 8 



100%, of those who 
wanted shops open on Friday evenings 

64. (Australia June-July '45) At what hour should shops close 
on Saturday mornings? Asked of 69% of the sample who wanted 
shops open on Saturday mornings, (apop) 

11 a.m 3% 

Noon 51 

12:30 p.m 27 

1 p.m 19 



100% of those who 
wanted shops open on Saturday mornings 

65. (Great Britain July '45) On the whole, have you found 
that the things you want to buy are easier to get since VE-Day, 
or more difficult? (bipo) 



National total . 



Men . . . 
Women . 



Easier 
11% 



Same 



BY SEX 

10% 39% 

12 35 



BY AGE 

21-29 years 17% 36% 

30-49 years 10 37 

50 years and over. . 10 38 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 



Higher . 
Middle. 
Lower. . 



10% 

13 

10 



40% 

40 

37 



More 

dijftcult 

44% 

40% 
49 

44% 

45 

43 

47% 

41 

45 



Don't 
know 

8% 

11% 
4 

3% 



3% 
6 



66. (US July 5 '45) Are you now saving money for something 
in particular you want to buy after the war? (nyht) 

Yes No No answer 

National total 35.1% 62.6% 2.3% 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Prosperous 30.9% 

Upper middle class 36.4 

Lower middle class 38.8 

Poor 29.4 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

Northeast 32.2% 

Midwest 36.3 

South 33.9 

Far West 42.4 

SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Over 100,000 36.0% 

Under 100,000 35.7 

Rural farm 32.1 



68.3% 


.8% 


62.1 


1.5 


59.7 


1.5 


65.9 


4.7 


DN 

64.9% 


2.9% 


61.6 


2.1 


64.2 


1.9 


55.0 


2.6 


61.8% 


2.2% 


61.8 


2.5 


65.6 


2.3 



[74] 



67. (US July 5 '45) What arc you saving your money for? 

Asked of 35.l9('i of the sample who said they were saving for 
something in particular, (nyht) 

Niitionul 

total Men Women 

Buy, build a home 42.9% 34.7% 50.0% 

Remodeling, painting 6.8 5 1 8.1 

Buy a farm 5.7 9.7 2.3 

Real estate, land 4.1 51 3.3 

Improvements for farm 1.7 2.3 12 

Refrigerator 35 3.9 3 2 

Electrical appliances (other 

than refrigerator) 4.1 30 5-1 

House furnishings, furniture . 6.0 35 8.1 

Radio ' 1.1 .9 1.4 

Other household equipment . . 2.2 .9 32 

Automobile 12.1 14.7 9.9 

Education for children 2.7 2.7 2.7 

Own education .6 .3 6 

Start, expand own business. . . 5 83 2.1 

Help sons, husband get started 1.8 1.1 2.4 
For retirement; security in 

later life '..... 1.4 2.3 .6 

All other 7.1 94 5.1 

Don't know and no answer. . . 1.4 2.8 .3 



110.2%* 110.9%.* 109.6%* 

* Percentages are based on those who said they were saving for some- 
thing specific and add to more than 100 because some mentioned more 
than one item. 



68. (Great Britain Nov 3 '45) On the whole, do you think 

that queuing is worse or better than it was a year ago? (Apr 
27 '46) Do you, personally, have to spend more time or less 
time in queues of all kinds than a year ago? (bipo) 

More time Less time Don't 

or worse Same or better know 

Nov '45 28% 36% 18% 18% 

Apr '46 31 36 19 14 

BY SEX 

Men 

Nov -45 22% 33% 17% 28% 

Apr '46 24 36 18 22 

Women 

Nov '45 33 39 19 9 

Apr '46 38 35 20 7 

BY AGE 

11-19 years 

Nov '45 27% 37% 16% 20% 

Apr '46 30 33 23 14 

30-49 years 

Nov '45 29 34 19 18 

Apr '46 31 35 20 14 

50 years and over 

Nov '45 26 39 17 18 

Apr '46 30 38 16 16 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher 

Nov '45 27% 30% 18% 25% 

Apr '46 21 41 16 22 

Middle 

Nov '45 26 33 20 21 

Apr '46 29 37 20 14 



More time 
or worse Same 

Lower 

Nov '45 28% 38% 

Apr '46 33 35 

Housewives 

Apr '46 41 32 



Less time 
or better 

17% 
18 

22 



Don't 

know 

17% 
14 



69. (US Jan 3 '46) Since the war ended, have you bought 
anything that you probably wouldn't have bought if the war 
had continued? (nyht) 

N» Yes No answer 



National total . 



86.3"^ 



12.8% 



r/o 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 



Prosperous 85.8% 14.2% 

Upper middle 837 16.1 

Lower middle. . . . 86.9 12.1 

Poor 87.6 10.9 



.2 
1.0 
1.5 



70. (US Jan 3 '46) What [have you bought since the war 
ended that you wouldn't have bought if the war had con- 
tinued]? Anything else? Asked of 12.8% of the sample who 
said they had bought something since the war ended that 
they probably wouldn't have bought if the war had con- 
tinued, (nyht) 



National 
total 

Personal items 
(mostly cloth- 
ing) 3.6% 

Electric appliances. 2.7 

Home furnishing. . 1.9 

Automobiles, fuel 
and accessories. . 1.6 

Real estate (homes, 
remodeling) 1.3 

Food stuffs 1.1 

Business invest- 
ments 9 

All other 9 

No answer as to 
what was bought .8 



Pros- 
perous 



3.9% 

3.0 

1.3 

2.2 



Upper 
middle 



3.0 

2.4 



1.8 



Lower 
middle 



3.0 
1.9 

1.2 



Poor 



3.8% 

2.0 

15 

1.8 



2.1 


2.4 


.9 


.8 


1.7 


1.2 


1.0 


1.0 


— 


1.8 


.9 


.5 


2.6 


1.1 


.8 


.6 


.9 


1.5 


.8 


.2 



14.8%* 17.7% 18.9% 14.0% 12.2% 
* Percentages add to more than 12.8 etc. because some respondents 
gave more than one answer. 

71. (US Jan 3 '46) The 86.3% who reported having bought 
nothing since the war that they would not have bought had 
the war been on were asked why they had not bought any- 
thing. Results follow: (nyht) 

Don't need anything 26.2% 

Can't find what I want 22.9 

Don't have enough money 19.1 

Want to wait for better quality of materials 9.0 

Prices are too high 7.7 

Fear of economic insecurity 4.8 

Haven't seen anything I wanted 3.8 

Haven't had the time to shop 2.6 

Didn't want to cash war bonds or use savings 1.5 

All other reasons 3.2 

No reason 2.1 

Don't know 2.1 

No answer 1.5 



* Percentages are based on the number of respondents who reported 
having bought nothing since the war and add to more than 100 because 
some gave more than one answer. 



[75] 



72. (Hungary Feb '46) In general, where do you prefer to 
shop — in department stores, cooperative society shops, small 
shops, or some other shop? Asked in Budapest, (hipor) 



Yis 



No 



BY SEX AND 



ECONOMIC STATUS 

Cooper- 
ative 
society 
Stores shops 



Educated class 

Men with fixed income 7.9% 16.7% 

Men with variable income. . 4.2 6.9 
Women with fixed income. . 18.5 9.2 
Women with variable in- 
come 16.0 14.0 

Small bourgeoisie 

Men with fixed income 18.8 25.5 

Men with variable income. . 12.0 7.6 
Women with fixed income. .23.1 8.2 
Women with variable in- 
come 21.0 7.9 

Workers 

Men with fixed income 25. 4 

Men with variable income. . 23.0 
Women with fixed income. . 20.0 
Women with variable in- 
come 19.6 26.6 



Small 

shops Others 

1^.'>% 1.9% 

87.9 1.0 

72.3 — 

68.0 



54.8 
80.4 



71.1 



23.0 


49.4 


25.5 


51.5 


12.5 


67.5 



52.4 



2.0 
0.9 
1.9 

2.2 

1.4 



73. (Belgium Apr-June '46) Among the following articles, 
which one do you want to buy first? (insoc) 

a ^ 5 

National total 17% 20% 6% 4% 3% 31% 19% 

BY ENVIRONMENT 

Urban 15% 22% 6% 4% 3% 31% 19% 

Rural 21 18 6 4 3 28 20 

Industrial 16 15 4 6 3 35 21 

BY OCCUPATION 

Farm and farm labor. 22% 17% 5% 3% 2% 26% 25% 

Workers and artisans.. 17 13 5 5 3 35 22 

White-collar 16 19 6 5 2 27 25 

Business 15 17 8 4 4 25 27 

Professional 11 21 14 3 4 22 25 

Living on income 10 24 4 5 2 30 25 

Housewives 17 29 7 5 3 34 5 

74. (Belgium Apr-June '46) Do you find these articles that 
you want to buy in the shops? (insoc) 

Yes No 

National total 56% 44% 

BY ENVIRONMENT 

Urban 55% 45% 

Rural 51 49 

Industrial 70 30 

BY OCCUPATION 

Farm and farm labor 49% 51% 

Workers and artisans 62 38 

White-collar 58 42 

Business 54 46 

Professional 59 41 

Living on income 50 50 

Housewives 54 46 



BY ARTICLES 



Cups 33 67 

Drinking glasses 62 38 

Spoons and forks 60 40 

Knives 60 40 

Saucepans 72 28 

75. (Belgium Apr-June '46) Among the following articles, 
which one do you wish you could buy first? (insoc) 



■^ 
S 



National total 25% 25% 24% 



6% 



13% 



7% 



BY ENVIRONMENT 



Urban 25% 26% 27% 

Rural 23 24 22 

Industrial 27 24 22 



12% 6% 
15 8 

14 7 



BY OCCUPATION 



12% 

7 

7 
10 

6 
10 

2 



Farm and farm labor.. 25% 19% 17% 14% 13^ 

Workers and artisans. . 24 23 23 10 13 

White-collar 24 25 34 2 8 

Business 25 23 30 2 10 

Professional 36 16 36 — 6 

Living on income 23 33 24 1 9 

Housewives 24 31 20 2 21 

76. (Belgium Apr-June '46) Do you find the cloth articles or 
shoes that you want to buy with your ration points in the 
shops? (insoc) 

Yes No 

National total 60% 40% 

BY ENVIRONMENT 

Urban 62% 38% 

Rural 53 47 

Industrial 67 33 

BY OCCUPATION 

Farm and farm labor 48% 52% 

Workers and artisans 64 36 

White-collar 61 39 

Business 55 45 

Professional 69 31 

Living on income 50 50 

Housewives 62 38 

BY ARTICLES 

Shoes 56% 44% 

Underclothing 63 37 

Suit or dress 62 38 

Work clothes 57 43 

Bedding 56 44 

77. (Great Britain June '46) What is the first thing you would 
buy for your home if you could find it in the shops? (bipo) 

National 
total 

Household furnishings 61% 

Appliances and tools 11 

Motor car 

Amusements, hobbies 

Foodstuffs 

Clothing 

Miscellaneous 



1 
6 
1 
1 

7 
No reply 12 



Men 


Women 


i^7o 


n% 


10 


12 


1 


— 


8 


2 


2 


1 


— 


1 


9 


4 



17 



[76] 



78. (Great Britain June '46) Have you re-registered with your 
old butcher/grocer, or arc you going to change? (bipo) 

Butcher Grocer 

Rc-reg- Don't Ke-reg- Don't 

istertd Change know istertd Change know 

National total.. 77% 13% 10% 78% 13% 9% 

BY SEX 

Men 74% 11% 15% 74% 11% 15% 

Women 81 15 4 82 14 4 

BY AGE 

21-29 years 68% 15% 17% 69% 15% 16% 

30-49 years 79 13 8 79 14 7 

50 years and over 79 12 9 80 10 10 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher 75% 13% 12% 74% 14% 12% 

Middle 79 11 10 79 11 10 

Lower 77 14 9 78 13 9 

79. (Great Britain Aug '46) What is the first item on the list 
of things you want to buy for your own personal use? (bipo) 

Men Women 
Clothes (general), new outfit .... 19% 19% 

Suit, overcoat, costume, dress. ... 12 13 

Boots, shoes 5 11 

Socks, stockings 1 6 

Underwear 2 6 

Corsets — 3 

House, bungalow 3 2 

Motorcar 15 4 

Motorcycle 4 — 

Bicycle 2 1 

Furniture, household equipment. . 1 4 

Sewing machine — 1 

Washing machine — 1 

Sports uipment 4 1 

Radio 2 1 

Musical instrument — 1 

Watch 3 2 

Fountain pen 2 — 

Pipe 3 — 

Cigarette lighter 1 — 

Razor 2 — 

Tools 1 — 

Handbag — 3 

Umbrella — 2 

Cosmetics — 1 

Miscellaneous articles 10 10 

None 8 8 

80. (US Aug '46) On the whole, which sex do you think is 
more extravagant in spending money, men or women? (for) 



Men 



Women 



BY SEX 








No 


Don't 


Women 


difference 


know 


I 51.3% 


20.7% 


7.0% 


44.9 


18.3 


6.4 



Men 

Men 21.0% 

Women 30.4 



81. (Hungary Sept '46) Can you now buy sufficient luxuries? 
(hipor) 

Yes 18% No 61% Partly 17% Uncertain 4% 

82. (Hungary Nov '46) What were your expenditures yester- 
day? Asked of a cross-section of Budapest residents, (hipor) 



Food 

Tramway, bus, taxi 

Newspaper 

Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes 

Electric, gas bills, etc 

Fuel 

Doctor, medicine 

Theater, movies, entertainment 

Cosmetics 

Soap, soda, etc., for washing 

Drinks 

Bills, debts. . ., 

Textiles, clothes 

Tax, rent, radio, mail, ration cards, 
fees for release from obligatory pub- 
lic labor, etc 

Sewing utensils, thread, yarn, etc 

Book 

Shoes 

Repairs 

No expenditures 

Other 



42.9% 


64.4% 


15.1 


12.6 


13.5 


2.2 


28.2 


35 


3.2 


6.7 


1.5 


3.7 


0.4 


4.2 


4.3 


39 


0.1 


0.8 


0.3 


1.4 


4.6 


1.3 


0.3 


0.8 


3.1 


3.6 


3.5 


7.4 


0.3 


2.8 


0.8 


1.3 


0.9 


0.2 


0.1 


1.8 


7.2 


11.7 


10.0 


10.7 



140.3%* 145.0%,* 



* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 



83. (Hungary Nov '46) If you unexpectedly got five hundred 
forints, what would you buy for Christmas? Asked in Budapest. 
(hipor) 



% 

Nothing 2.5 

Clothing, textiles, 

underwear 55. 

Shoes 25.0 

Food, sweets 10.0 

Toys — 

Books 10.0 

Fuel — 

Drink, tobacco — 

Cosmetics — 

Luxury, fur coat, 

jewelry 10.0 

Household articles. — 
Watch, fountain 

pen, pencil 5.8 

Don't know yet. .. . 5.0 

Radio 7.5 

Bicycle — 

Trousseau, furniture 2.5 
Other, no answer . . 7.5 



MEN 






WOMEN 




i 


W 
^ 

^ 




1 

§ 


c§ 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


0.7 


0.8 


2.9 


0.6 


0.3 


57.8 


54.7 


61.8 


61.8 


64.1 


20.6 


36.5 


32.3 


36.2 


40.7 


25.0 


22.0 


11.8 


26.0 


21,9 


1.8 


5.1 


2.9 


7.1 


4.0 


6.4 


5.9 


5.7 


9.5 


2.3 


12.8 


10.2 


8.8 


6.5 


16.2 


1.4 


0.8 


— 


0.6 


— 


— 


— 


2.9 


0.6 


1.1 


1.4 


1.7 


11.8 


3.0 


1.4 


1.4 


1.3 


— 


1.8 


0.8 


2.1 


0.8 


2.9 


— 


0.6 


2.1 


1.3 


— 


1.8 


1.4 


4.3 


0.8 


— 


0.6 


2.5 


1.4 


— 


— 


— 


0.3 


— 


1.3 


8.8 


2.4 


1.1 


9.3 


9.8 


8.8 


7.1 


9.4 


.48.5* 


153.0* 


161.4* 


165.6* 168.1* 



Percentages . . . 140. 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 



84. (Hungary Nov '46) What do you intend to buy for Christ- 
mas? Asked in Budapest, (hipor) 



[77] 



MEK 






WOMEN 






•^ 




1 

§ 


1 




i 


% 


% 


% 


% 


18.0 


26.2 


20.6 


21.9 



31.9 



44.1 37.3 47.0 36.8 33.9 



15.7 


13.1 


11.8 


11.2 


136 


11.5 


14.0 


5.7 


10.6 


10.0 


7.2 


3.4 


14.6 


8.9 


6.5 


6.4 


1.3 


8.8 


7.7 


3.4 


3.6 


1.7 


2.9 


1.8 


1.7 


2.1 


1.7 


— 


1.2 


— 


— 


0.8 


— 


1.8 


0.3 


2.1 


0.4 


— 


4.7 


0.3 


1.4 


1.3 


2.9 


— 


0.3 



1.4 



2.9 



— 


2.1 


1.2 


— 


— 


0.3 


17.5 


11.5 


11.4 


5.7 


14.2 


14.8 


10.0 


9.3 


7.6 


5.7 


7.1 


3.7 



% 

Nothing 12.5 

Textiles, clothes, 

linen 35.0 

Knitted articles, 

shoes 12.5 

Food, sweets 10.0 

Toys 7.5 

Books 12.5 

Fuel — 

Drink, tobacco — 

Cosmetics 2.5 

Luxuries, fur coat, 

jewelry 2.5 

Household articles. — 
Watch, fountain 

pen, pencil 2.5 

Radio, bicycle, fur- 
niture, trousseau 
Don't know yet. . . 
Other, no answer. 



Percentages... 125.0* 136.4* 121.4* 128.6* 127.9* 120.7* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

85. (Australia Nov 23 '46) If it were put to a vote that retail 
shops should open on cither Friday evening (to 9 p.m.) or on 
Saturday morning (to 12:30) — which would you favor? (apop) 
Favor opening Friday 48% Favor Saturday 48% 

No opinion 4% 

86. (Canada Dec 21 '46) If someone gave you five thousand 
dollars on condition that you spend it all, what would you 
spend most of it on? (cipo) 

Buy a home; invest in property; improve my home; add 

land to my farm; pay off my home; etc 43% 

Travel; see the world; head for New York; etc 16 

Invest it in securities; annuities; insurance; bonds; etc. , . 14 

Buy a car 10 

Buy household furnishings 7 

Buy clothes 5 

Improve education; go to university; study music, art, 

drama, etc 4 

Spend it on the family 3 

Recreation; vacation 2 

Buy farm machinery 2 

Miscellaneous replies 11 

Couldn't decide 2 



119%* 



* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one ans'wer. 



CABINET OFFICERS 



Australia 

1. (Australia Oct '41) Should an Australian Cabinet Minister 
attend the British War Cabinet when it is discussing war policy 
affecting Australia? (apop) 



No 


Undecided 


19% 


9% 


13% 
17 


11% 
8 


18 


8 


19 


10 


27 


9 


22% 
16 


11% 

7 



Yes 

National total 72% 

BY AGE 

21-29 years 76% 

30-39 years 75 

40-49 years 74 

50-59 years 71 

60 years and over 64 

BY POLITICS 

Labor voters 67% 

Other votets 77 



Canada 

1. (Canada Sept 9 '42) Do you think that the war effort would 
be helped if the Cabinet were chosen from all political parties 
and not just from the Liberal Party as at present or do you 
think it would make no difference? (ciPo) 

Would help war effort 59% 

Would hurt war effort 8 

Would make no difference. . 26 

No opinion 7 

2. (Canada Mar 10 '45) Do you happen to know the names 
of any of the members of Mackenzie King's Ottawa Cabinet? 
What are their names? (ciPo) 

Ilsley 52% 

McNaughton 43 

Howe 24 

Macdonald 21 

Couldn't name any 22 

Incorrect answers 11 



173%* ■ 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

France 

1. (France June 1 '45) Were you surprised at the resignation 
of M. Mendes-France, Minister of National Economy? (fipo) 
Yes 15% No 42% No answer 43% 

2. (France Dec 16 '45) Should General De Gaulle have given 
one of the three following ministries to the Communist Party 
— War, Foreign Affairs, Interior? (fipo) 

Yes 45% No 45% No opinion 10% 

3. (France Feb 1 '46) Have you ever heard of M. Jean Monnet? 
(fipo) 

Yes No 

National total 41% 59% 

Informed opinion 54 46 

4. (France Feb 1 '46) Do you approve of his [M. Jean Monnet's] 
nomination as Commissioner General of the [Economic] Plan? 
Asked of 41% of the sample who had heard of M. Monnet. 
(fipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

National total 40% 15% 45% = 100% 

of those who had heard of M. Jean Monnet 
Informed opinion 22 13 65 

5. (France Feb 1 '46) Of the two ministries. Finance and Na- 
tional Economy, which do you consider the most important? 
(fipo) 



[78] 



National No 

economy Finance Equal opinion 

National total 33% 24% 28% 15% 

Informed opinion. . . 40 26 27 7 

6. (France Feb 1 '46) Should one of these two ministries [Fi- 
nance and National Economy}, in your opinion, be subject to 
the authority of the other? (fii»o) 

Yis No No opinion 

National total 42% 32% 26% 

Informed opinion 49 35 16 

7. (France Feb 1 '46) Which [ministry] should be subject to 
the authority of the other? Asked of 42%, of the sample who 
thought one of the two ministries. Finance and National 
Economy, should be subject to the authority of the other. 
(fipo) 

Ministry 
Ministry of 

of National No 

Finance Economy opinion 

National total 62% 36% 2% = 100% of 

those questioned 

Informed opinion .. . 31 17 52 

8. (France Feb 1 '46) In your opinion should the [Constituent] 
deputies be subject to recall if they have acquitted themselves 
badly? (fipo) 

Yes 90% No 4% No opinion 6% 

9. (France Feb 1 '46) Who would recall them [the Constituent 
deputies], their party or the electors? Asked of 90% of the 
sample who thought the deputies should be recalled if they 
acquitted themselves badly, (fipo) 

Electors 66% Party 24% No opinion 10% 

10. (France Feb 16 '46) In your opinion, have the following 
ministers done well or badly: MM. Pleven, Billoux, Marcel 
Paul, Tanguy-Prigent, Bidault, Tillon, Michelet, Teitgen? 
(fipo) 

Done well Done badly No opinion 

M. Bidault 57% 14% 29% 

M. Marcel Paul 23 36 41 

M. Tillon 21 25 54 

M. Billoux 15 38 47 

M. Pleven 15 63 22 

M. Teitgen 12 55 33 

M. Michelet 11 29 60 

M. Tanguy-Prigent 7 73 20 

11. (France Aug 1 '46) Are you satisfied or dissatisfied with 
the composition of the Ministry set up by Georges Bidault? 
(pivo) 

Satis- Dis- Indif- No 

fied satisfied ferent opinion 
National total 33% 22% 32% 13% 

BY POLITICS 

Communists 21% 50% 29% 

Socialists 26 28 46 

Other left parties 37 19 44 

MRP 62 9 29 

PRL 37 25 38 

12. (France Sept '46) Was it right to validate the election of 
M. Reynaud? And that of M. Daladier? (fipo) 

Reynaud Daladier 

Yes 36% 35% 

No 36 37 

No opinion 28 28 



Would you have wanted that [the election] of M. Reynaud 
invalidated? And that of M. Daladier? 

Reynaud Daladier 

Yes 40% 40% 

No 33 34 

No opinion 27 26 

COMBINED RESULTS 

For validation 34%> 35% 

For invalidation 38 38 

No opinion 28 27 

13. (France Sept '46) In your opinion will M. Yves Farge, 

Minister of Food, succeed? (fipo) 

Yes 31% No 24% No opinion 45% 

Great Britain 

1. (Great Britain Mar 5^12 '38*) Do you believe Mr. Eden 
was right in resigning? (bipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

Mar 5 '38 72% 18% 10% 

Mar 12 '38 73 . 13 14 

* Release dates. 

2. (Great Britain Mar 5-12 '38*) Do you agree with Mr. Eden's 
reasons for resigning? (bipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

Mar 5 '38 69%, 19% 12% 

Mar 12 '38 62 17 21 

* Release dates. 

3. (Great Britain Mar '40) If a smaller war cabinet were formed 
for the more active prosecution of the war, which five leaders 
would you like to see in it? (Jan 16 '42) If Churchill formed a 
smaller war cabinet, for the more active prosecution of the 
war, which four men should he choose? (bipo) 

Mar '40 Jan '41 

Attlee 24%* Eden 70%* 

Hore-Belisha 46 Beaverbrook 60 

Churchill 67 Bevin 41 

Duncan 3 Attlee 21 

Eden 65 Stafford Cripps 16 

George 29 Morrison 16 

Greenwood 26 Alexander 9 

Halifax 34 Hore-Bclisha 8 

Hoare 12 Lloyd George 8 

Morrison 18 Duff Cooper 7 

Reith 7 Representatives of Do- 
Simon 22 minions 7 

Sinclair 16 Sinclair 7 

Stanley 11 Forces Chiefs 6 

Wood 24 ShinwcU 6 

Duff Cooper 10 Woolton 4 

Chamberlain 34 Greenwood 4 

Miscellaneous 10 Halifax 3 

No reply 6 Kingsley Wood 2 

Margesson 1 

Simon 1 

Ernest Brown 1 

Miscellaneous 20 

No comment 15 

* Since respondents were asked to choose five men in 1940 and four 
men in 1942 percentages add to considerably more than 100. 

4. (Great Britain Apr '41) In general, do you think that Mr. 
Bevin is doing a good job as Minister of Labor? (Mar 1 '43) 



[79] 

Do you think that Bevin is doing a good job or a bad job as 
Minister of Labor? (bipo) 

Good Bad Don't know 

Apr '41 63% 14% 23% 

Mar 1 '43 64 16 20 

5. (Great Britain June '41 and May '42) Do you think that 
Lord Woolton is or is not doing a good job as Minister of 
Food? (bipo) 

Is Is not Don' t know ■ 

June '41 57% 31% 12% 

May '42 79 12 9 

6. (Great Britain Feb '42) Are you satisfied or dissatisfied 
with the personnel of the Cabinet as made up at present? 
(bipo) 

Satisfied 32% Dissatisfied 41% Don't know 27% 

7. (Great Britain Apr '42) Do you think that Mr. Herbert 
Morrison is or is not doing a good job as Minister of Home 
Affairs and Security? (Dec '43) Do you think that Mr. Morrison 
is or is not doing a good job as Home Secretary? (bipo) 

Is Is not Don't know 

Apr '42 50% 20% 30% 

Dec '43 49 31 20 

8. (Great Britain Dec 14 '45, Feb 16 '46, Nov '46, Dec '46) 
Do you think that Ernest Bevin is or is not doing a good job 
as Foreign Secretary? (bipo) 

Is Is not Don t know 

Dec '45 47% 18% 35% 

Feb '46 73 12 15 

Nov '46 58 19 23 

Dec '46 54 20 26 

BY SEX 

Men 

Dec '45 55% 20% 25% 

Feb '46 77 14 9 

Nov '46 67 21 12 

Dec '46 62 21 17 

Women 

Dec '45 39 16 45 

Feb '46 69 10 21 

Nov '46 49 17 34 

Dec '46 47 17 36 

by age 

21-29 years 

Dec '45 42% 19% 39% 

Feb '46 73 13 14 

Nov '46 53 22 25 

Dec '46 46 21 33 

'iO-49 years 

Dec '45 48 18 34 

Feb '46 74 13 13 

Nov '46 61 20 19 

Dec '46 58 19 23 

50 years and over 

Dec '45 47 18 35 

Feb '46 72 11 17 

Nov '46 57 16 27 

Dec '46 55 18 27 

by economic status 

Higher 

Dec '45 42% 32% 26% 

Feb '46 72 22 6 

Nov '46 57 29 14 

Dec '46 50 32 18 



Is Is not 

Middle 

Dec '45 47% 25% 

Feb '46 74 15 

Nov '46 58 25 

Dec '46 55 24 

hower 

Dec '45 48 14 

Feb '46 73 10 

Nov '46 58 16 

Dec '46 56 16 

Very poor 

Nov '46 53 14 

Dec '46 51 15 

by politics 

Conservative 

Feb '46 64% 20% 

Nov '46 55 24 

Dec '46 49 28 

Labor 

Feb '46 82 7 

Nov '46 69 13 

Dec '46 67 13 

Liberal 

Feb '46 76 10 

Nov '46 51 29 

Dec '46 48 24 

Other 

Feb '46 64 26 

Nov '46 53 42 

Dec '46 50 35 

Non-voters 

Feb '46 62 11 

Nov '46 45 18 

Dec '46 42 18 

Refused to answer 

Feb '46 77 16 

BY LABOR STATUS 

Union members 

Feb '46 80% 12% 

Nov '46 67 20 

Dec '46 61 20 

Non-union 

Feb '46 71 12 

Nov '46 55 19 

Dec '46 52 19 



Don't know 

28% 
11 
17 
21 

38 
17 
26 
28 

33 

34 



16% 

21 

23 

11 

18 
20 

14 
20 
28 

10 

5 

15 

27 
37 
40 



8% 
13 
19 

17 
26 
29 



9. (Great Britain May '46) On the whole, do you think that 

Mr. Dalton is doing a good job or a bad job as Chancellor of 
the Exchequer? (bipo) 

Good job Bad job Don't know 

National total... 55% 14% 31% 

BY SEX 

Men 61% 16% 23% 

Women 49 11 40 

BY AGE 

21-29 years 52% 11% 37% 

30-49 years 57 13 30 

50 years and over. 53 16 31 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher 48% 26% 26% 

Middle 55 20 25 

Lower 55 H 34 



[80] 



Good job Bad job Don' r know 

BY POLITICS 

Conservative 42% 27% 31% 

Labor 68 7 25 

Liberal 57 17 26 

Other voters 57 10 33 

Non-voters 43 9 48 

Italy 

1. (Italy Oct '46) Which of the following sentences comes 
closest to expressing your opinion of Mr. de Gasperi as Min- 
ister of Foreign AfTairs? (doxa) 

-5 

^ - 1 I 

"^ •$ -5 1 

i ^ :t1 It . s 

*>- a ■"" '5 S S S » 

ss - i »• ^3 5 "8 
National total. . . 16.2% 30.0% 15-4% 11.1% 9.3% 18.0% 

BY SEX 

Men 14.4% 32.9% 17.4% 14.6% 11.8% 8.9% 

Women 18.3 26.7 13.0 6.9 6.4 28.7 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

North Italy 17.9%, 34.8% 14.5%, 10.9% 6.7% 15.2% 

Central Italy 159 29.5 19.9 11.1 8.5 15.1 

South Italy'. 14.3 23.2 14.0 12.9 12.7 22.9 

Islands 13.8 24.9 155 8.3 14.1 23.4 

POLITICS AS INDICATED BY NEWSPAPERS READ 

Christian Demo- 
crat 45.9% 34.9% 10.3% 1.4% 2.1% 5.4% 

Socialist 5.8 28.0 24.4 23.8 11.6 6.4 

Communist 3.3 139 18.5 30.6 25.8 7.9 

Other parties 138 34.2 17.6 10.7 10.5 13.2 

Independent 18.1 371 16.5 10.7 7.4 10.2 

No newspapers. . . 13.8 15.4 8.2 4.3 8.4 49.9 

Netherlands 

1. (Netherlands May '46) When a new Cabinet is being formed, 
in what type of men would you have most confidence as Min- 
isters? (nipo) 

•^ S ^ e 

$>:5 s .5, t ^ 

f^ ^ cq^ (^ Q ^ 

National total .... 39% 27% 22% 9% 25% = 122%* 

BY SEX 

Men 40% 29% 21% 10% ^ 

Women 38 24 23 8 ^° 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Lowest incomes .. . 47% 15% 20% 3% 

Low incomes 43 22 22 9 . p- 

Middle class 32 38 24 13 ''" 

Well-to-do 25 42 25 3 

BY POLITICS 

Labor party 49% 22% 27% 9% 

Catholic People's 

party 30 26 26 11 





ft 

'-J 




i. 


"C ^ 


'=5-^ 


a; 


Q 


51% 


3l7o 


21% 


11% 


18 


64 


20 


12 


63 


8 


11 


4 


35 


35 


19 


9 



s 



Anti-Revolutionary 51% 3l7o 21% 11% 25% 

Liberal 18 

Communist 63 

Christian-Historic 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

2. (Netherlands May '46) Shortly a new government will have 
to be formed. What things should this new Cabinet get busy 
on first of all? (nipo) 



A better ratio between wages 
and prices 

More goods more easily pro- 
curable 

More clothing, shoes, linen, 
etc 

Quick building and rebuild- 
ing of houses 

Finish judging political de- 
linquents quickly 

Solving of Indonesian prob- 
lems 

Old age pensions, pensions for 
relatives of war victims . . . 

Put aside the obstructions of 
trade (national and inter- 
national) 

Stamp out black markets .... 

No opinion 



2; 


xj 

^ 


1 


1 


1 


5 

i 

a: 


19% 


19% 


19% 22% 


15% 


12' 


14 


18 


11 


13 


19 


20 


11 


7 


16 


13 


6 


3 


11 


10 


12 


11 


10 


16 


10 


10 


9 


9 


11 


11 


8 


10 


6 


7 


10 


16 


6 


6 


5 


7 


4 


1 



4 6 2 1 6 10 

2 2 2 2 2 1 

15 12 18 15 17 10 



3. (Netherlands May '46) In general, arc you satisfied or 
dissatisfied with the work done by the Schermerhorn-Drees 
Cabinet? (nlpo) 

Satisfied 49% Dissatisfied 34% Don't know 17% 

4. (Netherlands May '46) Why [are you satisfied with the 
work done by the Schermerhorn-Drees Cabinet]? Asked of the 
49% who were satisfied, (nipo) 

Did a good job in difficult circumstances, etc 36% 

Successful handling of financial matters 1 

No reason 12 

49% 

5. (Netherlands May '46) Why [are you dissatisfied with the 
work of the Schermerhorn-Drees Cabinet]? Asked of the 34% 
who were dissatisfied, (nipo) 

Weak leadership; too many compromises, too slow; etc. 10% 

Because not in agreement with political views of Cabinet 3 

Because too many civil servants; bureaucracy 3 

Indonesian problems wrongly handled 2 

Spending too much monev 2 

Government undemocratic; like dictators; etc 2 

Other reasons 3 

No reason 9 

34% 



6. (Netherlands June "46) The Schermerhorn-Drccs Cabinet has 
offered its resignation to the Queen. Consequently, a new 
Cabinet has to be formed. In your opinion, which parties 
togenher should form this new government? (nipo) 

OPINIONS BEFORE AND AFTER THE ELECTIONS 

After Before 

elections elections 

Roman Catholic 67% 55% 

Labor 61 52.5 

Anti-Revolutionary 26 21 

Christian-Historic 22 17 

Communist 18 10 

Liberal 13 13 

Others 9 2.5 

. ' No answer 15 17 



231%* 188%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

7. (Netherlands Dec 12 '46) Are you satisfied or dissatisfied. 

with the work of the Beel Cabinet? (nipo) 

Dissatisfied 47% Satisfied 34% Don't know 19% 

Sweden 

1. (Sweden Feb '43) If Per Albin Hansson were to retire from 
political life who, inside or outside the Cabinet, would you 
suggest as his successor to lead the coalition government? (sGi) 

■-* 

^ « S i -3 

§ S ^ ^ .^ i; 

*» § ^ Ci, "^S V 

^ [^ ^ ^ ^ fe 

Don't know 83% 77% 82% 60% 80%, 87% 

State Councilor Bagge (Right) 4 9 1 20 5 1 
Foreign Minister Giinther 

(unpolitical) 2 2 2 4 3 2 

Agricultural Minister Brams- 

torp.... 2 4 12 2 2 

Minister for Defense Skold 

(Socialist) 2 1 3 2 2 2 

Minister of Finance Wigforss 

(Socialist) 1—2—11 

State Councilor Andersson 

(Liberal) 12 13 1 — 

Others 5 5 8 9 6 5 

U.S. 

1. (US Nov 4 '36) Should the national chairman of the Demo- 
cratic Party also hold a position in the President's new Cabinet? 
(aipo) 
Yes 37% No 63%, = 100%, No opinion 15%, 

2. (US Nov 30 '37 and Apr 19 '39) Do you think Henry Wallace 
has done a good job as Secretary of Agriculture? The 1937 
question was asked of a national cross-section of farmers. 
(Feb 6 '40) Do you think Henry Wallace has done a good job 
or a poor job as Secretary of Agriculture? Asked of a national 
cross-section of farmers, (aipo) 



Yes, 
good job 

Nov '37 69% 

Apr '39 58 

Feb '40 73 



No, No 

poor job opinion 

31% = 100% 32% 
42 
27 



[81] 

Yes, No, No 

good job poor job opinion 

NOV '37 RESULTS BY TYPES OF FARMERS 

Tobacco farmers 89%, 11% 

Cotton farmers 80 20 

Wheat farmers 71 29 

Corn farmers 68 32 

Other farmers 63 37 

3. (US May 20 and May 27 '38) Do you think the following 
Cabinet members have done a good or poor job in their office — 
Secretary of State Hull, Secretary of War Woodring, Postmaster 
General Farley, Secretary of Agriculture Wallace, Secretary of 
Commerce Roper? The May 27th list was: Secretary of the 
Treasury Morgenthau, Attorney-General Curamings, Secretary 
of Labor Perkins, Secretary of the Navy Swanson, Secretary of 
the Interior Ickes. (aipo) 

Good Poor No opinion 
national total 

Hull 53% 8% 39% 

Woodring 37 8 55 

Farley 39 26 35 

Wallace 37 23 40 

Roper 26 12 62 

Morgenthau 44 13 43 

Cummings 36 13 51 

Perkins 31 38 31 

Swanson 44 8 48 

Ickes 37 22 41 

democratic opinion 

Hull 58% 5% 37% 

Farley 53 14 33 

Wallace 49 15 36 

Woodring 43 5 52 

Roper 32 9 59 

Morgenthau 52 8 40 

Cummings 44 7 49 

Perkins 40 30 30 

Swanson 50 5 45 

Ickes 47 14 39 

4. (US July '38 and Oct '38) On the whole, do you like or 
dislike his [President Roosevelt's] advisers and political asso- 
ciates? (for) 

No knowl- 
edge or Not sure or 
hike Dislike undecided uninformed 

July '38 28.3% 32.3% 20.2% 19.2% 

Oct '38 32.4 31.4 17.6 18.6 

5. (US Oct '38) Can you name one of the President's advisers, 
associates, or Cabinet members of whom you approve? One of 
whom you disapprove? (for) 

Associates Associates 
approved disapproved 

Cordell Hull 22.2% 1.0% 

James A. Farley 11.6 18.8 

John N. Garner 9.6 2.5 

Henry A. Wallace 4.4 6.4 

Harold L. Ickes 4.3 7.4 

Frances Perkins 36 10.1 

Harry L. Hopkins 3.4 5-8 

Henry Morgenthau, Jr 3.4 — 

Joseph P. Kennedy 1.9 — 

Claude A. Swanson 0.8 — 

James Roosevelt 0.6 1.0 

Hugo Black — 1.9 



[82] 



Associates Associates 

approved disapproved 

Thomas Corcoran — 1 .4% 

John L. Lewis — 1.0 

All others 13.2% 10.1 

All 3.4 4.0 

None 17.6 28.6 

6. (US Nov 22 '38) Do you think Cordell Hull has done a 
good or a poor job as Secretary of State? (aipo) 

Good Poor No opinion 

National total 85% 15% = 1007o 43%) 

BY POLITICS 

Republican 75% 25% 

Democratic 91 9 

7. (US Nov 22 '38) Do you think Harry Hopkins has done a 
good job as director of the WPA? (aipo) 

Good Poor 

National total 47% 53% 

BY POLITICS 

Democratic 60% 40% 

Republican 22 78 

8. (US Nov 22 '38) Harry Hopkins has been mentioned for 
the post of Secretary of Commerce. Would you approve of his 
appointment? (aipo) 

Yes No 

National total 34% 66% 

BY POLITICS 

Democratic 45% 55% 

Republican 14 86 

9. (US Jan 10 '39) A bill is being introduced in Congress to 
impeach the United States Secretary of Labor, Frances Perkins. 
Do you think she should be removed from office? Without in- 
troducing the idea of impeachment, a comparable cross-section 
was asked: Do you think the United States Secretary of Labor, 
Frances Perkins, should be removed from office? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

Results of hrst form 33% 34% 33% 

Results of second form 40 28 32 

10. (US Mar '39) What is your opinion of WPA Administrator 
Harry Hopkins — do you feel that (1) he has done a fine job 
and should be kept in mind for higher office; (2) he has made 
some mistakes but on the whole he has handled a difficult job 
well; (3) he has done a fairly good job, but not good enough; 
(4) he has done a had job and should retire to private life?* 
(for) 

State- State- State- State- Don't 
ment 1 went 2 ment 3 went 4 know 
National total ... . 9.4% 31.5% 15.0% 12.5% 31.6% 
Unemployed only.. 18.7 31.5 153 7.9 26.6 

* This question was framed just at the time when Mr. Hopkins' 
promotion was being rumored and w.is asked immediately before his 
appointment as Secretary of Commerce was announced. As a matter 
of fact the last few hundred interviews were made after, but they were 
too few to upset the results of the question as asked. 

11. (US Oct 18 '39) It has been suggested that since President 
Roosevelt wants the country to forget politics while the war 
lasts, he should invite some Republican leaders to join the 
Cabinet. Do you favor or oppose this idea? (aipo) 

Favor 62% Oppose 22% No opinion 16% 



12. (US Oct 18 '39) It has been suggested that President 
Roosevelt should replace some of the Democrats now in the 
Cabinet with Republicans. Do you favor or oppose this idea? 
(aipo) 

Favor 33% Oppose 40% No answer 1% No opinion 26% 

13. (US Dec '39) Do you think Roosevelt would do well to 
invite some of his political opponents, like Senator Vandenberg, 
Alfred Landon, ex-President Hoover, and Carter Glass to join 
in a non-political emergency Cabinet now, or that he should 
continue as now with his regular Cabinet? (for) 

Emergency Cabinet Continue as now Don't know 

48.9% 34.5% 16.6% 

14. (US June 25 '40) President Roosevelt has named two Re- 
publicans, Frank Knox and Henry Stimson, to be Secretaries 
of Navy and War in the Cabinet, filling one vacancy and re- 
placing one Democrat, Harry Woodring. Do you approve or 
disapprove of his action? A comparable cross-section was asked: 
President Roosevelt has named two Republicans, Frank Knox 
and Henry Stimson, to be Secretaries of Navy and War in his 
Cabinet. Do you approve or disapprove of his action? Results 
were combined, (aipo) 

Approve Disapprove No opinion 

National, total 71% 29% = 100% 28% 



Republican 57% 

Democratic 85 



BY politics 



43% 
15 



15. (US July 31 '40) If Wendell WiUkie is elected President 
this fall, should he invite Cordell Hull to remain as his Secre- 
tary of State? (aipo) 



Yes 45^ 



No 18% 



Undecided 37% 



16. (US Mar 18 '42) In England, public opinion has forced 
Churchill to change some members of his Cabinet. Do you 
think Roosevelt should make any changes in his Cabinet here? 
(aipo) 

Yes 36% No 28% No opinion 36% 

17. (US Mar 18 '42) What changes should be made? Asked of 
36% of the sample who thought Roosevelt should make some 
changes in his Cabinet, (aipo) 

Should change Secretary of Labor, eliminate Perkins. . 23% 

Should change Secretary of Navy, eliminate Knox. ... 6 

Should change Secretary of War, eliminate Stimson. . . 5 

Should change Secretary of Interior, eliminate Ickes. . . 3 
Should change Secretary of Treasury, eliminate Mor- 

genthau 1 

Should change Secretary of Commerce, eliminate Jones 1 

Should change Secretary of State, eliminate Hull 1 

Should change Attorney-General, eliminate Biddle. ... * 

Should change Postmaster-General, eliminate Walker. . * 
Should change Secrctarv of Agriculture, eliminate 

Wickard '. ^ 1 

Should change entire Cabinet 1 

Should have younger, more aggressive men in Cabinet 2 

Should make changes, couldn't say what 6 

More capable, more efficient men 1 

Miscellaneous 1 

52%** 

* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 36 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

18. (US Dec 22 '42) Which of these Cabinet members has done 
the best job with his department during the past year? (aipo) 



[83] 

Hull 36% 

Knox 18 

Morgenthau 13 

Wickard 10 

Stimson 8 

Ickes 6 

Walker 4 

Biddle 2 

Perkins 2 

Jones 2 

No opinion 13 

114%* 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

19. (US Dec 22 '42) Do you approve or disapprove of having 
some Republicans in tlie President's Cabinet? (aipo) 
Approve 77% Disapprove 4% No opinion 19% 

20. (US Jan 21 '43) Do you think that Claude Wickard has 
done a good job or a poor job as Secretary of Agriculture? 
Asked of a national cross-section of farmers, (aipo) 
Good job 33% Fair job 32% Poor job °i% No opinion 26% 

21. (US Mar 10 '43) Have you heard of any of the following 
persons: Claude Wickard? Sumner Wells? Can you tell me briefly 
what his job is now? (aipo) 

Yes, but 
Yes, Yes, didn't give 

correct incorrect an answer No 

Claude Wickard 48% 2% 16% 34% 

Sumner Wells 19 15 29 27 

22. (US July 7 '43) Have you been following the fight between 
Jesse Jones and Henry Wallace?* (aipo) 

Yes 36% No 64% 

* Wallace accused Jesse Jones of obstructing the war effort. 

23. (US July 7 '43) Which man are you more inclined to side 
with — Jones or Wallace? Asked of 36% of the sample who had 
been following the debate between Jesse Jones and Henry 
Wallace, (aipo) 

Jones 36% 

Wallace 26 

Neither 27 

No opinion 11 

100% of those who had 
followed the de- 
bate 

24. (US Nov 24 '43) A member of Congress has suggested that 
heads of government departments and agencies appear before 
Congress, when requested, to answer questions about what 
their departments are doing. Do you approve or disapprove of 
this idea? A comparable cross-section was asked the question 
in the following form: Would you approve or disapprove of 
having members of the President's Cabinet appear before Con- 
gress, when requested, to answer questions or explain what 
their departments are doing? Results were combined, (aipo) 

Approve Disapprove No opinion 
National total 72% 7% 21% 

BY POLITICS 

Republican 75% 25% 

Democratic 68 32 

25. (US Nov 24 '43) Would you approve or disapprove if both 
the Republican and Democratic parties agree to name Cordell 
Hull Secretary of State after the next election? (aipo) 



Approve Disapprove Undecided 

National total 56% 16% 28% 

Republican voters. 52 22 26 

26. (US Dec 28 '44) A bill has been introduced in Congress to 
increase the salaries of the Vice-President of the United States 
and members of the President's Cabinet from fifteen thousand 
dollars to twenty-five thousand dollars a year. Do you approve 
or disapprove of this increase? (aipo) 
Approve 27% Disapprove 62% No opinion 11% 

27. (US Jan 31 '45) Have you heard or read about the appoint- 
ment of Henry Wallace as Secretary of Commerce? (aipo) 

Yes 80% No 20% 

28. (US J.in 31 '45) Would you like to see Congress vote for 
or against the appointment of Henry Wallace as Secretary of 
Commerce? (aipo) 

For Against No opinion 

National total 40% 37% 23% 

DY POLITICS 

Roosevelt voters 61% 19% 20% 

Dewey voters 17 64 19 

29. (US Apr 18 '45) Which members of the President's Cabinet 
would you like to see kept on in their jobs? Each respondent 
was given a card with a list of the President's Cabinet on it. 
(aipo) 

Not No 

Kept on kept on opinion 

Biddle 45% 17% 38% 

Forrestal 67 4 29 

Ickes 49 ■ 23 28 

Morgenthau 57 18 25 

Perkins 29 49 22 

Stettinius 65 ll 24 

Stimson 71 5 24 

Walker 51 9 40 

Wallace 54 23 23 

Wickard 52 10 38 

30. (US Nov '45) Can you tell me which one of the organiza- 
tions on this card is headed by James Byrnes, or don't you 
remember right now? Each respondent was handed a card with 
the following organizations listed on it: WMC, WPB, OPA, 
WLB, State, Interior, (norc) 
Right 35% Wrong 17% Don't know 48% 

31. (US Nov '45) Is your impression of James Byrnes favor- 
able, unfavorable, or haven't you heard enough to say? Asked 
of all those who gave an answer — the 35% who were correct 
and the 17% who were wrong, (norc) 

OPINIONS OF THOSE WHO GAVE 
a correct ANSWER 

Favorable 24% 

Unfavorable 4 

Don't know 7 

35% 

OPINIONS OF THOSE WHO GAVE 
AN INCORRECT ANSWER 

Favorable 8% 

Unfavorable 1 

Don't know 8 



17% 



[84] 



32. (US Dec 19 '45 and Jan 3 '46) These are some public figures 
who have been in the news. Have you ever heard of any of 
them? Included in a list were James Byrnes and Henry Wallace. 
(aipo) 

Yis No 

Jamts Byrnes 

Dec '45 '... 79% 21% 

Jan '46 82 18 

Henry Wallace 

Dec '45 88 12 

Jan '46 89 11 

33. (US Jan '46) Now we want to ask about some key men in 
government offices. For instance, do you think James Byrnes 
(Vinson, etc.) looks like an excellent, good, only fair, or poor 
man for the job of Secretary of State (Secretary of the Treasury, 
etc.)? (for) 

Excel- Don't 

lent Good Fair Poor know 

Byrnes 7.4% 34.4%, 17.7% 2.4% 38.1% 

Vinson 4.2 29.4 12.0 1.6 52.8 

Snyder 2.1 20.3 10.8 3.8 63.0 

Ickes 6.5 32.0 13.4 13.5 34.6 

Anderson 5.1 27.8 7.7 2.0 57.4 

Schwellenbach 4.0 24.9 14.4 7.5 49.2 

Wallace 7.4 29.0 17.4 16.4 29.8 

OPINIONS ON CLINTON P. ANDERSON BY OCCtXPATION* 

Farm (proprietor 

and worker) 4.6% 41.1% 12.1% 6.1% 36.1% 

Proprietor (except 

farm) 8.5 31.2 12.4 4.3 43.6 

Wage worker (ex- 
cept farm) 3.4 27.5 9.2 2.2 57.7 

OPINIONS ON LEWIS B. SCHWELLENBACH BY OCCUPATION* 

Proprietor (except 
farm) 3.9% 24.5% 24.1% 14.2% 33.3% 

Salaried, minor 6.0 29.5 17.9 7.2 39.4 

Wage workers (ex- 
cept farm) 3.8 25.6 14.0 8.1 48.5 

OPINIONS ON HENRY WALLACE BY ECONOMIC STATUS* 

Prosperous 6.0% 25.9% 25.4% 32.3% 10.4% 

Upper middle 7.9 27.4 21.3 26.4 17.0 

Lower middle 7.7 29.1 20.1 15.7 27.4 

Poor 7.1 30.7 9.1 6.1 47.0 

* Breakdowns from New York Herald Tribune Jan 10 '46. 

34. (France Oct 16 '46) Have you heard about the statements 
which Mr. Byrnes made at Stuttgart on September 6th? 61% 
of the sample who had heard about the speech were asked: 
Do you approve or disapprove of these statements? (fipo) 

Approve 8% 

Disapprove 41 

No opinion 12 

Hadn't heard of speech 39 



2. (US Mar 7 '40) Do you happen to know what vitamins 
are? (aipo) 

Correct 9% 

Doubtful 22 

Incorrect 7 

Don't know 62 

3. (US Nov 13 '41 and Great Britain Apr '42) Can you explain 
the difference between a vitamin and a calorie? What is the 
difference? The United States question was asked of a national 
cross-section of housewives, (aipo and bipo) (Canada Jan 6 
'43) Do you happen to know the difference between a calorie 
and a vitamin? (cipo) 

Correct, know Incorrect, vague, 

difference or don't know 

US 16% 84% 

Great Britain 19 81 

Canada 12 88 

4. (US Nov 13 '41) Is there any one vitamin which you have 
heard about a lot in recent months? 54% of the sample who 
said they had heard a lot about one vitamin were asked: 
Which one? (aipo) 

Vitamin A 7% 

Vitamin B-1 (B and B-2). . . 42 

Vitamin C 2 

Vitamin D 7 

Other vitamins 2 

Haven't heard anything. ... 46 



106%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents men- 
tioned more than one vitamin. 

5. (US Nov 13 '41) Do you consider this talk about vitamins 
just a passing fad? (aipo) 

Yes No Don't know 

National total . . . 25% 68% 7% 



Men . . . 
Women. 



BY SEX 

29% 64% 7% 

21 73 6 



6. (Great Britain Apr '42) Can you tell me why vitamins are 
important? (bipo) 

They are necessary for good health 24% 

They are body-building 7 

You can get the most out of your food if you know which 

contains vitamins 3 

Had heard or read that they were important 2 

Energizing 1 

Thought they were the most imtxirtant element in food . . 1 

Miscellaneous 3 

Couldn't say 59 

7. (US Apr 15 '42) Have you taken any vitamin pills since 
October? (alpo) 

Yes 23% No 76% No answer 1% 



CALORIES AND VITAMINS 



1. (us Mar 7 '40) Do you happen to know what food calories 

are? (alpo) 

Correct 15% 

Doubtful 9 

Incorrect 12 

Don't know 64 



CANADA 



Army 



1. (Canada Jan 24 '45) Some people say Canadian political 
leaders should visit the war fronts in order to find out what 



[85] 



our troops need. Others say political leaders should stay at 

home. What are your views on this? (cipo) 

Should visit fronts 57% 

Should stay at home 28 

No opinion 15 



Army Air Forces 



1. (Canada June 27 '42) Do you think Canadian airmen should 
fight as a separate Canadian air force, or should they continue 
to fight as part of the RAF as at present? (cipo) 

Separate Part of 

air force RAF Undecided 

Quebec 60% 20% 20% 

Rest of Canada 21 61 17 



Men . . . 
Women. 



■ SEX 






34% 


51% 


15% 


28 


50 


22 



Army and Navy (Demobilization) 

1. (Canada Mar 8 '44) When the war is over, the government 
will not be able to release all the men from the armed forces 
at the same time. Which of these plans would be the fairest 
way to release them: release all married men first, according 
to length of service; release men with longest service first, 
whether married or not; release some married men and some 
single men according to the number of married and single men 
in the service; release men as soon as they have jobs to go to, 
regardless of length of service or whether they are married or 
single? (cipo) 

National Quebec 
total only 

Married men first 27% 38% 

Long service 22 20 

Quota basis 4 5 

When they have jobs 41 28 

Other plans 1 1 

Undecided 5 8 

Army and Navy (Pay, Allowances, etc.) 

1. (Canada Feb 18 '42) What do you think would be a fair 
amount to be paid per week to a private's wife with two 
young children? (cipo) 

Under $15 $15-$19 $20-$24 $25 and over 
National total... 10% 35% 30% 25% 



Men . . . 
Women. 



BY SEX 






12% 38% 


30% 


20% 


9 32 


30 


29 



2. (Canada Feb 18 '42) Do you think the living allowance 
now being paid to families of private soldiers is too much, 
about right, or too little? (cipo) 

Too About Too No 

much fight little opinion 

National total... 3% 477o 33%, 17% 

BY SEX 

Men 3% 50% 32% 15% 

Women 3 44 34 19 

3. (Canada Mar 11 '44) Would you approve or disapprove of 
a plan providing that members of the armed forces be given a 
certain amount of money by the government when they leave 
the service? (ciPo) 

Approve 87% Disapprove 8% No opinion 5% 



4. (Canada Mar 11 '44) Do you think that whether or not a 
man is an officer or a private he should receive the same amount 
of money, or do you think the payments should be made ac- 
cording to rank? Asked of 87% of the sample who favored a 
plan providing for terminal pay for the armed forces, (cipo) 

Equal payments 65% 

According to rank 31 

Undecided 4 



100% of those who 
favored termi- 
nal pay 

6. (Canada Mar 11 '44) Do you think these payments [to dis- 
charged members of ihe armed forces] should be made in one 
lump sum when the man is discharged, or should they be spread 
over a period of time? Asked of 87% of the sample who favored 
a plan for providing terminal pay for the armed forces, (cipo) 

Deferred payments 56% Lump sum 37% 

Undecided 7% = 100% of those who favored terminal pay 

6. (Canada Mar 15 '44) One plan suggests that, in addition to 
a clothing allowance, they should receive one month's pay for 
each year of service. This would mean that a private, married 
with two children, who has been in the army for two years 
would receive $216. In your opinion, is this amount too much, 
about right, or not enough? Asked of 31% of the sample who 
favored terminal pay for the armed forces according to rank. 
(cipo) 

About right 50% 

Not enough 44 

Too much 1 

Undecided 5 

100% of those who fa- 
vored pay accord- 
ing to rank 

7. (Canada Mar 15 '44) One plan suggests that a married man 
with two children who has been in the army for two years 
would receive $216 in addition to a clothing allowance. In 
your opinion is this amount too much, about right, or not 
enough? Asked of 65% of the sample who favored equal pay- 
ments to the armed forces regardless of rank, (cipo) 

Not enough 52% 

Adequate 38 

Too much 2 

Undecided 8 



100% of those who fa- 
vored equal pay- 
ments 

8. (Canada Mar 15 '44) Do you think men and women who 
have served overseas should be paid the same amount when 
they leave the service as men and women who have served in 
Canada? (cipo) 

Larger payments for overseas . . . 61% 

Payments same 33 

Undecided 6 

9. (Canada May 31 '44) Do you think that women who join 
the armed forces should or should not receive the same rate of 
pay as men who join the armed forces? (cipo) 

Should get same pay 57% 

Should not get same pay 34 

No opinion 9 



[ 8r. ] 

10. (Canada Oct 21 '44) Under present plans soldiers who have 
volunteered for active service will get a sum of money in addi- 
tion to such things as the clothing allowance after they are 
discharged. Soldiers who have not volunteered for active service 
will not receive this additional money. Do you approve of this 
or not? (cipo) 

Approve Di.uipprove Undecided 
National total. . . 62% 34% 4% 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

Quebec 39%, 54%, 7% 

Rest of Canada. . . 69 28 3 

11. (Canada Oct 21 '44) Do you think soldiers who have not 
volunteered for active service should receive the same amount 
as those who have volunteered, or not as much? Asked of 34% 
of the sample who disapproved of the plan of giving soldiers 
who had volunteered a sum of money in addition to their 
clothing allowance upon discharge, (cipo) 
Same amount 16% Not as much 16% Undecided 2% = 34% 

Constitution (Amendments) 

1. (Canada Dec 24 '43) At the present time, Canada cannot 
change her own Constitution without going to the British 
Parliament. Do you think that Canada should be able to change 
her own Constitution without going to the British Parliament, 
or should we continue as at present? (ciPo) 

Chant^e Continue Undecided 
National total . . . 64% 30% 6% 

BY SELECTED PROVINCES 

Ontario 58% 37% 5% 

Quebec 73 19 8 

Defenses 

1. (Canada Feb 25 '42) Would you like to see a force of Ca- 
nadian soldiers sent to Australia to help defend that country 
from Japanese attack? (cipo) 
Yes 55% No 31% No opinion 14% 

2. (Canada Sept 4 '43) Since the war Canada has greatly in- 
creased her navy. Do you think that after the war we should 
maintain this navy even though it is expensive, or should 
Canada get along with a small navy again? (ciPo) 

Maintain large navy 59% 

Maintain small navy 23 

No opinion 18 

Foreign Relations 

1. (Canada Aug 19 '42) Do you think of Canada as an inde- 
pendent country or as still dependent on Great Britain? (cipo) 

Independent Dependent Uncertain 

English Canadians 52% 42% 6% 

French Canadians 25 70 5 

2. (Canada Aug 19 '42) Do you think Canada would be fight- 
ing in this war if she were completely independent and not a 
part of the British Empire? (cipo) 

Yes No Undecided 

English Canadians 81% 14% 5% 

French Canadians 33 59 _ 8 

3. (Canada Nov 7 '42) At present, the Vichy-French govern- 
ment has a diplomatic representative in Ottawa. Do vou think 
Vichy should continue to have a representative in Canada, or 



do you think the Canadian government should ask him to 

leave? (ciPo) 

Continue Break 

relations relations 
National total 42% 58% 

DY LANGUAGE SPOKEN 

French-Canadians 71% 29% 

English-Canadians 35 65 

4. (Canada July 13 '46) Would you be willing to have Canada 
turn over control of her foreign policy (policy towards other 
nations) to such a [world] parliament, if leading countries of 
the world did the same? (cipo) 



Yes No 

National total . . . 51% 34% 

Quebec 30 55 



Undecided 
15 



5. (Canada Oct 5 '46) Do you feel more friendly or less friendly 
towards Russia than a year ago? (cipo) 

M.ore Less No 

friendly friendly Same opinion 

6% 51% 32% 11% 



National total 



Progressive-Conservative 

Liberal 

CCF 



BY POLITICS 

■ ■ • • J/0 

.... 3 
-.-, 13 



60% 28% 
57 31 

35 43 



7% 
9 



Foreign Relations (Germany) 

1. (Canada Jan 19 '44) Which of these comes closest to the 
way you feel about the people of Germany? A list of terms 
was given each respondent. (July 14 '45) What are your feel- 
ings at the present time toward the German people? (cipo) 

Opinion in fan '44 

Hate, anger, etc 27% 

Pity, sympathy, etc 31 

Contempt, dislike 25 

Indifference, friendliness, etc. ... 17 

Opinion in July '45 

Hatred 27% 

Dislike 15 

Caution 7 

Sympathy 22 

Must educate them 3 

Miscellaneous 21 

No particular feeling 5 

Parliament 

1. (Canada June 13 '42) Do you think the present session of 
Parliament in Ottawa has wasted too much time in political 
talk, or do you think that on the whole thev have done a 
pretty good war job? (ciPo) 

Wasted too Done 
much time good job Undecided 
National total 49% 41% 10% 

BY' ATTITUDES TOWARD CONSCRIPTION 

For conscription 57% 37% 6% 

Opposing conscription 37 48 15 

BY' THE VOTE IN THE APRIL PLEBISCITE 

Voted yes 54% 40% 6% 

\oteA no 35 48 17 



BY POLITICS 



Liberals 38% 

Conservatives 65 



52% 
29 



10% 
6 



[87] 



2. (Canada July 15 '42) Do you happen to know the name of 
your local member of Parliament in Ottawa? (cipo) 

Correct Incorrect 
National total 67% 33% 

BY VOTE 

Voted 74% 26% 

Didn't vote 44 56 

BY POLITICS 

Liberals 77%, 23% 

Conservatives 72 28 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

Quebec 77% 23% 

Ontario 54 46 

Rest of Canada 64 36 

3. (Canada Sept 12 '42) Parliament at Ottawa has adjourned 
until next January. Do you approve of this, or do you think 
that they should remain in session longer in wartime? (cipo) 
Approve adjournment Should remain in session No opinion 

31% 52% 17% 

4. (Canada Oct 31 '42) It has been suggested that the Senate 
be done away with altogether. Would you approve or disap- 
prove if this were done? (ciPo) 

Approve Disapprove Undecided 
National total 48% 24% 28% 

BY POLITICS 

Liberal 50% 23% 27% 

Conservative 43 29 28 

5. (Canada Feb 5 '44 and Feb 16 '46) Which of these three 
things would you like to see done about the Canadian Senate — 
continue the present system under which the government ap- 
points Senators for life; elect Senators as we elect members of 
Parliament; do away with the Senate altogether? (ciPo) 

Continue Elect Abolish Undecided 

Feb '44 18% 31% 36% 15% 

Feb '46 18 36 28 18 

6. (Canada Feb 20 '46) Is there any member of Parliament in 
Ottawa whom you think is doing a particularly good job? 
(ciPo) 

No selection 57% 

J. L. Isley 15 

L. S. St. Laurent 4 

M. J. Coldwell 3 

C. D. Howe 2 

John Bracken 2 

J. G. Gardiner 1 

J. G. Diefenbaker 1 

Donald Gordon* 1 

Others (Liberal M. P. 's) 5 

Others (Prog.-Cons. M.P.'s). ... 3 

Other parties 4 

Others (non-members) 2 

* Donald Gordon was not a member of Parliament. 

7. (Canada June 22 '46) It the number ot members of Parlia- 
ment from each province were based on the population of each 
province, Quebec would have at least seven more members in 
the Ottawa House of Commons than it used to have. Do you 
think the present law should be changed to bring this about 
or not? (cipo) 



Yes 

National total 33% 

Total excluding Quebec. . . 21 

BY AGE 

21-29 years 41% 

30-49 years 33 

50 years and over 29 



No Undecided 

51% 16% 

63 16 



44% 

50 

56 



15% 

17 

15 



8. (Canada July 6 '46) Which of these three things do you 
think a member of Parliament should rely on most when he 
votes on a national problem — the opinions of the people from 
his own riding, who elected him; or the opinions of the coun- 
try as a whole; or his own judgment? (cipo) 

The opinions of the people from his own riding 35% 

The opinions of the country as a whole 40 

His own j udgment 20 

Don't know 5 

9. (Canada July 6 '46) Which one do you think members of 
Parliament do rely on most — the opinions of the people from 
their own riding; or the opinions of the country as a whole; 
or their own judgment? (cipo) 

The opinions of the people from their own riding 26% 

The opinions of the country as a whole 12 

Their own judgment 36 

Other answers 12 

Don't know 14 

Politics and Government 

1. (Canada Sept 9 '42) Do you think Prime Minister King 
should or should not invite Conservative and CCF members 
into his government to form an all-party government? (ciPo) 
Yes 60% No 25% No opinion 15% 

2. (Canada Sept 19 '42) Do you feel that Ottawa is giving the 
people enough information about the sinkings in the St. Law- 
rence? (cipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

National total... 46% 40% 14% 

Quebec 30 58 12 

3. (Canada Mar 13 '43) Would you approve or disapprove if 
more powers were taken away from the provincial govern- 
ments and given to the federal government in Ottawa? (ciPo) 

Approve Disapprove Undecided 

Mar '43.. 29% 45% 26% 

4. (Canada Sept 22 '43 and Aug 26 '44) After the war would 
you like to see many changes or reforms made in Canada, or 
would you rather have the country remain pretty much the 
way it was before the war? (cipo) 

Keform No reform Undecided 

Sept '43 71% 23% 6% 

1943 RESULTS BY POLITICS 

Liberal 61% 33% 6% 

Progressive-Conservative .... 67 26 7 

CCF 85 12 3 

1944 RESULTS BY AGE 

Youth 62% 26% 12% 

Adults 71 23 6 

1944 RESULTS BY SELECTED PROVINCES 

Prairies and British Columbia 74% 18% 8% 

Quebec 45 34 21 



[88] 



5. (Canada Oct 23 '43) Some people say the present govern- 
ment has not been as fair to labor in handling wages and taxes 
as it has been to farmers, office workers, and other groups. 
Do you agree or disagree? (cipo) 

Agree 25% Disagree 52% No opinion 23% 

6. (Canada Dec 8 '43) Most people believe the government 
should not be controlled by any one group. However, if you 
had to choose, which would you prefer to have control of the 
government, big business, or labor unions? (cipo) 

Big business 26% Labor unions 49% No opinion 25% 

7. (Canada Aug 19 '44) Can you tell me what an "order-in- 
council" is? (cipo) 

Good or fair answers 22% 

Wrong or inadequate 22 

Couldn't answer 56 

8. (Canada Aug 19 '44) Do you think too many orders-in- 
council have been passed since the war started or do you think 
the war makes it necessary to have this many? Asked of 22% 
of the sample who had a reasonably correct idea of the mean- 
ing of an order-in-council. (cipo) 

Too many 7% Necessary 12% Undecided 3% = 22%, 

9. (Canada Dec 6 '44) During the war, the dominion govern- 
ment has taken over a number of powers which belonged to 
the provinces before the war, such as control of prices, pro- 
duction, and employment. Do you think the dominion gov- 
ernment should continue to hold these powers after the war, 
or do you think it should give them back to the provinces? 
(cipo) 

Give them back 50% Keep them 33%, Undecided 17% 

10. (Canada Jan 20 '45) Some people say that the differences 
between various parts of Canada arc now so great that they 
will never be solved, and that confederation will break up. 
Do you agree with this, or do you think these differences 
will be solved? (cipo) 

Will be solved 63% 

Won't be solved 18 

Undecided and qualified. ... 19 

11. (Canada Feb 7 '45) What kind of government would you 
like to see leading the country in the period following the 
war: a Liberal, Progressive-Conservative, CCF, or some other 
government? (cipo) 

Liberal 28%, 

Progressive-Conservative ... 21 

CCF 17 

Other 13 

Undecided 21 

12. (Canada Sept 1 '45) In answer to the question: Do you 
know which party won the recent election in Britain? 83% of 
the sample said either Labor or Attlee. These were asked: 
In general do you think the election of a Labor government 
in Britain is a good thing or a bad thing? (cipo) 

Good thing 46% Bad 15%o Undecided 22%, = 83%o 

13. (Canada Mar 2 '46) At the present time, which do you 
think has the most influence on the laws passed in this country 
— big business or labor? (cipo) 

Big business 66% 

Labor 18 

No difference 5 

Undecided 11 

14. (Canada Mar 2 '46) Which do you think should have the 
most influence [on laws passed in this country — big business 
or labor]? (cipo) 



Labor 50% 

Big business 11 

Undecided 11 

Other answers 28 

15. (Canada Apr 17 '46) Do you think Canada would be better 
off or worse off if all provincial governments were abolished 
and the whole country governed from Ottawa? (cipo) 

Berur Worse No dif- Un- 
off off fertme decided 

National total 25%o 50% 7% 18%, 

BY POLITICS 

Liberal 25% 50% 7% 18%o 

Progressive-Conservative . . 25 52 7 16 

CCF 37 42 6 15 

16. (Canada June 15 '46) From what you have read of this 
conference [between provincial and federal governments at 
Ottawa], whom do you think was most to blame for its failure 
— the dominion or the provinces? (cipo) 

Dominion to blame 23% 

Provinces to blame 24 

Both to blame 20 

Don't know 33 

17. (Canada June 15 '46) Which provinces [do you think were 
most to blame for the failure of the conference]? Asked of 24% 
of the sample who thought the provinces were most to blame. 
(cipo) 

Ontario 21% 

Quebec 20 

Maritimes 2 

Prairies 2 

British Columbia 1 

All provinces 1 

No province named 1 

48%* 

* Percentages add to more than 24 because some people named more 
than one province. 

18. (Canada July 31 '46) Do you think Canada should invite 
Newfoundland to become the tenth province or not? (cipo) 

Should be invited 57% 

Should not be invited 16 

Qualified 3 

No opinion 24 

19. (Canada Sept 14 '46) Some people think Canada is going 
to see a period of big development in the coming ten to twenty 
years. Do you agree with this or not? (cipo) 

Yes 77% No 12%, Undecided 11% 

20. (Canada Sept 14 '46) Which of these areas do you think 
will show the greatest change — cities, farming areas, west 
coast, the north, or the prairies? Asked of 77% of the sample 
who thought Canada would see a period of big development 
in ten to twenty years. (ciPo) 

The north 22% 

Cities 17 

Farming areas 17 

West coast 6 

The prairies 5 

Other (miscellaneous) 4 

Don't know 6 



77% 



[89] 



CANCER 



1. (us Mar 30 '39, Mar 6 '40, Jan 31 '45; Great Britain Sept 
29 '45) Do you think cancer is curable? (aipo and bipo) (Can- 
ada Mar 30 '46) Do you think that today it is possible to cure 
cancer? (cipo) 



Mar '39 

Mar '40 

Jan '45 

Sept '45 35 

Mar '46 



Yes 


Na 


64% 


36% 


56* 


27 


62* 


26 


35 


31 


36 


34 



Qualified Don't know 



12% 



17% 
12 
34 
18 

34% 
35 

40% 

33 

33 

24% 

27 

38 



SEPT '45 RESULTS BY SEX 

Men..... 38% 28% — 

Women 32 33 — 

SEPT '45 RESULTS BY AGE 

21-29 years 37% 23% — 

30-49 years 38 29 — 

50 years and over. 31 36 — 

SEPT '45 RESULTS BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher 50% 26% — 

Middle 45 28 — 

Lower 30 32 — 

* Includes qualified answers such as: Yes, if caught in time. 

2. (US Mar 30 '39, Mar 6 '40, Jan 31 '45; Great Britain Sept 
29 '45; Canada Mar 30 '46) Do you think cancer is contagious? 
In Mar '39, Jan '45, and Mar '46 the alternate term "catching" 
was suggested for use in the interviewing when necessary. 
(aipo, bipo, cipo) 

Don't know 
and no answer 

21% 

28 

20 

35 

18 



Mar '39. 
Mar '40. 
Jan '45. 
Sept '45. 
Mar '46. 



Men . . . 
Women . 



Yes 

20% 

15 

21 

19 

16 



No 

59% 

57 

59 

46 

66 



RESULTS BY SEX 

18% 47% 

20 45 



BRITISH RESULTS BY AGE 

21-29 years 12% 45% 

30-49 years 20 45 

50 years and over 21 47 



35% 
35 

43% 

35 

32 



Higher . 
Middle. 
Lower. . 



BRITISH RESULTS BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

17%, 65% 18% 

17 58 25 

20 40 40 



3. (US Mar 30 '39, Mar 6 '40, Jan 31 '45) What do you think 
causes cancer? (aipo) 

MAR '39 RESULTS 

Bruise, bump, injury 27% 

Constant irritation of sore, 

bruised part of body 8 

Infection of cut or sore 7 

Hereditary 6 

Blood condition 3 

Tumor or growth 2 

Germ 2 

Improper diet 2 



All others 11% 

No answer 48 

116%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

MAR '40 RESULTS 

Bruises, injuries, lumps. . . . 25% 

Irritations 6 

Inherited 4 

Sores 3 

Improper diet 3 

Neglect of infections 3 

Poor blood condition 3 

Tumors, growths, moles ... 2 

Germs 2 

Ulcers 1 

Poor health 1 

Worry, malnutrition 1 

Injury to tissues 1 

All others 12 

Don't know 51 



118%* 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

JAN '45 RESULTS 

Injury, irritation, sores that don't heal* 40% 

Bumps, lumps, tumors, uncontrolled growth of cells, 

warts, moles, etc 7 

Inherited 3 

Neglect, impfoper mental and physical life 4 

Blood condition, lack of ted corpuscles 3 

Improper diet, lack of vitamins, malnutrition* 3 

Filth, germs, dirty environment 3 

Worry, fear, nerves, mental distress 1 

Deterioration of tissues 2 

Others (smoking, drinking, rupture, fast living, child- 
birth) ." 4 

Causes not known* 6 

Didn't say 37 

li3%** 

* Various sources show these are theories held by authorities in the 
field. 

** Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

4. (US Mar 30 '39) It has been proposed that the federal gov- 
ernment spend three million dollars for clinics to fight cancer. 
Do you favor this proposal? (aipo) 
Yes 90% No 10% = 100% No opinion 6% 

6. (US Mar 6 '40 and Jan 31 '45; Great Britain Sept 29 '45) 
Do you happen to know any of the symptoms of cancer? In 
the United States in Jan '45 the alternate term "signs" was 
suggested for use in the interviewing when necessary. 43% of 
the 1945 American sample who said they knew some symptoms 
of cancer were asked: What? (aipo, bipo) (Canada Mar 30 '46) 
Can you tell me what any symptoms of cancer are? (cipo) 

RESULTS IN UNITED STATES 

Yes No 

Mar '40 38% 62% 

Jan '45 43 57 

The 1945 sample named the following symptoms: 
Any persistent lump (patticularly in the breast); tumor 43% 
Any sore that doesn't heal normally 28 



[ !)() ] 



Any irregular bleeding or discharge from any body 

opening 13% 

Any persistent and unexplained indigestion; nausea. ... 7 
Any sudden change in the form or rate of growth of a 

mole or wart 3 

Pains, aches, stomachache 18 

Skin irritations and rashes, inflammations 6 

Discoloration of skin — gray, yellow, blue, green 7 

Loss of weight 7 

Bruise 1 

Fatigue, run-down condition 3 

Others include eating of tissue, pimples, nervousness, 

odor 5 

Didn't say 2 

143%* 

* Percentages are based on the number of respondents who said they 
knew some symptoms of cancer and add to more than 100 because some 
gave more than one answer. 

RESULTS IN GREAT BRITAIN 

No reply, don't know 61% 

Swellings, lumps, growths 9 

Acute pain 9 

Loss of weight, gradual debility, wasting 6 

Yellow skin 2 

Intestines or stomach — vomiting; indigestion 2 

Smell ' 1 

Yes, some, several 6 

Brought on by blow 1 

Miscellaneous 3 

RESULTS IN CANADA 

Correct 32% 

Incorrect 57 

No answer 4 

Too vague to classify 7 

6. (US Mar 6 '40 and Jan 31 '45) Some people who have cancer 
are ashamed to admit it to their family and friends. Do you 
think there is anything shameful in having cancer? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

Mar '40 2% 98% — 

Jan '45 3 94 3% 

7. (US Jan 31 '45) If someone in your family had cancer that 
couldn't be cured, do you think they should be told this? (aipo) 
Yes 46%, No 38% Don't know 16% 

8. (US June 12 '45 and May 15 '46) Should Congress pass a 
law which would provide two hundred million dollars for the 
study and treatment of cancer in this country? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

June 12 '45 81% 10% 9% 

May 15 '46 82 11 7 

9. (US June 12 '45 and May 15 '46) Would you be willing to 
pay more taxes to provide this money [for government-financed 
cancer research]? (aipo) 

No answer or 
Yes No No opinion 

June '45 75% 20%,* 5% 

May '46 69 27* 4 

* Those unwilling to pay more taxes include those who disapprove 
of the whole program. 

10. (US May 15 '46) Do you approve or disapprove of having 
the government spend one hundred million dollars to find pos- 
sible ways of preventing or curing cancer in this country? 
(aipo) 



Approve 87% 



Disapprove 9% 



No opinion 4% 



11. (US May 15 '46) Would you be willing to pay more taxes 
to provide this money [for government-financed cancer re- 
search]? (aipo) 

Yes 72% No 27%* No opinion 1% 

* Those unwilling to pay more taxes include those who disapprove 
of the whole program. 



CANNING AND PRESERVING 



1. (us Jan 23 '42) Do you think there will be a shortage of 
canned goods within the next year? (aipo) 

Yes 53% No 47% 

2. (US Jan 23 '42) Have you (has your wife) bought any 
canned goods to protect yourself against higher prices or a 
shortage later on? (aipo) 

Yes 5% No 95% 

3. (US Mar 10 '43) Do you plan to do any home canning this 
year? (aipo) 

Yes 74% No 26% 

4. (US Mar 10 '43) Did you do any canning last year? (aipo) 

Yes 64% No 36% 

5. (Canada May 1 '43) Are you (anyone in your family) plan- 
ning to can or preserve any more fruits or vegetables than you 
did last year? (cipo) 

Will pre- Same as Less than None 

serve more last year last year planned 

Fruits, vegetables... 43% 35% 3% 19% 

Jams, jellies 39 41 4 16 

BY gardening plans 

Plan garden 50% 40% 3% 7% 

No garden 32 29 3 36 

6. (US May 7 '43) Have you done any canning in the past? 
Asked of a national cross-section of women, (norc) 

Yes 75% No 25% 

7. (US May 7 '43) Are you planning to do any canning this 
year? Asked of a national cross-section of women, (norc) 
Yes 74% No 18% Depends 8% 

8. (US May 7 '43) Are you planning to can as much this year 
as last year? Asked of 72% of the sample of women who have 
done canning in the past and who would possibly do some 
canning in '43. (norc) 

Yes, as much 18% 

No, not as much 3 

More 49 

Don't know 2 

72% 

9. (US May 7 '43) Do you have enough jars and rings on 
hand to do your canning? Asked of 74% of the sample of 
women who were planning to do some canning, (norc) 

Yes, have both 21% 

No 45 

Have jars, not rings 7 

No answer 1 



74% 



[91] 



10. (US May 7 '43) Do you think you will have trouble get- 
ting them [jars or jar rings]? Asked of 52% of the sample of 
women who didn't have enough jars and rings on hand to do 
their canning, or had jars and not rings enough, (norc) 

Yes 11% No 25% Don't know 16% = 52% 

11. (US May 7 '43) Do you think you will be able to get all 
the sugar you need for canning? Asked of 74% of the sample 
of women who were planning to do canning, (norc) 

Yes 46% No 15% Don't know 13% = 74% 

12. (US May 7 '43) Do you use a pressure cooker for canning? 
Asked of 74% of the sample of women who were planning 
to do some canning, (norc) 

Yes 16% No 57% No answer 1% = 74% 

13. (US May 7 '43) Do you own one [a pressure cooker]? 
Asked of 16% of the sample of women who did use a pressure 
cooker for canning, (norc) 

Yes 8% No 7% No answer 1% = 16% 

14. (US May 12 '43) Do you plan to do any home canning 
this year? 76% of the sample who planned to do home can- 
ning were then asked; As well as you can estimate it today, 
how many cans or jars do you plan to put up? Asked of a 
national cross-section of women, (aipo) 

Flan Don't plan 
to can to can 

National total 76% 24% 

BY TYPES OF CONTAINER 

Cans 13% 87% 

Jars 70 30 

76% of the total estimated that they planned to put up a 
mean average of 175 cans and jars. 

The 13% who expected to use cans estimated that they 
planned to put up a mean average of 155 cans. 

The 70% who expected to use jars estimated that they 
planned to put up a mean average of 160 jars. 

15. (US May 12 '43) Will you have to buy any cans, jars, or 
jar tops? How many would you guess? Asked of a national 
cross-section of women, (aipo) 

Plan Don t plan 
to can to can 

National total 28% 72% 

BY TYPE OF CONTAINERS 

Cans 5% 95% 

Jars 24 76 

Jar tops 50 50 

28% of the total estimated that they would have to buy a 
mean average of 70 jars and cans per person. 

The 5% who had to buy cans estimated that they would 
have to buy a mean average of 95 cans per person. 

The 24% who had to buy jars estimated that they would 
have to buy a mean average of 65 jars per person. 

The 50% who had to buy jar tops estimated that they would 
have to buy a mean average of 105 jar tops per person. 

16. (US Oct 22 '43, May 18 '44, May 26 '44) Do you think 
the rationing of canned goods has been handled very well, 
only fairly well, or poorly? The Oct '43 question was asked 
of a national cross-section of women, (norc) 

Veri Only Don't 

well fairly well Poorly know 

Oct 22 '43 77% 11% 5% 7% 

May 18 '44 75 11 4 10 

May 26 '44 55 26 8 11 



17. (US Oct 22 '43 and May 18 '44) In what way hasn't it 
[the rationing of canned goods] been handled as well as it 
could have been? The Oct '43 question was asked of 16% of 
the sample of women who thought rationing of canned goods 
had been handled onlv fairly well or poorly. The May '44 
question was asked of 15% of the sample who thought that 
rationing of canned goods had been handled only fairly well 
or poorly, (norc) 

OCT '43 RESULTS 

Points too high; should have more points; ration too 

small (general) 9% 

Too few points for a small family; too many points for 

children 1 

Poor distribution (general) 1 

Regional distribution is unfair, unequal * 

Individual allotments are unfair, unequal 1 

Dealers distribute unfairly * 

Black market practices * 

Rationing stimulated buying 1 

Answers in terms of shortages 2 

Miscellaneous , 1 

Not ascertainable 1 

17%** 

* Less th.in 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 16 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

MAY '44 RESULTS 

Allotments too small; points too high 7% 

Poor distribution 2 

Black market * 

Rationing not necessary 1 

Point values changed too often 1 

Prices too high 1 

Miscellaneous 2 

Don't know 2 

16%** 

* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 15 because some of the respondents 
gave more than one answer. 

18. (US Oct 22 '43 and May 18 '44) Who do you think is 
mainly responsible [for the unsatisfactory rationing of canned 
goods]? Asked of 16% of the 1943 sample of women and 15% 
of the 1944 sample who thought rationing of canned goods 
had been handled only fairly well or poorly, (norc) 

OCT '43 RESULTS 

General government buteaucracy 3% 

People in charge of rationing (national) 1 

OPA 4 

Big producers and packers * 

Small dealers and storekeepers * 

Consumers 1 

Local ration board * 

Miscellaneous 1 

Not ascertainable 6 

16% 

* Less than 0.5%. 

MAY '44 RESULTS 

Local ration boards 1% 

Dealers and producers 1 

Government 4 

OPA 4 

The public J 



[92] 



Miscellaneous * 

Don't know 5% 

16%** 

* Less than 0.5%- 

** Percentages add to more than 15 because some of the respondents 
gave more than one answer. 

19. (US Oct 26 '43) Did you (or your family) put up any 
cans or jars of food this year? How many cans or jars of fruits, 
vegetables, fruit butter, jams, jellies, marmalades, meat, fish, 
or poultry? Asked of a national cross-section of women, (aipo) 

Canned Didn't can 
National total 75% 25% 

ITEMS CANNED 

Vegetables 64% 36% 

Fruits 59 41 

Fruit butter, jams, jellies, marmalades. . 54 46 

Meat, fish, or poultry 9 91 

75% of the total canned a mean average of 165 cans or jars. 

64% who canned vegetables canned a mean average of 90 
cans or jars. 

59% who canned fruits canned a mean average of 80 cans 
or jars. 

54% who canned fruit butter, jams, jellies, marmalades 
canned a mean average of 30 cans or jars. 

9% who canned meat, fish, or poultry canned a mean aver- 
age of 35 cans or jars. 

20. (US Oct 26 '43) Did you can in tin or glass? Asked of 75% 
of the sample of women who did some canning the previous 
year, (aipo) 

Tin 1% 

Glass 69 

Both 4 

No answer 1 

75% 

21. (US Oct 26 '43) Did you can more or less than last year? 
Asked of 75% of the sample of women who did some canning 
the previous year, (aipo) 

More 36% Less 22% Same 17% = 75% 

22. (US Oct 26 '43) What new canning equipment did you 
buy this year (exclude jars, tops, or rings)? Asked of 75% of 
the sample of women who did some canning the previous year. 
(aipo) 

Kettle, pots or pans 1% 

Pressure cooker 1 

Others; glass funnel, victory cooker, kraut cutter. 1 

Nothing 65 

No answer 7 

75% 

23. (US Oct 26 '43) Did you do most of your canning at home 
or in community canning centers (including school houses)? 
Asked of 75% of the sample of women who did some canning 
the previous year, (aipo) 

Home 73% Canning centers 1% No answer 1% = 75% 

24. (US Oct 26 '43) What proportion of the vegetables you 
canned was grown by you or members of your family? Asked 
of 64% of the sample of women who did some vegetable can- 
ning the previous year, (aipo) 



All 31% 

Half or more 12 

Less than half 6 

None 13 

No answer 2 

64% 

26. (US Dec 10 '43) Of course, we know there isn't enough 
for everyone to have all he wants, but how about canned 
goods? Docs your ration allow you and your family as much 
as you need, less than you need, or more than you need? (June 
2 '44) Does your ration allow you to get all the rationed canned 
goods your family really needs? Asked of a national cross- 
section of women marketers, (norc) 

As Don't Don't 

much Less More use know 

Dec '43 72% 12% 16% * * 

June '44 87 8 3 2% * 

* Less than 0.5%. 

26. (US Dec 10 '43) Have you ever tried to get any extra 
allowances of canned goods from your ration board? Asked 
of 12% of the sample of women marketers whose ration al- 
lowed them less canned goods than they needed, (norc) 

Yes 1% No 11% = 12% 

27. (US Jan 15 '44) 37% of a national sample said they had 
cither canned or stored some of the produce from their victory 
garden the previous year that they didn't need for their daily 
use. The remaining 63% were asked: Did you can or store 
any fruits or vegetables last year? (norc) 

Yes 35% No 28% No answer * = 63% 

* Less than 0.5%. 

28. (US Jan 15 '44) What kind of preserving did you do? 
Asked of 72% of the sample who did canning or storing the 
previous year — 37% of whom voluntarily mentioned canning 
or storing of surplus food, the remainder (35%) gave informa- 
tion only when directly asked, (norc) 

Boiling water 56% 

Own pressure canner 11 

Someone else's pressure canner. . 8 

Pickling 31 

Drying 7 

Storing 16 

Don't know 1 



* Percentages are based on the number of respondents who canned or 
stored the previous year and add to more than 100 because some gave 
more than one answer. 

29. (US Jan 15 '44) Did you have any difficulties [when you 
were canning]? What? Asked of the same sample as the pre- 
vious question, (norc) 

No trouble 60% 

Canned goods spoiled (no explanation) 4 

Trouble getting equipment 2 

Canned goods spoiled due to inferior tops and rings 2 

Trouble finding fruits, etc 1 

Inferior equipment 1 

Canned goods spoiled due to lack of sugar * 

Miscellaneous 2 

Don't know * 



72% 



''Less than 0.5%. 



[93] 



30. (US Jan 15 '44) Was that the first time you preserved 
food? Asked of the same sample as the two previous questions. 
(norc) 

Yes 8% No 64% No answer * = 72% 

*Less than 0.5%. 

31. (US Jan 15 '44) Are you planning to do any [canning or 
storing] next year? Asked of the same sample as three previous 
questions, (norc) 

Yes 68% No 1% Don't know 3% = 72% 

32. (US Jan 15 '44) How did it happen that you didn't do 
any preserving? Asked of 28% of the sample who did not can 
or store anything last year, (norc) 

Lack of time and/or working 8% 

Lack of home facilities 5 

Moved 1 

High prices of produce 5 

Lack of produce 4 

Lack of/or scarcity of sugar in locality 1 

Lack of skill and/or interest 4 

Physical disability 2 

Prefer use of fresh vegetables 1 

Had someone else do the cooking 1 

Miscellaneous 2 

Don't know * 

34%** 
* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 28 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

33. (US Jan 15 '44) Is there a community canning center around 
here? (norc) 

Yes 19% No 53% Don't know 28% 

34. (US May 18 '44) Did you (or your family) can or store 
any fruit or vegetables last year? (norc) 

Yes 73% No 27% 

36. (US May 18 '44) Are you (or your family) planning to do 

any canning or storing this year? (norc) 

Yes 74% No 22% Don't know 4% 

36. (US May 18 '44) Why [are you] not [planning to do any 
canning or storing this year]? Asked of 22% of the sample 
who were not planning to do any canning or storing, (norc) 

Lack of produce 5% 

, Lack of time 4 

Lack of home facilities 4 

Lack of skill and/or interest 4 

Family too small to make it worthwhile 3 

Canning is too expensive 2 

Miscellaneous personal reasons 2 

Miscellaneous 1 

Don't know 1 

26%* 
* Percentages add to more than 22 because some of the respondents 
gave more than one answer. 

37. (US May 18 '44) Are you (or your family) planning to 
can or store more food, about the same amount, or less than 
you did last year? Asked of 68% of the sample who did home 
canning the previous year and planned to can in '44. (norc) 

More 26% 

About same. ...... 36 

Less 4 

Don't know 2 

68% 



38. (US May 18 '44) Why [arc you planning to can more this 
year than last year]? Asked of 26% of the sample who were 
planning to do more canning in '44. (norc) 

Needed more last year 8% 

Expect gardens to produce more 5 

To save money 3 

Expect shortages 2 

Enjoy experience and/or results 2 

Family larger 2 

To help war efforts 1 

To save ration points 1 

Miscellaneous 2 

Don't know 2 

28%* 
* Percentages add to more than 26 because some of the respondents 
gave more than one answer. 

39. (US May 18 '44 and May 26 '44) In your opinion, did home 
canning help the food supply last year? Those who thought it 
did help were asked: Did it help a lot or only a little? (norc) 

May IS '44 May 16 '44 

Helped a lot 83% 84% 

Helped a little 9 10 

Didn't help at all 1 1 

Don't know whether or not it helped . . 4 3 

Don't know to what extent it helped. . 3 2 

40. (US May 18 '44 and May 26 '44) How about this year — 
do you think as much home canning is needed this year as 
last? (norc) 

May 18 '44 May 16 '44 

Yes 89% 87% 

No 5 9 

Don't know 6 4 

41. (US May 18 '44) Why not? Asked of 5% of the sample 
who did not think as much home canning would be needed in 
'44 as in '43. (norc) 

There is plenty of food 2% 

Rationing has been lifted on foods 1 

People themselves still have food from last year 1 

Miscellaneous * 

Don't know * 



5% 

* Less than 0.5%. 

42. (Germany May 8 '46) Do you help out [on your food 
supply] with preserves that you made yourself? (omgus) 

Yes 40% No 60% 

43. (Germany Nov 25 '46) Have you already eaten any of 
your canned food from this summer or fall? (omqus) 

Yes 45% No 51% Had none 4% 

44. (Germany Nov 25 '46) Were you able to can at all during 
the summer or fall? (omgus) 

Yes, fruit 42% 

Yes, vegetables 26 

Yes, not specified * 

No 44 



112%** 
* Less than 0.5%)- 

** Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 



CAPITAL PUNISHMENT 



1. (US Apr 18 '36, Nov 30 '36, Nov 30 '37) Are you in favor 
of the death penalty for murder? (aipo) (Australia Dec '41) 
Do you oppose or favor capital punishment? (apop) 



Favor 



Apr '36 65^ 



Nov '36 . 
Nov '37. 
Dec '41. 



61 
65 
52 



Oppose 

39 = 100 
35 = 100 
33 



Undecided or 

no opinion 



1 
15 



100% 



AMERICAN OPINION IN NOV '36 STATE BY STATE 

Favor Oppose 



Slates having no capital punishment 

Wisconsin 

Rhode Island 

South Dakota 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Maine 

North Dakota 

States having capital punishnient 

Indiana 

Colorado 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Delaware 

Iowa 

Ohio 

Maryland 

New Mexico 

Kansas 

California 

Montana 

Texas 

Virginia 

Nebraska 

Pennsylvania 

New York 

Connecticut 

Massachusetts 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Washington 

Missouri 

Alabama 

New Jersey 

Tennessee 

Vermont 

Illinois 

West Virginia 

New Hampshire 

Arizona 

Georgia 

Florida 

Arkansas 

Idaho 

Wyoming 

Mississippi 

Utah 

Nevada 



49% 

52 

52 

53 

55 

56 

58 



56 
59 
59 
60 
61 
62 
62 
62 
63 
64 
64 
65 
65 
66 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
68 
68 
68 
68 
69 
69 
69 
69 
70 
70 
71 
72 
73 
75 
75 
76 
76 
77 
79 
82 
84 



100% 



48 
48 
47 
45 
44 
42 

46% 

44 

41 

41 

40 

39 

38 

38 

38 

37 

36 

36 

35 

35 

34 

33 

33 

33 

33 

33 

32 

32 

32 

32 

31 

31 

31 

31 

30 

30 

29 

28 

27 

25 

25 

24 

24 

23 

21 

18 

16 



[94] 

Favor Oppose 

AMERICAN OPINION IN NOV '37 BY SEX J 

Men 69% 31% " 

Women 57 43 

2. (US Nov 30 '36) Are you in favor of it [the death penalty] 
for persons under twenty-one? Asked of a national cross-section 
of people who favored capital punishment — 61% of the sample 
is represented, (aipo) 

Yes No 

National total 46% 54% 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 31% 69% 

Middle Atlantic 50 50 

East central 48 52 

West central 50 50 

South 46 54 

Mountain 41 59 

Pacific coast 46 54 

3. (US Nov 30 '37) Are you in favor of it [death penalty] for 
women? Asked of a national cross-section of people who fa- 
vored capital punishment — 65% of the sample is represented. 
(aipo) 

Yes 58% No 42% 

4. (Great Britain Nov '38) Should the death penalty be abol- 
ished? (dipo) (Canada Oct 6 '43) Some people say we should 
do away altogether with capital punishment — that is, execut- 
ing a person for murder. Do you agree or disagree? (cipo) 

Yes, or No, or No 

agree disagree opinion 

Great Britain... 45% 55% = 100% 11% 

Canada 18 73 9 = 100% 

5. (Sweden Feb '42) Do you think that prison is sufficient, or 
should the death penalty be introduced in the present situation 
for more serious crimes such as espionage, sabotage, and pre- 
meditated murder? (sGi) 

Fong terms 

of impris- Death Don't 

onment penalty know 
National total 

Treacherous activities 25% 44% 31% 

Premeditated murder 32 32 36 

BY SEX 

Men 

Treacherous activities 25% 55% 20% 

Premeditated murder 35 41 24 

Women 

Treacherous activities 24 34 42 

Premeditated murder 30 23 47 

6. (Denmark Jan 21 '45) Do you think the death penalty should 
be re-introduced? (dgi) 

Yes 32.9% 

No 54.5 

Don't know 8.8 

Will not answer 38 

7. (Netherlands Oct '45) Should the worst political criminals 
be punished by death? (nfs) 

Yes No No opinion 

National total 73% 22% 5% 

BY' SEX 

Men 76% 20% 4% ll 

Women 69 24 7 " 



A 



[i)o] 



8. (Australia Feb-Mar '46) When Japanese are condemned to 
death as war criminals, should the executions be carried cat? 
(apop) 

Yes 91% No 6% No opinion 3% 



CATHOLIC CHURCH 



1. (US Feb 1 '37 and Mar 25 '40) Would you vote for a Catholic 
for president who was well qualified for this position? The 
1940 question was asked of a comparable cross-section in the 
following form: If your party nominated a generally well- 
qualified man for president this year, and he happened to be 
a Catholic, would you vote for him? Results in '40 were com- 
bined, (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

Feb '37 67% 33% = 100% 11% 

Mar '40 61 32 7 = 100% 

2. (US Nov 22 '38) Do you approve or disapprove of the 
Nazis' treatment of Catholics in Germany? (aipo) 

Approve Disapprove No opinion 

National total 3% 97% = 100% 13% 

BY RELIGION 

Catholic — 100% 

Protestant 3% 97 



CATTLE 



Diseases 

1. (us Dec 28 '44) Do you know of any cows in this area 
that have Bang's disease now? Asked of a national cross-section 
of farmers, (aipo) 

Yes 9% No 91% 

2. (US Dec 28 '44) Do you think a law should be passed 
requiring all farmers to kill animals having Bang's disease if 
the government paid for the animals? Asked of a national 
cross-section of farmers, (aipo) 

Yes 81% No 11% No opinion 8% 



CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA 



1. (us De''c 10 '40) Which kind of government do you think 
they have in most Central and South American countries — 
dictatorship or democracies? (opor) 

Dictatorship 22% 

Democracies 60 

Other 8 

No answer 1 

Don't know 9 

2. (US Dec 10 '40, Mar 29 '41, Jan 16 '42) Which of the fol- 
lowing statements best describes Central and South America — 
(1) Central and South America have very few natural resources 
such as good farm land, oil, coal, silver, gold, water-power, 



etc. and will probably always be poor, weak, and backward; 
(2) Central and South America have some natural resources 
and some time may become fairly wealthy and strong; (3) Cen- 
tral and South America have many natural resources and prob- 
ably will become very wealthy and powerful. Each respondent 
was given a card with these three statements, (opor) 

Stattmtnt Statement Statement 
1 2 3 

8% 33% 48% 

5 32 49 

7 34 48 



Drr 


'40 


Mar 


'41... . 


Jan 


'42 



No 
opinion 

11% 

14 

11 



3. (US Jan 16 '42) Where do you get most of your information 
about what the people in Central and South America are like 
and how they live? (opor) 

Movies 18% 

Radio 30 

Travel 5 

Newspapers 57 

Books 26 

Lectures 7 

Magazines 36 

Conversations 15 

Don't get much information. ... 13 

Others 6 



213%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

4. (US June 17 '42) Can you name any of the products or 
goods which are produced in South America? 83% of the 
sample who said they could name some were asked: What 
are they? (opor) 

Correctly named one 8% 

Correctly named two 20 

Correctly named three 23 

Correctly named four 17 

Correctly named five 9 

Correctly named six 3 

Correctly named seven 2 

Correctly named eight or more. . 1 
Didn't know any 17 

5. (Brazil Sept '46) Do you think Brazil is, by now, a rich 
or a poor country? (ibope) 

Rich 51% Poor 48% No opinion 1% 



CHAIN STORES 



1. (US Aug 8 '36, June 1 '37, Jan 11 '38) Are you in favor of 
legislation requiring chain stores in your state to pay special 
taxes? In 1937 and 1938 the question was: Are you in favor 
of requiring chain stores in this state to pay special taxes? 
(aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

Aug '36 69% 31% = 100% 16% 

June '37 63 37 =100 12 

Jan '38 65 35 =100 12 

2. (US Jan '37) Do you generally buy most of your groceries 
at chain stores? (for) 

Don't 

Yes Some No know 

National total 37.57o 137% 47.1% 1.7% 



[no] 



Don't 
Yes Some No know 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Prosperous 31.0% 11.9% 54.2% 2.9%, 

Poor 42.1 13.6 43.2 1.1 

For which reason [do you usually buy most of your groceries 
at a chain store]? Asked of 37.5%i of the sample who said they 
bought mostly at chain stores, (foe) 

Better prices 62.4% 

More convenient 19.7 

More variety 6.8 

Better quality 53 

Better service 5-0 

Don't know 0.8 



100,0% of those who 
bought mostly at chain stores 

3. (US Jan '37) Would you favor taxing chain stores enough 
so that they would have no advantage as to price over the 
independent grocer? (for) 

Yes No Don't know 

National total 48.7%, 38.4% 12.9% 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Prosperous 51.1% 36.5% 12.4% 

Poor 48.6 39.1 12.3 

4. (US May 10 '37) Would you favor prohibiting all chain 
stores in this state? (aipo) 

Yes 30% No 60% No opinion 10% 

6. (US June 7 '37) Do you think chain stores should be re- 
quired to pay higher taxes than independent stores? (aipo) 
Yes 63% No 37% = 100% No opinion 8% 

6. (US Feb '39) Which do you think would be the best policy 
toward chain stores — legislate or tax them out of business; 
tax them extra to make up for the buying advantages they are 
supposed to have over independent stores; treat them like any 
other business, and let them make what profits they can? (for) 

Let Tax Put out of Don't 

alonr extra business know 

National total 47.9% 37.3% 6.3% 8.5% 

BY SELECTED GROtTPS 

Housekeepers 52.2% 32.4% 4.8% 10.6% 

Executives.' 52.8 39.0 4.3 3.9 

Non-farm proprietors. . 32.3 47. 14.1 6.6 

Students 35.0 50.0 — 15.0 



CHAMBERLAIN, NEVILLE 



1. (Great Britain Oct '38 to May '40, dates listed below) Are 
you satisfied with Mr. Neville Chamberlain as Prime Minister? 
(bipo) 

No opinion or 
Approve Disapprove don't know 

Oct '38 57% 43% = 100% 10% 

Nov '38 55 45 =100 11 

Dec '38 56 44 =100 9 

Jan '39 57 43 = 100 6 

Feb '39 87 13 = 100 15 

Mar '39 58 42 = 100 10 



Apr '39. 

May '39. 

June '39. 

July '39. 

Oct -39. 

Nov '39. 

*Dec '39. 



Approve 
59% 
55 
55 
59 
65 
68 
64 



*Jan '40 56 

*Feb '40 59 

*Mar'40 57 

*Mav '40 33 



No opinion or 

Disapprove Jon' t know 

41% = 100% 7% 

45 = 100 4 

45 = 100 5 

41 = 100 7 

29 6 = 100% 
27 5 = 100 

30 6 = 100 
32 12 = 100 
30 11 = 100 
36 7 = 100 
60 7 = 100 



\ 



* The question was asked simply: In general, do you approve or dis- 
approve of Mr. Chamberlain as Prime Minister? 

2. (US May 3 '40) Do you think Prime Minister Chamberlain 
has done a good job or a poor job as head of the British War 
Cabinet? (aipo) 

Good job 12% 

Fair job 25 

Poor job 63 



Don't know. 



100% 
. 21% 



CHARACTER 



1. (US Mar 23 '38) Do you think stock brokers are more 
honest or less honest than bankers? (aipo) 

More 3%, 

Less 30 

No difference 39 

No opinion 28 

2. (US Mar 26 '42) Do you think most people can be trusted? 
(opor) 

Yes 66% 

No 25 

No opinion 4 

Qualified answers 5 

3. (Great Britain Nov 3 '45) Compared with prewar, do you 
think that people are more selfish or less selfish? (bipo) 

Don't 

More The same Less know 

National total 42% 30% 16% 12% 



Men . . . 
Women. 



BY SEX 

41% 29% 17% 13% 

43 30 16 11 



BY AGE 

21-29 years 36% 27% 21% 16% 

30-49 years 43 29 17 H 

50 years and over. . . 42 31 15 12 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher 44% 34% 12% 10% 

Middle 44 30 17 9 

Lower 41 30 17 12 

4. (Germany Apr 26 '46) The Germans were asked whether 
they agreed with the following statements: (omous) 



[97] 



AMERICAN ZONE 
AND BERLIN 



BERLIN ONLY 



No 
opin- 



No 
ofin- 



Yes No ion Yes No 

The experience of enduring 
bombing and shellfire 
steels a man's character. . 26% 67% 7% 32% 65% 3% 

Ambition for personal fame 
is not a good trait of char- 
acter 52 43 5 

It is a sign of weakness in a 
people's character to insti- 
gate a war 59 27 14 

Seeking self-glorification by 
self-mortification is praise- 
worthy 10 78 12 

The best citizens of a coun- 
try are those who have 
been brought up to think 
of themselves first 13 83 4 22 77 1 

6. (US Aug '46) On the whole, which sex do you think is 
more unselfish, men or women? (for) 



Men . . . 
Women. 



55 43 



65 32 



15 81 





BY SEX 










No 


Don't 


Men 


Women 


difference 


know 


31.6% 


39.0% 


19.1% 


10.3% 


28.1 


47.1 


15.5 


9.3 



6. (Norway Oct 31 '46) In your opinion, are people more or 
less honest now than before the war? (ngi) 



More Less 

National total 1% 76% 

BY SEX 

Men 1% 76% 

Women 1 76 

BY AGE 

18-25 years 1% 77% 

25-35 years 1 77 

35-50 years 1 77 

50 years and over 1 72 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

High 1% 75% 

Middle — 79 

Low 1 75 



As 


Don't 


before 


know 


17% 


6% 


18% 


5% 


16 


7 


17% 


5% 


15 


7 


17 


5 


18 


9 


16% 


8% 


16 


5 


17 


7 



CHARITIES 



1. (Hungary Oct '46) On Red Cross collection day a national 
cross-section of Hungarians was asked whether in future charity 
should be organized more by private or by state support. Re- 
sults follow: Qhipor) 

Private 29% 

State 38 

Both 28 

No opinion 5 



CHEESE 



1. (Great Britain Oct '42) Is your family using the full cheese 
ration? 35%i of the sample who said they weren't using the 
full ration were asked: Why not? (bipo) 

Using full ration 57% 

Don't know if full ration is being used 8 

Ration too large, especially for children 16 

Some of the family don't like cheese 11 

The cheese is a poor quality 4 

Can't afford full ration 1 

Miscellaneous 1 

No comment 2 

2. (Great Britain Mar '44) Do you think that the increase in 
points makes up for the cut in the cheese ration? (bipo) 

Yes 38% No 35% Don't know 27% 



CHILD LABOR 



1. (US Mar 28 '36) Do you favor an amendment to the Con- 
stitution prohibiting child labor? (aipo) 

Yes 82% No 18% 

2. (US Apr 4 '36, Apr 18 '36, Apr 25 '36, Feb 1 '37) Do you 
favor an amendment to the Constitution giving Congress 
the power to regulate the labor of persons under eighteen? The 
question asked Apr 11 was phrased "limit or prohibit the 
labor"; the Apr 25 and the 1937 samples were asked the ques- 
tion with the phrase "limit, regulate, and prohibit." (aipo) 

Yes No 

Apr 4 '36 66% 34% 

Apr 18 '36 61 39 

Apr 25 '36 63 37 

Feb 1 '37 76 24 

APR 18 '36 RESULTS BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Farmers 46% 54% 

Small towns 57 43 

Big cities 66 34 

APR 18 '36 RESULTS BY AGE 

Young people 72% 28% 

Old people 58 42 

APR 18 '36 AND FEB 1 '37 RESULTS BY POLITICS 

1936 1937 

Yes No Yes No 

Democratic 72% 28% 77% 23% 

Republican 46 54 67 33 

Socialist 81 19 — — 

APR 18 '36 AND FEB 1 '37 RESULTS BY STATES 

1936 1937 

Yes No Yes No 

South Dakota 46% 54% 56% 44% 

Kansas 46 54 66 34 

Maryland 48 52 71 29 

Rhode Island 51 49 88 12 

Vermont 52 48 70 30 

Missouri 52 48 66 34 

Nebraska 52 48 72 28 



[i)8] 



1936 1937 

Yes No Yes No 

Maine* 53 47 65 35 

Kentucky* 53 47 77 23 

Alabama 54 46 70 30 

Mississippi 55 45 74 26 

Idaho* 55 45 55 45 

Massachusetts 56 44 55 45 

North Carolina 56 44 67 33 

West Virginia* 57 43 55 45 

Arkansas* 57 43 67 33 

Virginia 58 42 58 42 

Florida 58 42 71 29 

Tennessee 58 42 63 37 

Indiana* 60 40 78 22 

Iowa* 60 40 75 25 

Georgia 60 40 76 24 

Oklahoma* 60 40 74 26 

Connecticut 61 39 81 19 

New Jersey* 61 39 84 16 

Illinois*..' 61 39 74 26 

South Carolina 61 39 66 34 

Louisiana 61 39 80 20 

Utah* 61 39 67 33 

New York 63 37 83 17 

Montana* 63 37 81 19 

Wyoming* 63 37 64 36 

New Mexico 63 37 79 21 

New Hampshire* 64 36 88 12 

Pennsylvania* 64 36 71 29 

Ohio* 64 36 80 20 

Minnesota* 64 36 53 47 

Texas 64 36 69 31 

Oregon* 67 33 76 24 

Delaware 68 32 65 35 

North Dakota* 69 31 60 40 

California* 69 31 82 18 

Nevada* 69 31 55 45 

Colorado* 70 30 86 14 

Washington* 70 30 67 33 

Michigan* 71 29 78 22 

Wisconsin* 71 29 84 16 

Arizona* 75 25 75 25 

* States which had ratified amendment hv 1937. 

3. (US Oct 27 '42) It you had a son who wanted to deliver 
newspapers, would you permit him to do so? (aipo) 

Yes 90Vc No 7% No opinion 3% 

4. (US Oct 27 '42) If he had to get up at six in the morning 
to deliver newspapers, would you permit him to do so? Asked 
of a national cross-section of people who would permit sons 
to deliver newspapers. 90% of the sample is represented, (aipo) 

Yes No Undecided 

National total. .. . 79% 14% 7% 

BY PARENTS 

Mothers 81%, 19%,* 

Fathers 77 23* 

* This figure includes the undecided percentages. 

5. (US Oct 27 '42 and Canada Mar 12 '43) Do you think de- 
livering newspapers is helpful to a boy? In Canada the phrase 
"or not" was added to the question, (aipo, cipo) 

Yes, No, No 

helpful not helpful opinion 

United States 87% 7% 6% 

Canada 73 17 10 



6. (US Oct 27 '42) In what ways [is delivering newspapers 
helpful to a boy]? Asked of a national cross-section of persons 
who thought delivering newspapers was helpful to a boy. 
87% of the sample is represented, (aipo) 

Makes him more dependable, more self-reliant 36% 

The actual experience of working, of handling business 

in a small way 19 

Gives him money of his own 18 

Teaches him the value of money 14 

Teaches him how to approach people; gives him an abil- 
ity to talk to all sorts of people 11 

Keeps him busy; out of mischief 10 

Broadens his outlook on life; he learns views and ways 

of different types of people 2 

Teaches him to use his time to advantage 2 

Miscellaneous 1 

Didn't say 6 



119%* 

* Percentages are based on number of people who thought delivering 
newspapers was helpful to a boy and add to more than 100 because some 
gave more than one answer. 

7. (US Oct 27 '42) Do you think delivering newspapers is 
harmful in any way to a boy? (aipo) 

Yes 17% No 82%, No opinion 1% 

8. (US Oct 27 '42) In what ways [do you think delivering 
newspapers is harmful to a boy]? Asked of a national cross- 
section of people who thought delivering newspapers was 
harmful to a boy. 17% of sample represented, (aipo) 

Not right environment, some districts and associations 

are bad 39% 

Bad for his health — no indication of how 7 

Loses too much sleep 21 

Keeps him from his studies, prevents him from giving 

time he should to school work 8 

Too much of a strain physically; heavy bundles, running 

upstairs 9 

Prevents him from getting recreation he needs 4 

Has to work in all sorts of weather 8 

Miscellaneous 7 

Didn't say 5 

108%* 

* Percentages are based on number of people who thought delivering 
newspapers was harmful to a boy and add to more than 100 because 
some gave more than one answer. 

9. (us Nov 17 '42) If you had a boy fourteen years old, would 
you let him deliver newspapers or do you think this is too 
young? (aipo) 

Deliver 90% Too young 7% No opinion 3% 

10. (US Jan 27 '43) If you had a boy twelve years old, would 
you let him deliver newspapers or do you think this is too 
young? (aipo) (Canada Mar 12 '43) If you had a son twelve 
years old who wanted to deliver newspapers, would you permit 
him to do so? (cipo) 

Yes, No, 

deliver too young No opinion 

United States 81%, 17% 2% 

Canada 76 19 5 

11. (Great Britain Nov '44) It has been suggested that boys 
and girls leaving school should register at labor exchanges 
and get jobs only through them. Do you approve or disapprove? 
(bipo) 

Approve 29% Disapprove 57% Don't know 14% 



[99] 



CHILDREN 



1. (us May 29 '40) In which of the following respects do you 
think boys and girls in their teens have improved since you 
were their age — initiative and courage; moral standards and 
ideals; honesty and dependability; physical fitness; knowledge 
of the world they live in; haven't improved at all? (aipo) 

Initiative and courage 27% 

Moral standards and ideals 18 

Honesty and dependability 16 

Physical fitness 43 

Knowledge of the world they live in ... - 68 

Haven't improved at all 12 

No opinion 9 

193%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

2. (US Mar 19 '41) If you could have only one (one more) 
child which would you prefer to have — a boy or a girl? (aipo) 

Boy 34% 

Either one 26 

Girl 24 

Wouldn't want any more. . . 16 

3. (US Mar 26 '42) Do you have any children? 62%, of the 
sample who were parents were asked: Do you think your 
children twenty years from now will be better off or worse 
off than you are now? (opor) 

Better 27% 

Worse 16 

Same 10 

Don't know 9 

Have no children 37 

No answer 1 

4. (US Mar 26 '42) Well, suppose you had some children. Do 
you think that if you had some children they would be better 
off or worse off twenty years from now than you are now? 
Asked of 37% of the sample who had no children, (opor) 

Better 16% 

Worse 9 

Same 7 

No opinion 5 

37% 

5. (US Aug '43) A national cross-section of women were asked 
how many children they wanted. Results follow; (for) 

One 5.2% 

Two 38.9 

Three 24.3 

Four 18.1 

Five or more 6.1 

None 4.4 

Don't know 3.0 

6. (Netherlands Oct '45) Should the children whose mothers 
are confined [for collaboration with the enemy] be lodged with 
families or in educational homes? (nfs) 

With families 57% 

In educational homes 36 

No opinion 7 



7. (Canada Apr 3 '46) Some people say it is harmful to chil- 
dren to tell them there is a Santa Claus. What are your views 
on this? (cipo) 

Agree, it is harmful 11% 

Not harmful 85 

No opinion 4 

8. (Germany Apr 26 '46^ The Germans were asked whether 
they agreed with the following statements: (omgus) 

AMERICAN ZONE 

AND BERLIN BERLIN ONLY 

No No 

opiti- opin- 

Yes No ion Yes No ion 
A boy is more important to 

a family than a girl 40% 54';o 6% 50% 49% 1% 

In a family a girl should 
have the same rights as a 

boy 93 5 2 91 9 

Children need much tender- 
ness and affection from 
both mother and father . . 92 7 1 95 4 1 

9. (US Aug '46) Suppose a young married couple is trying to 
decide when to have children. Who do you think should have 
the most to say in making the decision, the husband or the 
wife? (for) 

Borh Refi/seci Don't 

Husband Wife the same to answer know 

Men 11.9% 37.2% 36.1% 4.7% 10.1% 

Women 7.3 456 350 3.6 8.5 

10. (Great Britain Dec '46) Do you agree or disagree with 
letting children believe that there is a Santa Claus? (bipo) 

Don't 
Agree Disagree know 
National total 83% 11% 6% 

BY PARENTAL STATUS 

Having children under 17 87% 9% 4% 

Not having children under 17 . . 81 11 8 

BY AGE 

21-29 years 85% 9% 6% 

30-49 years 84 12 4 

50 years and over 82 11 7 

Care and Hygiene 

1. (Denmark Mar '44) Do you give your children cod-liver 
oil, vitaminol, or any other strengthening medicine in the 
winter? Asked of a national cross-section of parents with chil- 
dren of a suitable age. (dgi) 

Yes 79.6% No 20.47o 

Management 

1. (US Mar 21 '38) Do you think schoolteachers should be 
allowed to spank disobedient children at school? (Aug 28 '46) 
Do you think teachers in grade school should have the right 
to spank children at school? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

Mar '38 53% 44% 3% 

Aug '46 35 61 4 

AUG '46 RESULTS BY PARENTS 

All parents 38% 59% 3% 

Parents who were spanked as 
children 41 56 3 



[ 100 ] 



Ya 



No No opinion 



Parents not spanked as chil- 


?0 


Fathcrs 


4"^ 


Mothers 


M 



77 
54 
63 



2. (Sweden May '42) Do you think your parents allow you 
enough liberty, do they interfere too much, or do they allow 
you too much liberty? Asked of a national cross-section of 
young people. (sGi) 



Boys. 
Girls. 



Enough 
84% 
83 



BY SEX 

Interfere 
too much 

6% 
8 



Too much 
liberty 

1% 
1 



Don't No 

know answer 

4% 5% 
3 5 



3. (Sweden May '42) Would you be for or against further in- 
terference with the amusements of the young? Asked of a na- 
tional cross-section of parents, (sci) 

For 
National total 

Fathers 45% 

Mothers 49 



Against Don' t know 



34% 
25 



21% 
26 



BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 



Town fathers 49% 36% 15% 

Town mothers 55 22 23 

Provincial fathers .... 46 38 16 

Provincial mothers. . . 50 36 14 

Country fathers 42 31 27 

Country mothers 42 23 35 

4. (Sweden May '42) Do you think that such interference 
[with the amusements of the young] should come from the 
home first or from society? Asked of a national cross-section 
of parents, (soi) 

Society Home Don't know 

Fathers 43% 43% 14% 

Mothers 40 43 17 

6. (Sweden May '42) Do young people have too much money 
to squander? Asked of a national cross-section of parents, (sgi) 

Yes No Don't know 

National total 35% 46% 19% 



BY PARENTAL STATUS 



Fathers 34% 49% 

Mothers 35 43 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Towns 46% 38% 

Provinces 44 35 

Country 23 56 



17% 
22 

16% 

21 

21 



6. (Sweden Dec '43 and Denmark Aug '44) How much pocket 
money did they [the children] get last week? Asked of a na- 
tional cross-section of adults in families with children from 
eleven to fourteen years of age. (sGi, dgi) 

RESULTS in SWEDEN BY SKX AND AGE 
NATIONAL 
TOTAL 



11-14 

years 11 yrs. 



llyrs. IJyrs. 14 yrs. 



05 






cq O 



cq O 



None 

Under 50 ore. 



O CQ<J cq(J cqO i^G 

/o /o /o /o /c /o /o /o /o /o 

27 38 29 41 27 41 27 44 30 25 

18 10 25 12 19 13 20 13 6 4 



NATIONAL 
TOTAL 
11-14 

years 



llyrs. llyrs. H yrs. 14 yrs. 



50 ore to less than 

1 kr.* 

1 kr. to less than 

2 kr 

2 kr. to less than 

3 kr 

3 kr. to less than 
5 kr 

5 kr. to less than 

10 kr 

10 kr. or more . . 
Don't know 



% 

19 

17 



% 



% 



% 



22 20 21 



% 

23 



% 



cq 
% 



% 



cq 
% 



% 



22 22 20 12 27 



15 
3 



8 16 16 14 



3 3 



10 
3 



1 

1 

10 



10 



1 

13 



15 



1 
10 



25 
9 
5 

3 

2 



26 
3 

7 



* The Swedish krona at this period was worth approximately 27 
cents in American money. 

RESULTS IN DENMARK 

Nothing 37.7% 

25 ore 10.2 

50 ore 10.8 

75 ore 3.7 

l.-kr.* 12.1 

1.50 kr 2.4 

2.-kr 5.0 

Over 2.-kr 30 

Don't know 15. 1 

* The Danish krone was worth approximately 27 cents in American 
money at this period. 

7. (Denmark Aug '44) On what was this [pocket] money 
spent? Asked of the same sample as the previous question. 
(dgi) 

Saved 25.9% 

Sweets 24.3 

Cinema 21.6 

Amusements 5-7 

School implements 4.6 

Scout expenses, subscrip- 
tions, etc '. . . 2.7 

Toys 2.4 

Help to buy clothes 2.2 

Don't know 22.4 



111.8%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. • 

8. (Denmark Aug '44) Has the child earned this money by 
getting good marks, doing little services, etc., for you, or was 
the money a gift? Asked of the same cross-section as the two 
previous questions, (dgi) 

Little services 63.3% 

Gift 25.6 

Good marks 10.1 

Earn it themselves (errand 
boys, etc.) 2.4 



101.4%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

9. (Sweden Dec '43) About what time did they [the children] 
go to bed last night? Asked of a national cross-section of adults 
in families with children from eleven to fourteen years of age. 
(sgi) 



[101] 



NATIONAL 
TOTAL 
11-14 

yrs. 11 yrs. llyrs. 13yrs. 14 yrs. 






% % % % % % % % % % 
2 5 4 — 
12 27 12 20 



Before 7 p.m 7 5 10 5 9 9 

7-8 p.m 23 31 34 44 33 28 

8-9 p.m 40 37 38 34 44 42 54 37 30 34 

9-10 p.m 20 18 13 9 11 11 21 25 31 34 

After 10 p.m 4 3 2— 1 1 6 2 7 9 

Don't know 66382954 16 3 



10. (Sweden Dec '43) What age do you consider suitable for 
a girl to begin going to dances without escort by older people? 
(sGi) 

14-15 16-17 18-19 20 When Don t 

yrs. yrs. yrs. yrs. of age know 

National total 7% 38% 33% 5% 2% 



BY SEX 

Men 7% 37% 34% 6% 2% 

Women 8 39 32 4 2 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Town 4% 38% 34% 5% 3% 

Country 9 38 32 5 2 

BY AGE 

20-29 years 24% 39% 22% 3% 1% 

30-49 years 7 39 33 6 2 

50 years and over 4 35 35 5 1 



15% 



14% 
15 



16% 
14 



11% 

13 

20 



11. (Sweden Feb '45) What do you think of physical punish- 
ment as a means of bringing up children? (sGi) 



National total . 



Men . . . 
Women . 



Suitable 

in some Unneces- 
Suitable cases sary 

9% 50% 19% 



11% 



BY SEX 

49% 
51 



18% 
20 



Wrong 



17% 
16 



Don't 

know 

5% 

5% 
5 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 



Upper class 9% 56% 11% 

Middle class 10 53 18 

Workers 10 47 21 



20-24 years 8% 47% 21% 

25-29 years 8 58 16 

30-49 years 8 49 20 

50-64 years 12 48 21 

65 years and over. . 17 43 18 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Large towns 7% 48% 15% 

Other towns 10 47 21 

Country 11 51 20 



21% 3% 
15 4 

17 5 



17% 

14 

17 

15 

18 



26% 

19 

13 



7% 

4 

6 

4 

4 

4% 

3 

5 



12. (Sweden Feb '45) Do you think that the teachers in the 
elementary schools should have the right to punish children 
physically or should this right be reserved for parents? Asked 
of 59% of the sample who said they thought corporal punish- 
ment was a suitable punishment or suitable in some cases, (sgi) 



Parents 

only 
National total 42% 



Both 

teachers 

anil 
parents 

54% 



Men . . . 
Women. 



BY sex 
38% 59% 

46 49 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 41% 56% 

Middle class 39 57 

Workers 44 51 



20-24 years 59% 38%, 

25-29 years 50 45 

30-49 years 44 53 

50-64 years 33 60 

65 years and over. ... 25 72 



Country 34^^ 

Large towns 



... 56 
Other towns 53 



BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

62% 
38 



44 



Don't 
know • 
4% = 100% of 

those 

questioned 

3% 
5 

3% 

4 

5 

3% 

5 

3 

7 

3 

4% 

6 

3 



13. (Germany Apr 26 '46) The Germans were asked whether 
they agreed with the following statements: (omgus) 



AMERICAN ZONE 
AND BERLIN 



BERLIN ONLY 



No 
opin- 



No 
opin- 



Yes No ion Yes No 

It is not necessary that chil- 
dren obey rules as strictly 
as adults 55% 42% 3% 46% 54% — 

Children should blindly obey 
the laws and orders estab- 
lished for adults 54 42 

In bringing up children the 
main thing to keep in mind 
is the development of the 
individual personality, 
not the needs of the state. 80 13 

Obedience to the father 
should be based on love 
and understanding and not 
on his absolute power. . . . 

The weakness of most west- 
ern European schools is 
their lack of military dis- 
cipline 



60 39 



81 17 



1% 



96 



13 66 21 



97 



18 76 



14. (US July 24 '46) In San Francisco judges require the par- 
ents of delinquent children to attend classes to learn to handle 
their children better. Do you think such classes should be 
started in this community? (aipo) (Great Britain Sept 14 '46) 
In San Francisco courts deal with parents when children are 
in trouble. They must attend classes to learn to handle their 
children better. Would vou approve or disapprove of the same 
thing in this country? (bipo) 



Approve 

United States 78% 

Great Britain 56 





Don't know 




or 


isapprove 


no opinion 


12% 


10% 


32 


12 



[102] 



Don' t know 
or 
Approve Disapprove no opinion 

BY SEX 

Men 

United States 75% 14% 

Great Britain 53 34 

Wo7nen 

United States 81 10 

Great Britain 59 31 

BRITISH OPINION BY AGE 

,21-29 years 66% 25% 

30-49 years 56 33 

50 years and over 52 34 

Having children under 17 

years 52 39 

BRITISH OPINION BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher 67% 26% 

Middle 65 27 8 

Lower 52 35 13 

Very poor 43 42 15 

15. (US Aug '46) Who do you think should have the most to 
say in deciding how to discipline the children, the husband or 
the wife? (for) 

Husband 

Men 7.5% 

Women 3.4 

16. (US Aug 28 '46) Do you approve or disapprove of spank- 
ing children? (aipo) 

Approve Disapprove No opinion 



19. (Great Britain Dec '46) In dealing with such parents [who 
ill-treat their children] should the main emphasis of the treat- 
ment be on punishing or on educating them? (bipo) 



11% 
13 

9 
10 

9% 
11 
14 



7% 





Both the 


Don't 


Wife 


same Depends 


know 


Sl.l% 


48.9% 3.8% 


2.5% 


19.0 


62.1 2.9 


2.6 



25% 



4% 



National total 71% 

BY PARENTAL STATUS 

All parents 74% 

Parents who were spanked as 

children 81 

Parents not spanked as chil- 
dren 38 

Fathers 73 

Mothers 76 

17. (US Aug 28 '46) Were you spanked as a child? (aipo) 
Yes 84% No 15% No answer 1% 

18. (Great Britain Dec '46) Do you think that ill-treatment 
of children is due mainly to cruelty or to ignorance and bad 
conditions? (bipo) 

Bad Don't 

Cruelty conditions know 

National total 39% 53% 8% 



24% 


2% 


17 


2 


58 


4 


24 


3 


22 


2 



Men . . . 
Women. 



36% 

43 



21-29 years 33% 

30-49 years 38 

50 years and over 45 

Children under 17 40 

No children under 17 39 

BY economic status 

Higher 38% 

Middle 39 

Lower 40 

Very poor 39 



55% 
50 

59% 

55 

45 

54 

51 

57% 
57 
50 
50 



9% 
7 

8% 

7 
10 

6 
10 

5% 

4 
10 
11 



Punishing Educating 
National total 45% 47% 



Men. . . 
Women 



43% 
48 



BY AGE 

21-29 years 39% 

30-49 years 43 

50 years and over 51 

BY economic status 

Higher 34% 

Middle 43 

Lower 48 

Very poor 48 

BY parental status 

With children under 17 45% 

No children under 17 45 



49% 
44 

55% 

50 

39 

64% 
54 
42 
38 

47% 
46 



Don't 

know 

8% 

8% 
8 

6% 
7 
10 

2% 

3 
10 
14 



CHILDREN AND STATE 



1. (US Nov 13 '36) Do you approve of the Toronto Baby 
Derby? (aipo) 

Yes 13% No 87% = 100% No opinion 18% 

2. (US June '39) Do you think our government should or 
should not take over all present duties of the family in caring 
for children and bringing them up? (for) 

Should 4.6% Should not 92.2%, Don't know or depends 3.2% 

3. (Great Britain June '39) Would you favor a system of family 
allowances, parents receiving a money grant for each child 
after the second or third? (bipo) 

Yes 67% No 24% No opinion 9% 

4. (Great Britain June '39) Should the grant [for family al- 
lowances] be paid by the state or employers? Asked of 67% of 
the sample who said they would favor family allowances. 
(bipo) 

State 85% Employers 10% No opinion 5% = 100% of those 

who favored family allowances 

5. (Australia Nov '41) Are you satisfied with the child en- 
dowment scheme? (apop) 

Satisfied 54% 

Dissatisfied 28 

Undecided 12 

No opinion 6 

6. (Canada Oct 20 '43) It has been suggested that the govern- 
ment should pay a family allowance of nine dollars per child 
every month to families in the lower income group instead 
of raising wages. Cost of such a plan is estimated at one hun- 
dred eighty billion dollars a year. Do you think this would 
be a good idea or a bad idea? (cipo) 

Good idea 43% Bad idea 45% No opinion 12% 

7. (Canada Oct 20 '43) It has been suggested that the govern- 
ment should pay a family allowance of nine dollars per child 
every month to families in the lower income group instead of 



[ 1<>;5 ] 



raising wages. Do you think this is a good idea or a bad idea? 

(cipo) 

Good idea 49% Bad idea 42% No opinion 9% 

8. (Australia Nov '43) Do you think child endowment of five 
shillings a week is likely to result in larger families? 68% of 
the sample who thought it wouldn't were asked: Do you 
think a larger amount would? How much a week would it 
have to be? Results from the three questions follow: (apop) 

Five shillings would raise the birthrate 21% 

Larger amount (average ten shillings) would be effective 29 

No amount will raise the birthrate 39 

No opinion 11 

9. (Canada Aug 2 '44) It has been suggested that the govern- 
ment should pay a family allowance of between five and eight 
dollars per child every month to families in the lower income 
group. Do you think this is a good idea or not? (cipo) 

Good Not good No 

idea idea opinion 

Quebec 81% 12% 7% 

Rest of Canada 57 35 8 

10. (Canada Oct 14 '44) Have you heard or read anything 
about the family allowance or baby bonus plan recently passed 
by the Ottawa government? 87% of the sample who had heard 
of the plan were asked: Some people claim that this plan is a 
political bribe just to get votes. Others deny this, and claim 
that it is a necessary law. Which of these points of view comes 
closest to describing the way you personally feel about this 
law? (cipo) 

Neces- 



National total . 



Political 
bribe 

29% 



sary 
law 
34% 



Both 
16% 



Never 
Un- heard 
decided of it 

8% 13% 



BY SELECTED PROVINCES 

Ontario 39% 26% 13% 

Quebec 13 49 17 



10% 
3 



12% 
18 



11. (Australia Nov '44) Do you think an increase in child 
endowment from five shillings to ten shillings a week would 
result in larger families? (apop) 

Yes No Undecided 



BY SEX 

Men 47% 

Women 37 



BY occupation 



Owners, managers, and profes- 
sional people 32% 

Farmers 32 

Clerks and shophands 44 

Skilled and semi-skilled workers . . 47 

Unskilled workers 59 



47% 
55 



64% 

60 

52 

47 

34 



6% 



4% 
8 
4 
6 

7 



12. (Great Britain Mar '45) Should children's allowances be 
paid over to the father or to the mother? (bipo) 

Father 13% Mother 62% Either 25% 

13. (Canada May 30 '45) Have you heard or read anything 
about the family allowance (baby bonus) law passed by the 
Ottawa government? 95% of the sample who had heard of 
the law were asked: As you probably know, these allowances 
are to be used for food, clothing, and education for the chil- 
dren. In your opinion, are a large number of Canadians likely 
to use this money for other purposes, or are only a few likely 
to use it improperly? (cipo) 



Haven't 

heard Improperly Properly Undecided 

National total 5% 30% 56% 9% 

by selected provinces 

Ontario 5% 37% 50% 8% 

Quebec 6 25 58 11 

14. (Canada May 30 '45) Have you applied, or do you intend 
to apply, for these [family] allowances? Asked of a cross- 
section of parents who had heard about the family allowances 
and who had children under sixteen. (ciPo) 

Intend to apply or have applied 74% 

Do not intend to apply 19 

Undecided 7 

15. (Canada Aug 18 '45) Do you think that checks now being 
sent out for family allowances (baby bonus) should be made 
payable to mother or father? (cipo) 



Men . . . 
Women . 



Mother 

BY SEX 

71% 
84 



Father Undecided 



15% 
6 



BY SELECTED PROVINCES 



Quebec 61% 

Ontario 80 



14% 
10 



14% 
12 



16. (US Sept 19 '45) In Canada, the government gives each 
family a sum of money amounting to about five to eight dol- 
lars a month for each child until the child is sixteen. Would 
you be willing to pay higher taxes here to provide the same 
thing in this country? (aipo) 

Yes 30% No 63% No opinion 7% 

17. (US Sept 19 '45) In Canada, the government gives each 
family a sum of money amounting to about five to eight dol- 
lars per month for each child until the child is sixteen. Do you 
think we should have the same thing in this country? The 
question was asked of a separate cross-section comparable to 
the one used for the previous question, (aipo) 

Yes 30% No 58% No opinion 12% 

18. (Germany Apr 26 '46) The Germans were asked whether 
they agreed with the following statement; Children are the 
property of the state, (omgus) 

Yes No No opinion 

American zone and Berlin .... 17% 80% 3% 

Berlin only 26 74 — 

19. (US Aug 14 '46) To encourage having children, England 
now pays one dollar per week for each child under sixteen 
years of age. Do you think we should have a baby bonus plan 
of that type in this country? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

National total 30% 61% 9% 



BY PARENTAL STATUS 

Those with children under 16 

years 34% 56% 

Those without children under 

16 years 29 63 



10% 



20. (US Aug 14 '46) How much should be paid per week for 
each child? Asked of 30% of the sample who thought the 
United States should have a baby bonus similar to the one in 
England, (aipo) 



[ 104 ] 



Under $1.00 1% 

$1.00 28 

Over $1 .00 to under $2.00 . . 2 

$2.00 22 

Over $2.00 to under $3.00 . . 3 

$3.00 10 

Over $3.00 to under $5.00 . . 3 

$500 11 

Over $5. 00 7 

Miscellaneous 2 

No answer 11 



100% of those who 
thought the US should have a baby bonus 

Median $2 

21. (US Aug 14 '46) Would you be willing to pay higher 
taxes in order to make a baby bonus plan possible? Asked of 
30% of the sample who thought the United States should 
have a baby bonus similar to the one in England, (aipo) 

Yes 66% 

No 22 

No opinion 12 



100%, of those who 
thought the US should have a baby bonus 
plan 

22. (US Aug 14 '46) To help parents support their children, 
England now pays one dollar per week for each child under 
sixteen years of age. Do you think we should have a baby 
bonus plan of that type in this country? This question and 
the two following were asked of a separate but comparable 
cross-section to the one used for the preceding questions, (aipo) 

Yis No No opinion 

National total 38% 49% 13% 



BY PARENTAL STATUS 

Those with children under 16 

years 46% 42% 

Those without children under 

16 years 34 55 



12% 
11 



23. (US Aug 14 '46) How much should be paid per week for 
each child? Asked of 38% of the sample who thought the 
United States should have a baby bonus plan similar to the 
one in England, (aipo) 

Under $1.00 2% 

$1.00 32 

Over $1.00 to under $2.00. . 6 

$2.00 17 

Over $2.00 to under $3.00. . 4 

$3.00 6 

Over $3.00 to under $5.00. . 3 

$5.00 11 

Over $500 5 

Miscellaneous 2 

No answer 12 



100% of those who 
thought the US should have a baby bonus 
plan 

24. (US Aug 14 '46) Would you be willing to pay higher 
taxes in order to make a baby bonus plan possible? Asked of 
38% of the sample who thought the United States should have 
a baby bonus plan similar to the one in England, (aipo) 



Yes 70% 

No 21 

No opinion 9 



I 



100% of those who 
thought the US should have a baby bonus 

25. (Great Britain Sept 14 '46) If people are getting children's 
allowances, that amount is deducted from other payments such 
as relief or workmen's compensation. Do you approve, or 
should they get children's allowances as well? (bipo) 

Deduct Get both Don't know 
National total 13% 78% 9% 



Men . . . 
Women. 



BY SEX 

■ . 14% 
13 



BY AGE 

21-29 years 11% 

30-49 years 14 

50 years and over 14 

BY PARENTAL STATUS 

Having children under 17 

years 8% 

Not having children under 17 
years 16 

BY economic STATUS 



79% 
77 

77% 

79 

77 



86% 
75 



18 
11 



63% 

73 

81 

84 



7% 
10 



12% 
7 
9 



6% 
9 

8% 
9 



Middle 

Lower 

Very poor 

26. (Australia Nov '46) Do you think child endowment should 
be increased, or not? (apop) 

Yes 
National total 53% 

BY POLITICS 

Labor 60% 

Liberal-Country 47 

27. (Australia Nov '46) If [child] endowment is increased, 
which would you favor — keeping the rate at seven shillings 
sixpence a week but paying for the first child, or increase the 
rate from seven shillings sixpence to ten shillings without 
including the first child? (apop) 

Pay for 
first child 
National total 67% 



No 
40% 

33% 

47 



No opinion 
7% 



7% 
6 



Increase to 
ten shillings 

14% 



No opinion 
19% 



BY POLITICS 

Labor 68% 18% 14% 

Liberal-Country 66 11 23 



CHURCH AND STATE 



1. (us June '39) Do you think our government should or 
should not supervise all religious observances by establishing 
a national church? (for) 

Should 4.3% Should not 92.0% Don't know or depends 3.7% 

2. (Germany Mar 8 '46) Since the beginning of the occupa- 
tion, has the American military government given too much 
or too little support to the church? (omgus) 



[105] 



Too much support 4% 

Too little support 1 

Adequate support 72 

No answer 1 

No opinion 22 

3. (Germany Dec 10 '46) Has the attitude of the church toward 

the state changed in any way? (omgus) 

Yes 42% No 38% No opinion 20% 



CHURCH UNITY 



1. (US Feb 23 '37) It has been suggested that all Protestant 
churches in the United States combine into one church. Do 
you think it would be a good thing? (May 20 '38) Do you 
think it would be a good thing for all Protestant churches in 
the United States to combine into one church? (aipo) 

Yes No 

Feb '37 44% 56% 

May '38 47 53 

BY RELIGION 



Northern Baptist 

Feb '37 47% 

May '38 46 

Southern Baptist 

Feb '37 25 

May '38 14 

Methodist 

Feb '37 43 

May '38 50 

Lutheran 

Feb '37 33 

May '38 40 

Presbyterian 

Feb '37 48 

May '38 50 

Episcopalian 

Feb '37 40 

May '38 44 

Contregationalist 

Feb '37 65 

May '38 60 

Reformed 



Feb '37. 
Catholic 

Feb '37. 
Others 

Feb '37. 

May '38. 



52 
46 

59 

47 



53% 
54 

75 
86 

57 
50 

67 
60 

52 
50 

60 
56 

35 

40 

48 

54 

41 
53 



FEB '37 RESULTS BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 61% 39% 

Middle Atlantic 46 54 

East central 39 61 

West central 51 49 

Southern 36 64 

Mountain 42 58 

Pacific coast 40 60 

2. (Great Britain Feb '38) Are you in favor of the unification 
of all Protestant churches? (bipo) 

Yes 56% No 16% No opinion 28% 

3. (US June '43) Do you think that the churches should make 
plans for the kind of peace which should be established after 



the war, or don't you think this is part of their work? 63% of 
the sample who thought they should make plans were asked: 
Do you think it would be better for Catholic, Jewish, and 
Protestant churches to have their own separate plans for world 
peace, or do you think it would be better if they would all 
get together and agree on one plan? (norc) 

Get together 57% 

Have separate plans 5 

Don't know whether they should get together or not. . . 1 

Not their work 33 

Don't know whether or not this is their work 4 

4. (US June '43) Do you think it is likely that they [churches] 
will get together and agree on one plan or not? Asked of 57% 
of the sample who thought that churches of all sects should 
get together and make plans for world peace, (norc) 

Yes 29% 

No 19 

Qualified answers 1 

Don't know 8 

No answer * 



57% 



* Less than 0.5%. 



5. (Germany Mar 8 '46) Do vou think it is possible for Cath- 
olics and Protestants to cooperate in the same Christian po- 
litical party? 55% of the sample who thought it possible were 
asked: What makes you think so? 20% of the sample who 
thought it impossible were asked: What makes you think 
not? (oMGUs) 

Both have same basic Christian principles; both 
have same God; the religious differences are in- 
significant; Christians can get along together. . . . 26% 
Both are working for a common cause — reconstruc- 
tion; fighting same enemy — National Socialism; 

have same interests IB 

Religion plays no part in politics 2 

They've done it before and can do it again, as in 
the Zentrum party and the Christian Democratic 

Union 3 

It's their duty 3 

Other answers 1 

No reason given 2 

Total who thought cooperation possible 55% 

Think it wouldn't work; fundamental differences 
too great; they can't work together; they are dif- 
ferent religions and should stay separate; wouldn't 

last long 8% 

Know it wouldn't work; until now they've always 

disagreed; each will want to be right 11 

Other answers or no reason given 1 

Total who thought cooperation impossible 20% 

No opinion on the subject 25 

6. (Canada Aug 21 '46) Do you think that the Anglican and 
United Churches will ever be able to combine into one church? 
(cipo) 

Don't know or 
Yes No Undecided 

National total 27% 37% 36% 



United Church members . . . 
Anglican Church members . 
Other church members .... 



37% 


44% 


19% 


37 


49 


14 


22 


32 


46 



[106] 



CHURCHILL, WINSTON 



1. (Great Britain May '39) Are you in favor of Mr. Winston 
Cliurchill being invited to join the Cabinet? (bipo) 

Yes 56% No 26% No opinion 18% 

2. (Great Britain July '40 to May '45, dates listed below) In 
general, do you approve or disapprove of Mr. Churchill as 
Prime Minister? (bipo) 

Don't 

Approve Disapprove know 

July -40 88% 7% 5% 

Oct '40 89 6 5 

Nov '40 88 7 5 

Jan '41 85 7 8 

Mar '41 88 7 5 

♦June '41 87 9 4 

Oct '41 84 11 5 

*Dcc '41 88 8 4 

*Jan '42 89 7 4 

Feb '42 82 11 7 

Mar '42 81 13 6 

Apr '42 82 13 5 

May '42 87 8 5 

June '42 86 9 5 

July '42 78 15 7 

Aug '42 82 11 7 

*Sept '42 82 10 8 

Oct '42 83 11 6 

Nov '42 91 7 2 

*Dec '42 93 5 2 

Jan '43 91 7 2 

Apr '43 90 7 3 

*June '43 93 4 3 

*Aug '43 93 5 2 

*Nov '43 91 6 3 

*Jan '44 89 7 4 

*Mar '44 86 10 4 

**Apr '44 88 9 3 

**June '44 91 7 2 

**Aug '44 89 8 3 

*Sept '44 89 8 3 

**Oct '44 91 7 2 

*Jan '45 81 16 3 

*Feb "45 85 11 4 

Mar '45 87 10 3 

**Apr '45 91 7 2 

May '45 83 14 3 

* The question was asked simply: Do you approve or disapprove of 
Mr. Churchill as Prime Minister? 

** The question was: On the whole, do you approve or disapprove of 
Mr. Churchill as Prime Minister? 

3. (US Jan 5 '42) On the whole, have you been favorably or 
unfavorably impressed by Prime Minister Churchill since he 
came over two weeks ago? (norc) 

Favorably 77% Unfavorably 10% Don't know 13% 

4. (Great Britain Jan '45 and Feb '45) Do you approve or 
disapprove of Mr. Churchill's attitude on the Greek question? 
(bipo) 

Approve Disapprove Don' t know 

Jan '45 43% 38% 19% 

Feb '45 46 28 26 

5. (Great Britain June 12 '45) Some people say that it is 
necessary to keep Churchill as Prime Minister till the Japs 



arc beaten. Others say the war will be won anyway. Which 
do you agree with? (bipo) ■ 

Keep War won Don't " 

Churchill anyway know 

National total 46% 49% 5% 



Men . . . 
Women. 



BY SEX 

40% 56% 4% 

53 41 6 

BY AGE 

21-29 years 45% 49% 6%, 

30-49 years 42 53 5 

50 years and over. ... 52 43 5 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher 55% 44% 1% 

Middle 46 49 5 

Lower 45 49 6 

6. (Czechoslovakia Oct '46) Have you altered your opinion 
about Mr. Churchill since the end of the war? (czipo) 



Yes- 



No 



Don't 


No 


know 


answer 


35% 


1% 


37% 


2% 


21 


— 


49 


2 


29 


1 



Total questioned 38% 26% 

BY OCCUPATION 

Laborers 41% 20% 

White-collar 45 34 

Farmers 26 23 

Business and professional- .31 39 

7. (Czechoslovakia Oct '46) Do you look upon him [Mr. 
Churchill] now more or less favorably [since the end of the 
war]? Asked of 38% of the sample who said they had changed 
their opinion of Mr. Churchill since the end of the war. (czipo) 
More favorably 7.5% Less favorably 92.5% = 100% 

of those who had changed their opinion 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



1. (us May 24 '37) What city in the United States do you 

think most interesting? (aipo) 

New York City 30% 

Washington 16 

Chicago 10 

San Francisco 5 

Los Angeles 4 

Boston 3 

New Orleans 3 

Detroit 3 

Philadelphia 2 

Hollywood 2 

Home town 3 

Others 19 



No answer. 



100% 

. 14% 



2. (US May 24 '37) Have you ever been there [to the city in 
the United States which you think is most interesting]? (aipo) 

Yes No 

Los Angeles 58% 42% 

Washington 55 45 

New York 65 35 



[107] 



Yes No 

Boston 83% 17% 

Philadelphia 89 11 

Chicago 80 20 

Detroit 79 21 

New Orleans 65 35 

San Francisco .... 73 27 

Hollywood 26 74 

3. (US Dec 10 '40) Do you think there are any big modern 
cities in Central and South America? (opor) 

Yes 86% No 12% No answer 2% 

4. (US Dec 10 '40) Can you name any city in Central or South 
America which you think of as a big modern city like Chicago? 
Asked of 86% of the sample who thought there were big 
modern cities in Central and South America, (opor) 

Buenos Aires 38% 

Rio de Janeiro 34 

Others 13 

Cities or countries inside or outside South America 1 

No, don't know or no answer 24 



Citizen already 98% 



Yes 1% 



No opinion 1% 



110%* 

* Percentages add to more than 86 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

5. (US Aug 8 '45) What is the capital of the United States? 
(aipo) 

Correct 94% Don't know 6% 

6. (Norway Dec 13 '46) What are the names of the largest 
and second largest towns in Norway? in Sweden? in Denmark? 
in Finland? (ngi) 

Know* Know the Don't know 
both largest either 

Norwegian Towns 

. National total 81% 18% 1% 

BY SEX 

Women 77% 21% 2% 

I' Men 86 14 — 

Swedish Towns 

National total 74% 23% 3% 

BY SEX 

Women 67% 29% 4% 

Men 81 17 2 

Danish Towns 

National total 34% 62% 4% 

BY SEX 

Women 29% 66% 5% 

Men 38 59 3 

Finnish Towns 

National total 26% 60% 14% 

BY SEX 

Women 18% 64% 18% 

Men 34 57 9 

* All those who knew the second largest towns also knew both and 
are included in the "both" percentages. 



CITIZENSHIP 



1. (us Jan 22 '41) Do you plan to take out American citi- 
zenship papers soon? Asked of a national cross-section of 
people who were born outside of the United States, (aipo) 



2. (US May 30 '42) Do people have to be citizens of the United 
States to get a job where you (or your husband or wife) work? 
25% of the sample who said citizenship was not required were 
asked: From what you have heard, are there any workers 
there who are not citizens? (norc) 

Have to be citizens 52% 

Don't know whether or not they have to be citizens. ... 23 

Some employees are not citizens 6 

All employees are citizens 13 

Don't know whether or not all employees are citizens. . . 6 

3. (US May 30 '42) Do you think people working where you 
(or your husband or wife) are should have to be citizens? 
(norc) 

Yes 79% No 16% Don't know 5% 

4. (US Oct 21 '42) Should all workers in war industries have 
to be citizens of this country, or do you think it is all right 
to hire some people who are not citizens? (norc) 

Citizens only 66% Some not citizens 31% Don't know 3% 



CIVIL RIGHTS 



1. (us Dec 28 '36) Do you think everyone in the United States 
should be fingerptintcd? (Jan 10 '39) Do you think everybody 
in this country should be fingerprinted by the federal govern- 
ment? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

Dec '36 68% 32% = 100% 9% 

Jan '39 71 29 =100 7 

DEC '36 RESULTS BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 70% 

Middle Atlantic 

East central 

West central 

South 

Mountain 

Pacific coast 



70% 


30% 


68 


32 


66 


34 


67 


33 


72 


28 


71 


29 


66 


34 



2. (US Feb 2 '39) Have you heard about the La Foliette com- 
mittee on civil liberties? (aipo) 

Yes 24% No 76% 

3. (US Feb 2 '39) Do you think the findings of the committee 
have been important enough to justify continuing its investi- 
gations? Asked of 24% of the sample who had heard of the 
La Foliette committee, (aipo) 

Yes 58% No 42% = 100% of those who had heard of 

the La Foliette committee 

4. (US Nov '40) Do you feel that the federal government is 
now interfering too much with your individual freedom? (for) 

Yes No Don't know 

National total 27.1% 63.4% 9.5% 

3.2% 
13.9 

8.6% 
6.7 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 



Prosperous 47.9% 48.9% 

Poor 17.2 68.9 

BY SELECTED GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

Mountain states 41.4% 50.0% 

Pacific coast 18.2 75.1 



108] 



5. (US Sept 9 '41) Do you think Americans' rights to live, 
work, speak, and worship as they please arc safe, or do you 
think they are in danger of being taken away? (aipo) 

Safe 56% In danger 38% No opinion 6% 

6. (Great Britain Dec 19 '41) Have you followed the debate 
in the House of Commons on whether the Home Secretary 
should be able to order imprisonment without trial (Regula- 
tion 181)? (bipo) 

Yes 51% No 49% 

7. (Great Britain Dec 19 '41) Do you approve or disapprove 
of Mr. Herbert Morrison's decision? Asked of 51% of the 
sample who had followed the debate, (bipo) 

Approve 54% Disapprove 28% Don't know 18% 

= 100% of those familiar with the subject 

8. (US Jan 6 '42 and July 1 '42) Do you believe everyone in 
the United States should be required to carry an identification 
card containing, among other things, his picture and his finger- 
prints? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

Jan '42 69% 25% 6% 

July '42 72 22 6 

9. (US July '42) After the war do you feel it likely or unlikely 
that we will do away with national elections; we will have 
government regulation of newspapers; we will have a secret 
service that keeps checking up on everybody? (for) 

Likely Unlikely Don't know 



3.4% 



Do away with elections. . 
Government regulation of 

newspapers 17-7 

Secret service 44.6 



87.4% 

65.9 
43.1 



9.2% 

16.4 
12.3 



10. (US Nov '42) If you had to give up one of these things, 
which one would you be least willing to give up? Which one 
would you be most willing to give up? Asked of a national 
cross-section of high school students, (for) 

Boys would 

he most 
willing to 
give up* 
1.0% 
2.9 
4.6 
4.7 



Least 
willing 

'■0% 

.5 

.2 



Freedom of speech 46. i 

Freedom of religion 36.: 

The right to vote 5-. 

Trial by jury 3.8 

The right to change jobs if 

you want to 3 

The right to earn more than 

$3,000 a year if you can, . . 2.3 
Don't know 32 

* From New York Herald Tribune Dec 21 '44. 



Most 
willing 

■9% 
1.8 
6.4 
3.9 

20.8 

59.8 
6.4 



19.8 

60.0 
7.0 



11. (Great Britain May '45) After the war, do you think that 
identity cards should be continued or should be scrapped? 
(bipo) 

Continued indefinitely 32% 

Continued temporarily 19 

Scrapped 36 

Don't know 13 

12. (Canada June 30 '45) Do you think that pupils in public 
or high schools should be made to salute the flag or sing the 
national anthem if it is against their beliefs? (cipo) 

Yes 58% No 32% Undecided 10% 

13. (Canada Feb 27 '46) You may recall that in 1940 the 
government ordered national registration, which meant that 



everyone in Canada who was sixteen years or over had to 
register. Do you think we should have national registration 
every few years, or should it be discontinued now that the 
war is over? (cipo) 

Should Should not Undecided 
National total 61% 33% 6% 

BY SPECIAL PROVINCES 

Ontario 68% 29% 3% 

Quebec 48 42 10 

14. (Germany Mar 29 '46) Do you think that the individual 
should always obey the orders of the State without question? 

(OMGUS) 

Yes 40% 

No 54 

No opinion 5 

No answer 1 

15. (Germany Apr 26 '46) The Germans were asked whether 
they agreed with the following statements: (omgus) 

AMERICAN ZONE 

AND BERLIN BERLIN ONLY 

No No 

Yes No opinion Yes No opinion 
Revision of govern- 
ment orders is not 

allowed 35% 55% 10% 34% 63% 3% 

Citizens should not be 

allowed to criticise 

the conduct of their 

government because 

that is the business 

of the government 

chiefs only 28 67 5 34 66 — 

16. (Canada Aug 3 '46) Have you ever been called upon to 
appear as witness in court? (cipo) 

Yes No 

National total 24% 76% 



Men 33%, 

Women 15 

BY AGE 

21-29 years 14% 

30-49 years 23 

50 years and over 30 



67% 
85 

86% 

77 

70 



17. (Canada Aug 3 '46) Do you happen to know whether or 
not you must appear as a witness if summoned? (cipo) 

Yes, No, not Don't 

obliged obliged know 

National total 83% 5% 12% 

Persons who had been called as 

witnesses 92 4 4 

Persons never called as witnesses 79 6 15 

18. (Canada Aug 3 '46) Do you know whether or not a police- 
man needs a warrant to arrest a person and lock him up in 
jail? (cipo) 

Yes, needs No, doesn't Don't 

a warrant need one Qualified know 

National total 33% 49% 8% 10% 

BY SPECIAL PROVINCES 

Quebec 56% 23% 8% 13% 

Rest of Canada 24 59 8 9 



[ 

19. (Canada Aug 7 '46) Which of these things are within the 
rights of an arrested person — to have a lawyer advise him 
before or during questioning by the police; to be told exactly 
what crime he has been arrested for; to have his friends or 
family called to come and arrange bail; to refuse to answer 
questions asked him by the police about the crime of which 
he is accused? (cipo) 

Within Not within Don't 

rights rights know 

Have a lawyer advise, etc 80% 8% 12% 

Be told exactly what crime, etc. 89 4 7 

Have family called, etc 87 5 8 

Refused to answer 74 15 11 

20. (US Nov 13 '46) Do you think a citizen of Spain has more 
freedom or less freedom than a citizen of Russia? (aipo) 
More 31% Less 13%, Same 17%o No opinion 39% 



CIVIL SERVICE 



France 

1. (France Jan 16 '46) Do you approve or disapprove of the 
government's refusal to give a raise of one thousand francs to 
all civil service employees at the present time? (fipo) 

Approve Disapprove No opinion 



60% 



11% 



36% 


13% 


37 


9 


28 


9 


20 


8 



National total 29% 

BY OCCUPATION 

Business 51% 

Living on income 54 

Workers 63 

White-collar 72 



2. (France Jan 16 '45) Do you consider the cleaning out of 
collaborators from government jobs to be adequate, inadequate, 
or too severe? (fipo) 

Adequate 14% 

Inadequate 65 

Too severe 6 

Conditional answers 3 

No opinion 12 

3. (France Feb 1 '46) In your opinion, should the number of 
civil service employees be kept the same, increased, or de- 
creased? (fipo) 

Decreased 85% 

Kept the same 11 

|. Increased — 

% No opinion 4 

4. (France Feb 1 '46) Among the three following plans, which 
do you prefer — increase the salaries of civil service employees 
on condition their number is decreased; increase their salaries 
in any case; don't increase their salaries in any case? (fipo) 

Increase salaries on condition number is decreased 65% 

Increase salaries in any case 22 

Don't increase salaries in any case 8 

Undecided 5 

5. (France Feb 16 '46) Do you approve of the recent decision 
reached by the national Constituent Assembly to increase par- 
liamentary pay from 240,000 to 350,000 francs a year? (fipo) 
Approve 15% Disapprove 74% No opinion 11% 



109] 

6. (France Mar 16 '46) Are you for suspending the hiring of 
civil service empk)yees for a year? The promotion of civil 
service employees? (fipo) 

Approve Disapprove No opinion 

Hiring 64% 22% 14% 

Promotion 32 53 15 

Great Britain 

1. (Great Britain July 12 '43) Concerning civil service em- 
ployees and aliiliation to the Trades Union Congress, should 
all civil service employees be debarred, some be debarred, or 
none of them be debarred from affiliating? (bipo) 

All debarred 12%, 

Some debarred 4 

None debarred 43 

Don't know 41 

Netherlands 

1. (Netherlands Mar 26 '46) Some people maintain that at 
present there are too many civil service employees; others main- 
tain that nowadays this large number of civil service employees 
is absolutely necessary. What is your opinion, too many or 
necessary? (nipo) 

Too many 73% Necessary 17% No opinion 10% 

Sweden 

1. (Sweden May '46) A committee has recently been appointed 
in Sweden to decide whether tliere are persons in the service 
of the state or local government who are not reliable from a 
political point of view, with the idea of expurgation if neces- 
sary. Do you consider it right to undertake such an investiga- 
tion or do you think it unnecessary? (sgi) 

Approve Disapprove Don't know 
National total 82% 7% 11% 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 76%o 15% 9% 

Middle class 81 8 11 

Workers 83 4 13 

BY POLITICS 

Right party 69%c) 2.1% 9% 

National party 84 6 10 

Agrarian 89 5 6 

Social Democratic 86 5 9 

Communist 88 3 9 

U.S. 

1. (us Oct 26 '35) Should most federal government jobs be 
filled by appointment by the winning party or civil service 
examinations? (Feb 8 '36) Should government positions, except 
those concerned with important matters of policy, be given to 
those who help put their political party into office or those 
who receive the highest marks in civil service examinations? 
(aipo) 

Those who help Highest mark 
put their politi- on civil service 
cal party in office examinations 

Oct 26 '35 13%, 87%, 

Feb 8 '36 12 88 

1936 RESULTS BY POLITICS 

Democratic 15% 85% 

Republican 9 91 

Socialist 7 93 



[110] 



Those who help Highest mark 
put their politi- on civil service 
cal party in office examinations 



1936 RESULTS STATE BV STATE 



Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts- . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Montana 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

New Mexico. . . . 

New York 

North Carolina. . 
North Dakota. .. 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania. . . . 
Rhode Island. . . . 
South Carolina. , 
South Dakota. . . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia. . . 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



20% 

2 
16 

6 
11 

6 
22 

8 
14 

8 
13 
14 
15 
16 
20 
14 
10 
18 

6 

9 

7 

24 
13 
15 
13 



9 
14 

9 
17 
16 
14 
12 

4 
14 

3 

13 
17 
14 
12 
14 

4 
19 

8 
18 

7 
12 



80% 

98 

84 

94 

89 

94 

78 

92 

86 

92 

87 

86 

85 

84 

80 

86 

90 

82 

94 

91 

93 

76 

87 

85 

87 

91 

94 

91 

86 

91 

83 

84 

86 

88 

96 

86 

97 

87 

83 

86 

88 

86 

96 

81 

92 

82 

93 

88 



2. (US Feb 22 '36) Should all postmasters hereafter be selected 
by civil service examinations? (aipo) 

Yes No 

National total 86% 14% 



BY POLITICS 

Democratic 85% 

Republican 87 



15% 
13 



3. (US Feb 22 '36) Should all Washington employees of the 
emergency agencies created by the present administration be 
placed under civil service? (aipo) 

Yes No 

National total 69% 31% 



Yes No 

BY POLITICS 

Democratic 68% 32% 

Republican 71 29 

Socialist 71 29 

4. (US July 11 '36) Should husband and wife both be per- 
mitted to hold government jobs? (aipo) 

Yes 11% No 89% = 100% No opinion 5% 

5. (US July 11 '36) Should the entire post-office department, 
including the postmaster general, be put under civil service? 
(aipo) 

Yes No 

National total 86% 14% 

BY POLITICS 

Democratic 84% 16% 

Republican 88 12 

Labor union 87 13 

Socialist 88 12 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Farmers 82% 18% 

Small towns 84 16 

Cities 88 12 

6. (US Apr '37) Do you believe all government jobs, except 
Cabinet appointments, should be put under civil service and 
controlled by competitive examinations? (for) 

All (except Cabinet appointments) .... 49.2% 

All except major executive ones 96 

Most of them 11.0 

Some of them 11.5 

None of them 3.7 

Don't know 15-0 

7. (US June 28 '37) Would you like the CIO to organize civil 
service employees throughout the country? (aipo) 

Yes No 

National total 19% 81% 



BY POLITICS 



74% 

93 

78 

83% 

79 

84 

82 

76 

81 

78 



Democratic 26% 

Republican 7 

Others 22 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 17% 

Middle Atlantic 21 

East central 16 

West central 18 

South 24 

Mountain 19 

Pacific coast 22 

Civil service employees. . 29% 71% 

8. (US July 12 '37) Should government employees join labor 
unions? (Oct 7 '41) Should government employees be allowed 
to join labor unions? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

July '37 26% 74% — 

Oct '41 28 64 8% 

9. (US July 12 '37) Would you like to see them join the CIO 
or the AFL? Asked of a national cross-section of people who 
thought government employees should join labor unions. 26% 
of the sample is represented, (aipo) 

CIO 41% AFL 59% 



[Ill] 



10. (us Mar 21 '38) Would you favor placing all federal em- 
ployees, except department heads, under the civil service? The 
question was asked of a comparable cross-section with the 
phrase "except department heads" excluded. Results were 
combined. (Mar 26 '38) Except in the case of department 
heads, would you favor placing all federal employees under 
the civil service? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

Mar 21 '38 73% 16% .11% 

1^ Mar 26 '38 69 17 14 

11. (US Mar 26 '38) Except in the case of policy-making offi- 
cials, would you favor placing all federal employees under the 
civil service? (aipo) 



Yes 69% 



No 18% 



No opinion 13*; 



12. (US Nov 14 '38) Do you think officials in charge of relief 
should be under civil service? (aipo) 

No No opinion 

25% = 100% 197o 



Yes 
National total 75% 



BY POLITICS 

Democratic 73% 27% 

Republican 77 23 

WPA workers 76 24 

13. (US Jan 20 '39) Do you think the country would get 
better men to head government departments if the government 
paid higher salaries? (aipo) 
Yes 20% No 69% - No opinion 11% 



CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS 

1. (US Apr 18 '36) Are you in favor of the CCC camps? (aipo) 

Yes No 

National total 82% 18% 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 85% 15% 

Middle Atlantic 82 18 

East central 80 20 

West central 80 20 

South 83 17 

Mountain 83 17 

Pacific coast 87 13 

BY POLITICS 

Democratic 92% 8% 

Republican 67 33 

Socialist 79 21 

Third party 67 33 

2. (US Apr 18 '36 and Mar 23 '38*) Should military training 
be part of the duties of those who attend [CCC camps]? (aipo) 
(Mar 23 '38*) Do you think part of the duties of those who 
attend [CCC camps] should be training for war? (aipo) (Sept 
23 '38) Should military training be part of the duties of the 
young men in the CCC camps? (aipo) (Dec 2 '38) Do you 
think military training should be part of the duties of the 
boys in the CCC camps? (aipo) (Sept 11 '39) Do you think 
all young men in CCC camps should be required to have mili- 
tary training? (aipo) (Dec '39) Would you favor giving mili- 
tary training to the CCC boys? (for) (May 16 '40) Do you 
think that the CCC camps should give military training to 
every young man in the CCC? (aipo) 



Apr '36 

Mar 23 '38**. 
Mar 23'38t.. 

Sept '38 

Dec '38 



Yes 
77% 
75 
63 

77 
75 



Yes, if 
necessary 



Sept '39 53 

Dec '39.... 
May '40. . . . 



64.2 
85 



9.3% 



No 
23% 
25 

37 

23 

25 

47 

20.5 

15 



Don't 

know 

or no 

opinion 

- = 100% 



100% 7% 



100 



= 100 



100 



100 



— = 100 

5 

6.0 = 100 

7 



'36 RESULTS BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England . . 78% 22% 

74 26 

75 25 
69 31 

17 
25 



Middle Atlantic 
East central. . . . 
West central . . . 

South 83 

Mountain 75 



Pacific coast . 



73 



27 



3.6% 
8.5 

5.6% 
6.4 



APR '36 RESULTS BY POLITICS 

Democratic 80% • 20% 

Republican .... 74 26 

Socialist 43 57 

Third party. ... 59 41 

DEC '39 RESULTS BY SEX 

Men 67.2% 8.9% 20.3% 

Women 61.1 9.6 20.8 

DEC '39 RESULTS BY AGE 

Under 40 years . 63.1% 9.6% 21.7% 
Over 40 years . , 65.2 8.9 19.5 

* The two Mar 23 '38 questions asked by aipo were asked of separate 
but comparable cross-sections. 

** Results of first question. 

t Results of seconcf question. 

3. (US Mar 23 '38) Do you think CCC camps should be made 
permanent? (aipo) 

Yes No 

National total 78% 22% 

BY POLITICS 

Democratic 85% 15% 

Republican 62 38 

4. (US Jan 7 '39) Do you think government spending should 
be increased or decreased on CCC? (aipo) 

Increase 32% 

Decrease 16 

No opinion 11 

Remain same 41 

5. (US Sept 11 '39) Should the CCC camps be permitted to 
give military training to the young men who want it? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

National total 90% 10% = 100% 4% 

BY POLITICS 

Democratic • 90% 10% 

Republican 90 10 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper income group 91% 9% 

Lower income group 89 11 

6. (US Mar 31 '42) Should the CCC, in its present form, be 
done away with until the end of the war? (aipo) 

Yes 54% No 37% No opinion 9% 



L 



[lh>] 



CIVILIAN DEFENSE 



1. (Great Britain St-pt '39) Do you think ARP staffs should 
be voluntary, all be paid, or left as they are? (bipo) 

All voluntary 15% 

Voluntary, if warden can afford it. . . 28 

All paid 38 

Left as it is 19 

2. (US Dec 31 '40) Would you personally be willing to start, 
this week, doing any of the following to aid the defense pro- 
gram — spend live hours each week on some kind of defense 
work without pay, spend an hour each day training for home 

• guard, nursing, first aid work, ambulance driving, etc.? (aipo) 

Defense work without pay 

Yes 6(>% No 23% Don't know 11% 

Training for home guard, etc. 

Yes No Don't know 

National total 67% 22% 11% 

BY SEX 

Men 66% 22% 12% 

Women 68 22 10 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England and 

Mid-Atlantic 70% 20% 10% 

East central 65 25 10 

West central 57 25 18 

South 71 18 11 

West 70 20 10 

3. (Great Britain Jan '41) Is anyone in your family a fire- 
spotter or a member of a fire party? (bipo) 

Yes 49% No 50% Don't know 1% 

49% of the sample who said that a member of their family 
was a fire-spotter were asked: When did they join? (bipo) 

Joined since Morrison's appeal 60% 

Joined since the Sept blitz 26 

Joined between the beginning of the war and Sept '40. . 14 

100% of 
those who had fire-spotters in the family 

4. (US July 10 '41) Are you employed at the present time? Is 
your work in any way connected with national defense? Asked 
of a national cross-section of employers or employed, (opor) 

Yes, directly connected 5% 

Yes, indirectly 12 

No, not connected 43 

No answer to either question 6 

Not employed at present 34 

6. (US July 10 '41) Would you like to do something in your 
spare time without pay to help national defense? Asked of 
43% of a sample of employers or employed persons whose 
work was not connected with national defense, (opor) 

Already am 2% 

Undecided 4 

No answer 2 

Yes 27 

No 8 



6. (US July 10 '41) Can you think of anything that you, 
yourself, could do to help the defense program? Asked of 31% 
of the same sample who said their work was not connected 
with national defense but who would either like to or were 
undecided about doing volunteer defense work, (opor) 

Yes &% No 20% No answer 3% = 31% 

7. (Great Britain Aug 30 '41) Do you or do you not think 
that the present fire-watching arrangements are adequate? 
(bipo) 

Are adequate 47% Arc not adequate 32%, Don't know 21% 

8. (Great Britain Aug 30 '41) Do you think that they [fire- 
watching arrangements] are being properly carried out? (bipo) 
Yes 42% No 35% Don't know 23% 

9. (US Dec 10 '41, Jan 6 '42, Feb 23 '42) Outside of your 
regular employment, are you doing work in the civilian de- 
fense program such as air-raid warning, first aid, and the like? 
(aipo) (Mar 26 '42) Are you doing any work in the civilian 
defense program such as air raid warning, first aid, and the 
like? (opor) (Aug 21 '42, Nov 27 '42, Dec 30 '42, Apr 6 '43) 
Are you doing any civilian defense work, such as air-raid 
warning, first aid. Red Cross work, and the like? (norc) 

No, hut have Don't know 



Dec 


'41 


Jan 


'42 


Feb 


'42 


Mar 


'42 







signed up for 


or 


Yes 


No 


something 


no answer 


9% 


%1% 


9/0 


— 


16 


71 


12 


1% 


23 


66 


10 


1 


24 


68 


7 


1 


29 


69 


— 


2 


32 


65 


3 


* 


26 


72 


2 


— 


36 


63 


1 


* 



Aug '42 29 

Nov '42 

Dec '42 

Apr '43 

* Less than 0.5%. 

10. (US Dec 10 '41 and Jan 6 '42) Have you been called on 
yet to do any work? The 1941 question was asked of 9% of 
the sample who were doing civilian defense work and the 
1942 question was asked of 28% of the sample who were 
doing work in civilian defense programs or had signed up to 
do work, (aipo) 

Yes No No answer 

Dec '41 5% 4% — = 9% 

Jan '42 11 15 2% = 28 

11. (US Dec 10 '41) Have you received any special training 
[in civilian defense work] yet? Asked of 9% of the sample 
who were doing civilian defense work. (Jan 6 '42) Have you 
received any special training as yet? Asked of 28% of the 
sample who were doing work in civilian defense programs or 
had signed up to do some work, (aipo) 

Yes No 

Dec '41 4% 4% 



'41. 
Jan '42. 



17 



No answer 

1%= 9% 
2 



28 



43% 



12. (US Dec 18 '41) Have you thought of anything in par- 
ticular which you, personally, would like to do now for na- 
tional defense? (aipo) 

Yes, something in particular 28% 

Signed up for defense program 7 

No, nothing in particular 49 

Already working in the defense program 7 

Nothing, but willing 5 

No opinion 4 

13. (US Jan 28 '42) Is there any sort of volunteer war activity 
you would like to do, and would have time to do, but are 



i 



[113] 



not doing? (Aug 21 '42) Is there any sort of volunteer activity 
you would like to do, but haven't been given a chance to do? 
(norc) 

Yes No Don't know 

Jan '42 29% 65% 6% 

Aug '42 21 74 5 

14. (US Jan 28 '42) Do you think there are enough things to 
do around here for people who want to get into some sort of 
civilian defense work (that is, Red Cross, home defense courses, 
air raid wardens, etc.)? (norc) 

Yes 80% No 9% Don't know 11% 

15. (US Jan 28 '42) Now that we are at war, which of these 
two statements comes closest to your own feeling: 1 feel that 
I can serve the country best by doing my own job as well as 
I possibly can, and not trying to volunteer for a lot of extra 
things which I can't do nearly as well; I don't feel that just 
doing my job well is enough, I think I ought to volunteer for 
defense work whenever I possibly can, even if it means my 
own job may suffer a little bit. Each respondent was handed 
a card with the two statements printed on it. (norc) 

Doing job enough 59% 

Ought to volunteer 34 

Don't know 7 

16. (US Jan 28 '42 and Oct 6 '42) How do you feel about the 
way civilian defense is being run in your community? Do you 
think it is being run very well, only fairly well, or poorly? 
(norc) 

jan '42 results 

Very well 42% 

Only fairly well 20 

Poorly 8 

Don't know 29 

No answer 1 

24% of the October sample who thought civilian defense 
was being handled only fairly well and 8% who thought it 
was being handled poorly were asked further: What do you 
think might be done to make it better? Results of both Oct 
questions are tabulated below, (norc) 

OCT '42 RESULTS 

Arouse public interest 8% 

Better air-raid wardens needed 2 

Criticism of leadership and demand for improved leader- 
ship 5 

Community needs instruction 5 

All criticisms of organizations, methods, etc 3 

Need more air-raid wardens or other personnel 1 

Need more equipment 2 

Lack of interest among personnel 1 

Miscellaneous 2 

No suggestions 7 

Civilian defense very well handled 54 

Don't know how it is handled 14 



104%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

17. (US Feb 3 '42) Have you thought of anything in particular 
which you, personally, would like to do now for national de- 
fense? 42% of the sample who said they had thought of some- 
thing or who were already doing something were asked: What 
is it? (aipo) 

Civilian defense 9% 

Red Cross, sewing, knitting 6 

Taking a job in defense industry 6 



Buying defense bonds and stamps 5% 

Army, navy, coast guard, air corps 4 

Saving and giving money 1 

Knitting; sewing; nursing, etc 1 

Care of casualties; first aid 2 

Miscellaneous jobs 4 

Didn't say 4 

Have thought of nothing in particular 32 

Have thought of nothing but willing to do anything ... 23 

No opinion on the subject or no answer 3 

18. (US Feb 3 '42) Is it (would it be) [what you would like 
to do for the national defense program] full time or part time? 
Asked of 42% of the sample who had thought of something 
they would like to do for the program or were already doing 
something, (aipo) 

Full 12% Part 19% No answer 11% = 42% 

19. (US Feb 10 '42) Do you have any time which you could 
devote free to national defense outside your usual occupation? 
(aipo) 

Yes 44% 

No 39 

Already doing something. . . 16 

No answer 1 

20. (US Feb 10 '42) Should a committee be set up in each 
community to tell every citizen just what he should do as his 
part in winning the war and require him to do it? (aipo) 
Yes 55% No 33% No opinion 12% 

21. (US Feb 23 '42, Mar 10 '42, Oct 13 '42, July 7 '43) Should 
all men and women over eighteen who are not already in mili- 
tary service be required to register with the government for 
some kind of civilian defense or war work? The 1943 question 
read: Should all men and women between the ages of eighteen 
and sixty-five who are not already in, etc. (aipo) 

No opinion or 
Yes No Undecided 

Feb '42 82% 12% 6% 

Mar '42 80 14 6 

Oct '42 76 16 8 

July '43 59 33 8 

22. (US Feb 23 '42, Mar 10 '42, Mar 26 '42, Oct 13 '42) After 
finding out what each person can do, should the government 
have the power to tell each citizen what to do as his part in 
the war effort and require him or her to do it? The Feb '42 
and Oct '42 questions were asked of a national cross-section 
of people who favored national registration. 82% of the Feb 
and 76% of the Oct samples are represented, (aipo, opor) 

No opinion or 
Yes No Undecided 

aipo Feb '42 61% 32% 7% = 100%* 

aipo Mar 10 '42 58 33 9 =100* 

OPOR Mar 26 '42 67 27 6 =100* 

aipo Oct '42 53 36 11 =100* 

FEB '42 RESULTS BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 57% 36% 7% 

Middle Atlantic 60 33 7 

East central 56 35 9 

West central 62 32 6 

South 66 25 9 

Rocky mountain 69 24 7 

Pacific coast 63 33 4 

FEB '42 RESULTS BY SEX 

Men 66% 29% 5% 

Women 55 36 9 



[114] 



No 


No opinion or 
Undecided 


3Y AGE 




38% 

31 

30 


6% 

8 

8 



Yes 



21-29 years 56% 

30-49 years 61 

50 years and over 62 

FED '42 RESULTS DY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper income 62% 34% 4% 

Middle income 61 33 6 

Lower income 60 30 10 

FEB '42 RESULTS BY POLITICS 

Democratic 67% 26% 7% 

Republican 57 37 6 

* 100% of those questioned. 

23. (US Feb 23 '42) (Including the defense work you are al- 
ready doing,) what is the greatest number of hours a week 
you would be willing to spend doing defense work without 
pay? (aipo) 

Average per person 13 hours 

24. (Australia Mar '42) Has the government done enough 
toward using civilians for the war effort? (apop) 

Yes 26% No 61% Undecided 13% 

25. (US Mar 26 '42 and June 17 '42) Do you feel that you, 
personally, are doing something that is important in helping 
to win the war? 77% of the June sample who felt that they 
were doing something important were asked: What sort of 
thing are you doing? (opor) (Aug 21 '42) Do you feel that 
anything you, yourself, are now doing is helping the United 
States total war effort? (norc) 

mar and AUG '42 RESULTS 

Qualified Don't 
Yes No answer know 

Mar '42 56% 38% 6% — 

Aug '42 83 15 — 2% 

JUNE '42 results 
Civilian defense activities and courses; Red Cross; ra- 
tioning 11% 

Buying war stamps and bonds 39 

Saving materials 8 

Civilian war work; draft board; government adminis- 
trative work; defense job 9 

Armed forces 2 

Reducing purchases and consumption 2 

Raising farm products; farm woman 10 

Psychological and ideological work; morale building; 

religion; USO; etc 3 

Home guard; rifle practice; other militarv training; 

ROTC ' 1 

Working at usual job; just working; being a good citi- 
zen; taking care of my family; giving my son to the 

country 13 

Not doing anything 22 

No answer 1 



121%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

26. (US May '42) Are you doing any volunteer war work? 

If not, have you tried to get some? (for) 

Yes 31.6% No, but tried to get some 6.7% No 61.7% 

61.7% of the sample who had not tried to get volunteer 
work were asked why not. Results follow: (for) 



No time; because of jobs; children; etc 39. 5% 

Age or illness 17.3 

There's no organization; don't know where to go; etc. 6.6 

Have defense job or expect call to service 4.5 

Other; or no particular reason 32.1 



100. 07o 
of those who had not tried to get volunteer war work 

27. (Great Britain Sept 20 '42) Do you think that women 
should be compelled to do fire-watching at night on business 
premises? (bipo) 

Yes 22% 

No 53 

Don't know 5 

Qualified answers 20 

28. (Sweden Oct '42) Have you done any voluntary .prepara- 
tion work this summer? 7%: of the men and 6% of the women 
who said they had done some work were asked: What? (sgi) 



Men. 



BY SEX 

Farm Forest 

work work 

5.0% 0.5% 



Women 4.i 



Aircraft Have done 
guard nothing 

1.5% 93.0% 
1.2 94.0 



29. (Sweden Oct '42) How long [did you work on voluntary 
preparation this summer]? Asked of those who said they had 
done some work this summer — 7% of the men, 6% of the 
women, (sgi) 

A week or less 4% 

1-2 weeks 34 

3-4 weeks 21 

1-2 months 25 

Longer than 2 months 16 



100% of those who 
had done some voluntary preparation work 

30. (Great Britain Mar 1 '43) Do you think that the Home 
Guard should be disbanded at the end of the war, or should it 
continue after the war? (Aug '44) Do you think that the Home 
Guard may now be abolished or should it be continued? (bipo) 

Disbanded Don't 

or abolished Continued know 

Mar '43 57% 29% 14% 

Aug '44 51 37 12 

31. (Denmark May 9 '43) Are you for or against women's 
national preparedness? Asked of a national cross-section of 
people eighteen to twenty-five years of age. (dgi) 

For 63.1% Against 19.27;, Don't know 17.7% 

32. (US July 7 '43) If such a [national registration] law were 
passed, how do you think it would affect you — would you 
have to change your job, or do you think you would be per- 
mitted to go on doing what you are doing now? (aipo) 

Change job 18% 

What doing now 70 

No opinion 12 

33. (Sweden Aug '43) If Sweden should go to war, is it clear 
to you what you have to do at the outbreak of war? Have 
you been given any special job? If so, what? (sgi) 

Special Nothing special. No 

job but know what to do idea 

National total 54% 20% 26% 



[11.5] 



Special 
job 

BY SEX 

Men 72% 

Women 35 



Nothing special. No 

but know what to do idea 



15% 13% 

25 40 



34. (Sweden Aug '43) Have you or your family received tile 
pamphlet // War Comes? Have you read it? (sGi) 





Have received the 




Have not 




pamphlet and read 


Have received the 


received 




it throughout or 


pamphlet and have 


the 




partly 


not read it 


pamphlet 


National total. 


56% 

BY SEX 


11% 


33% 


Men 


59% 


8% 
15 


33% 
33 


Women 


52 



35. (Sweden Aug '43) Do you consider that joining the Home 
Guard should be voluntary or compulsory? Asked of a national 
cross-section of men. (sGi) 

Voluntary Compulsory Don't know 

National total 58% 26% 16% 

Total Home Guard 71 22 7 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

North Sweden 54% 32% 14% 

Malar district 61 25 14 

East Gotland 58 23 19 

West Gotland 61 25 14 

Skane 52 27 21 

36. (Sweden Feb '44) When did you last take part in your 
National Protection Society or any other air-protection unit? 

(SGI) 



National total 

Men 

Women 



Within 
the 
past 
week 

2% 

2% 
2 



In 
Janu- 
ary 

3% 



Au- 
tumn 
194} 
14% 



BY SEX 

3% 
3 



12% 
16 



Spring 
1943 
3% 

1% 
4 



Earlier 

than Never 

spring taken 

1943 part 

5% 73% 



5% 
5 



77% 
70 



BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Towns 3% 4% 18% 3% 7% 65% 

Country 1 2 12 2 3 80 

37. (Sweden Feb '44) Do you think that you have learned 
anything during these exercises [with air-protection units] 
that might be useful in case of war? Asked of 27% of the sam- 
ple who had taken part in air-protection exercises, (sgi) 

Yes No Don't know 

National total .. . 72% 16% 12% = 100% of 

those who had taken 
part in air-protection 
exercises 



BY SEX 

15% 
17 



10% 
13 



Men 75% 

Women 70 

38. (Sweden Feb '44) Do you think that the interest in these 
air-protection tests used to be greater than it is now? (sgi) 

Greater The same Less Don't know 

National total... 15% 32% 11% 42% 

BY SEX 

Men 17% 33% 11% 39% 

Women 12 31 11 46 



Greater The same Less Don't know 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Towns 22% 30% 11% 37% 

Country 11 33 10 46 

39. (Denmark Apr 29 '44) Are you for or against married 
(unmarried) women giving voluntary service in times of crisis, 
like now? (dgi) 

For Against Don't know 

Married women 67.9% 19.4% 12.7% 

Unmarried women 82.4 6.4 11.2 

40. (Denmark Apr 29 '44) All those who expressed any opinion 
on the subject of married or unmarried women giving volun- 
tary service in times of crisis were asked: What is the motive 
for your point of view? (dgi) 

Opinions of those who disapprove of all women 
giving voluntary service 

Women should be kept out of the war 37-3% 

The auxiliary service should be run by specially trained, 

paid women 11.0 

No one should help war 6.8 

Women unfit for this kind of work 5.1 

War work only for men 1.7 

Women should stop the war by refusing to partake. . . 4.2 

No reason 33.9 



100.0%* 
Opinions of those who disapproved of married women giving 
voluntary service hut favored it for unmarried women 

Married women should stay at home 57.9% 

Unmarried women have more time 28.8 

No reason 13.3 



100.0%* 



Opinions of those who favored both married and 
unmarried women giving voluntary service 

All must help in times of crisis 443% 

It is women's duty 19.8 

It is help for society 10.8 

It is necessary 5-9 

When it is voluntary, those who have time and incli- 
nation can help 4.9 

Equal rights and equal duties for men and women. . . . 3.6 
Many problems in the auxiliary service can best be 

solved by women 2.5 

We ought to be prepared in case of catastrophy 2.0 

It is a worthy job 1 .6 

All women without children should help 1.9 

This help should be given out of interest 0.6 

Voluntary services usually good 1.3 

Many women have enough time 0.8 



100.0%* 

* Percentages are based in each case on the number of respondents 
holding that particular opinion. In the case of the group who approved 
of all women giving voluntary service, 39-4% of the sample who gave 
no reason have been excluded from the percentages. 

41. (US Aug '44) Do you think the leaders in our country 
(newspapers) have given you a good idea of what things you 
personally can do to help the war effort? (norc) 

Yes 

Leaders 84% 

Newspapers 80 



No 


Don't know 


10% 
LI 


6% 
9 



[IIG] 



42. (Sweden Sept '45) Do you think that the building oi air 
raid shelters in dwelling houses and shooting practice should 
gradually be a part of our preparation for defense? (sgi) 

Building of Air Raid Shelters in Dwelling Houses 



National total . 



Should 

continue 

36% 



Should 
stop 

42% 



BY SEX 

Women 37% 34% 



Men. 



34 



51 



DY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Large towns 37% 48% 

Other towns 42 42 

Country 33 40 

Civil shooting practice 

National total . . . 42% 35% 

DY SEX 

Women 42% 29% 

Men 42 41 



Doesn't 
matter 

9% 
10% 



6% 
6 
11 



9% 

9% 
9 



Don't 
know 

13% 

19% 

7 

9% 
10 
16 

14% 
20% 



BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Large towns 40% 44% 6% 10% 

Other towns 48 35 7 10 

Country 40 33 11 16 

43. (Sweden Sept '45) Why [do you think the building of air 
raid shelters in homes and shooting practice should stop]? 
Asked of those who thought these practices should stop — 
42% of the sample in the case of building air raid shelters, 
35% in the case of shooting practice, (sgi) 
Building air raid shelters in dwelling houses 

Valueless because of development of weapons 13% 

The war is just over; more important to pursue peaceful 

tasks 17 

Stop now, it can easily be continued if necessary — 

The peace will last; never war again 5 

Other replies 1 

Vague answers 6 

42% 
Shooting practice 

Valueless because of the development of weapons 8% 

The war is just over; more important to pursue peaceful 

tasks 11 

Stop now, it can easily be continued if necessary 4 

The peace will last; never war again 5 

Other replies 1 

Vague answers 6 

35% 



CIVILIZATION 



1. (France June '39) Do you think that a general war would 

bring on the destruction of civilization? (fipo) 

Yes 73% No 20% No opinion 7% 



CLASS DISTINCTION 



1. (US Mar 3 '39 and June 24 '41) To what social class in this 
country do you feel you belong — middle class, or upper, or 



lower? (aipo) (Sweden June '43) Dividing the nation into four 
classes of society, the upper class, the upper middle class, the 
middle class, workers and those of similar standing, to which 
class do you consider that you belong? (sgi) (US Feb 13 '46) 
If you were asked to use one of these four names for your social 
class, which would you say you belong in: the middle class, 
lower class, working class, or upper class? (aipo) 

US US Sweden 

Mar "i9 June '41 June '4'i 



Upper 6% 

Upper middle 14 

Middle 63 

Lower middle 11 

Lower 6 

Workers — 

Don't know — 

No answer — 



4.9% 
10.5 
65.8 
11.1 

7.7 



1% 
3 
24 



57 
15 



US 
Feb '46 

4% 



Upper 
class 



Upper 
middle 



Middle 
class 



Workers 
etc. 



SWEDISH OPINION BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Towns 1% 5% 27% 55% 

Country — 2 22 59 

SWEDISH OPINION BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher class 14% 35% 31% 4% 

Middle class — 3 50 27 

Workers, etc — — 5 84 



36 

5 

51 

3 

1 

Don't 
know 

17 



16% 

20 

11 



2. (US July 8 '39) How much weekly income do you think 
puts a family in the upper-income (lower-income) group — 
everything above (below) how many dollars per week? (aipo) 



UPPER-INCOME GROUP 

No answer 10% 

Under $20 

$21-$25 

$26-$30 

$31-$35 

$36-$40 

$41-$49 

$50 

$51-$60 

$61-$75 

$76-$99 

$100 



2 
5 
4 
5 
8 
3 

24 
5 

12 
2 

13 



LOWER-INCOME GROUP 

No answer 10% 

$1.00-$10 8 

$11-$15 16 

$16-$20 20 

$21-$25 24 

$26-$30 8 

$31-$35 5 

$36-$40 3 

$41-$50 4 

Over $50 2 



Over $100 7 

3. (US Feb "40) What word would you use to name the class 
in America you belong to? (for) 

Upper 1.6% 

Other upper* 1.3 

Upper middle 1.7 

Other upper middle* 0.8 

Middle 38.6 

Other middle* 5.5 

Lower middle 0.4 

Lower 1.2 

Other lower* 2.8 

Working; laboring 10.6 

Unemployed; idle; unfortunate 0.3 

Business; executive; professional; white-collar.. 2.0 

Other miscellaneous answers* . 5.7 

Don't know 27.5 

* Words without asterisks are the ones actually given. Other upper 
includes such words as best, highest, etc.; other upper middle such 
words as above average, better, etc.; other middle such words as mod- 
erate, normal, etc.; other lower such words as poor, poorest, pauper, 
etc. 



[117] 



4. (US Feb '40) If you had to describe the class to which you 
belong with one of these three words, which would you pick? 
Asked of the 56.5% of the sample who did not use the actual 
words "upper," "middle," or "lower." (for) 



_. Upper Middle Lower 
W class class class 
Percentage of answers 10.6% 68.2% 11.9% 
Percentage of popula- 
tion including pre- 
vious answers 7.6 79.2 7.9 



Don't 

know 

9.3% 
5.3 



100* 



SELF-CLASSIFICATION BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Prosperous 23.6% 74.7% 

Upper middle 7.9 89.0 

Lower middle 4.6 894 

Poor 4.5 70.3 

Negro 16.1 35.7 

* 100% of those who did not use the actua 
die," or "lower." 

** 100% of the sample. 

5. (Sweden June '43) What do you think is the chief 
for the class distinctions which we have in this country 



0.3% 


1.4% 


0.6 


2.5 


3.1 


2.9 


19.1 


6.1 


26.2 


22.0 


ctual words "uppei 



reason 

? (SGI) 












National total . 



40% 10% 5% 



BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 






5% 4% 



a -5 
31% 



¥ 



Towns 42% 12% 6% 6% 4% 4% 26% 

Country 39 9 4 5 7 3 33 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 25% 23% 6% 8% 5% 8% 25% 

Middle class 35 12 4 6 6 6 31 

Workers 45 8 5 4 5 2 31 

6. (Sweden June '43) What [social class] was (is) your father? 
(sGi) 

Middle 
Well-off class Workers 

National total 5% 50% 45% 



BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 



Cities . . . 

Country . 



Well-off 54% 

Middle class 

Workers, etc 

Total interviewed were 



10% 


40% 


50% 


2 


57 


41 


; STATUS 






54% 


39% 


7% 


5 


72 


23 


— 


35 


65 



38 



57 



7. (Finland Mar 29 '46) Do you think that the difference be- 
tween the various classes of society now is less, just as great, 
or greater than before the war? (fgi) 

Less 41% 

Just as great 24 

Greater 15 

Don't know 20 



CLERGY 



1. (Sweden June '44) Do you think that the community should 

choose its own vicar, or do you consider that it would be better 

if he were chosen by the authorities without any election 

within the community? (soi) 

National 
total 

Vicar should be chosen by election. . 77% 

Vicar should be appointed by the au- 
thorities without election 7 

Vicar should be appointed by the au- 
thorities guided by an election. 



Men 



Women 
78% 



3 
Don't know 13 



4 
11 



4 
14 



2. (Germany Mar 8 '46) Do you think that the church warned 
the German people emphatically enough not to give its vote 
to the National Socialists? (omgus) 

Yes 34% 

No 40 

Don't know, can't say, no opinion. . 26 

3. (Sweden Apr '46) Do you think that women are just as 
suited as men to be clergymen and spiritual advisers? (soi) 



National total. 



fust as 

suited 

(or more) 

40% 



Equally 

suited in 

certain 

respect: 

7% 



BY SEX 

Women 41% 7% 

Men 39 7 



Not 
equally 
suited 

44% 

43% 
45 



20-29 years 38% 

30-49 years 42 

50-64 years 40 



4% 



Don't 

know 

9% 
9% 



10% 



42 
42 



4. (Germany Dec 10 '46) Do you think that the church today 
has too great or too little influence on politics? (omgus) 

Too great 32% 

Too little 7 

Just right 43 

No opinion 18 

No answer * 

* Less than 0.5%o- 



CLOTHING AND DRESS 



1. (US June 7 '39) Do you think it is indecent for women to 
wear shorts for street wear? A comparable cross-section was 
asked the question in the following form: Do you think it is 
all right for women to wear shorts on the streets? Results were 
combined, (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

National total 63% 37% = 100% 5% 



Men. . . 
Women , 



BY SEX 




57% 


43% 


70 


30 



[118] 



2. (US June 7 '39) Do you think it is indecent for men to 

wear topless bathing suits (trunks without shirts) for swim- 
ming? A comparable cross-section was asked the question in 
the following form: Do you think it is all right for men to 
wear topless bathing suits (trunks without shirts) for swim- 
ming? Results were combined, (aipo) 
Yes 33% No 67% = 100% No opinion 4%, 

3. (Great Britain Mar '40) Do you approve or disapprove of 
women appearing in public in trousers? (bipo) 

Approve 15% 

Disapprove 48 

Do not mind 34 

No opinion 3 

4. (US Aug 5 '41) Have you given any thought to what you 
will do about the silk shortage yourself? 51% of the sample 
of women who said they had given the matter some thought 
were asked: What? (aipo) 

Use a substitute; use the next thing they have. . , . 12% 

Use cotton 13 

Will do without 12 

Wear lisle stockings 1 

Have already bought some 2 

Wear nylons 2 

Buy a large supply 1 

Wear ankle socks 1 

Never use it anyway 2 

Other answers 2 

Haven't given it any thought 45 

Didn't answer first question 4 

Didn't answer second question 3 

5. (US Aug 5 '41) In view of the shortage of silk, would you 
approve of women going without stockings? (aipo) 

Yes 53%, No 41%, No opinion 6% 

6. (US Jan 23 '42) Do you think there will be a shortage of 
any kind of clothing within the next vear? 68% of the sample 
who thought there would be a shortage were asked: What 
kind? (alpo) 

No, no shortage 31% 

Woolens; heavy clothing; woolen garments 45 

Silks; stockings; silk dresses 30 

Cotton; gabardine; overalls; men's shirts 7 

Rubber goods; girdles; rubbers; lastex 6 

Leather goods; shoes 4 

Suits; parts of suits (no vest, trouser cuffs) 2 

Rayon; nylon; other synthetic goods 2 

Everything; all kinds 3 

Linens 1 

Miscellaneous 2 

Think there will be a shortage of some kind of clothing 

but didn't say what clothing 3 

No answer 1 



* Percentages add to more than ICX) because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

7. (Canada May 13 '42) Have you been accustomed to buying 
two pairs of trousers with your suits or just one? (cipo) 



One pair 43% 



Two pairs 48*^ 



Both 9% 



8. (Canada May 13 '42) Do you feel the recent government 
legislation limiting all suits to one pair of trousers will save 
any material? (cipo) 
Yes 38%, No 49% Don't know 13% 



9. (Canada May 16 '42) How many wearable dresses (or suits 
of clothes) do you have in your wardrobe in the course of a 
normal year? (cipo) 

Men Women 

1 suit 23% 5 dresses or fewer 50% 

2 suits 38 6 to 10 dresses 37 

3 suits 22 11 dresses or more 13 

4 suits 10 

5 suits or more 7 

10. (Canada May 16 '42) How many dresses (suits of clothes) 
would you have to buy to just get along on that number 
during the coming year? (cipo) 

Men Women 

No suits 33% No dresses 22% 

1 suit 55 1 dress 20 

2 suits 10 2 dresses 29 

3 suits 1 3 dresses 14 

4 suits or more 1 4 dresses 9 

5 dresses or more 6 

11. (Canada May 16 '42) If there should be a general ration- 
ing of clothing because of shortages of labor or materials, 
what is the smallest number of dresses (suits of clothes) you 
could get along with in any one year? (cipo) 

Men Women 

1 suit 48% 5 dresses or fewer 78% 

2 suits 40 6 to 10 dresses 20 

3 suits 8 11 dresses or more 2 

4 suits 2 

5 suits or more 2 

12. (Sweden Aug '42) How many coupons have you left on 
your clothing card? (sgi) 



Men . . . 
Women. 



A COUPONS 

Have Have 

coupons none 

76% 24% 

71 29 



B COUPONS 

Have Have 

coupons none 

79% 21% 

68 32 



13. (Australia Sept and Sept-Oct '42) How many of your first 
fifty-six clothing coupons have you left? The question was 
asked first in August and again at the end of October. The 
second time was eleven weeks after clothes rationing began — 
providing 2}^ coupons a week, (apop) 



AUGUST 

Men Women 

Had all coupons left 6% 2% 

Had between 50 and 55 left 4 2 

Had between 40 and 49 left 9 4 

Had between 30 and 39 left 9 7 

Had between 20 and 29 left 16 14 

Had between 10 and 19 left 16 19 

Had between 1 and 9 left . . 16 22 

Had used all 56 coupons. . . 24 30 



OCTOBER 

Men Women 

24% 7% 

7 7 

17 17 

15 18 

15 20 

9 14 

5 9 



14. (Australia Sept '42) Do you think your ration coupons 
will allow you to keep up something like your usual standard 
of clothes? (apop) 

Undecided or 
Yes No don't know 

National total 54%, 41% 5% 



Men . . . 
Women. 



Y SEX 




55% 


40% 


52 


43 



5% 
5 



[119] 



15. (Australia Nov '42) Have you any strong objection to the 
absence of a waistcoat from the victory suit? (apop) 

No strong objection 58% 

Did object 32 

Undecided 5 

No answer 5 

16. (US May 22 '43) As the war goes on, do you think you'll 
have to cut down on the amount of clothes you've been buying, 
or do you expect to get just as much as now? 60% of the sample 
who said they thought they'd have to cut down were asked: 
Will this be because you can't get enough, or because prices 
will be too high, or for some other reason? (norc) 

Can't get enough , 33% 

Prices too high 26 

Cost of other items too high; income too low 2 

Don't need any clothes 2 

Clothes rationing will prevent 2 

Quality is poor 1 

Buying war bonds 1 

Other patriotic reasons 5 

Miscellaneous 1 

Will get as much as now 38 

Don't know whether or not will have to cut down. ... 2 



113%* 



* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

17. (US May 22 '43) Do you think you'll be able to get all 
the clothes you'll actually need? Asked of 60% of the sample 
who thought they would have to cut down on the amount 
of clothes they had been buying, (norc) 

Yes 51% No 6% Don't know 3% = 60% 

18. (Australia Oct '43) Do you think coupon ratings for clothes 
are reasonably fair? 43% of the sample — 40% of the men and 
45% of the women — who thought they were not fair were 
asked: What is the most important change you would suggest? 
(apop) 

Men Women 
Lower rating for: 

Men's wear 7% 4% 

Working clothes 9 2 

Underwear 2 5 

Children's wear 3 3 

Lower all ratings 11 11 

Separate ratings for linen 6 19 

Improve quality 2 1 

Think ratings are all right now. . 60 55 

19. (US Jan 7 '44) How about clothing prices? Have they 
changed since last summer? (June 23 '44) As far as you know, 
have clothing prices changed? 66% of the January sample and 
65% of the June sample who said they had changed were asked: 
Have they gone up or down? (norc) 

Jan '44 

Have gone up 65% 

Gone down * 

Some up, some down 1 

Haven't changed 17 

Changed, but don't know how. . . * 
Don't know whether or not they 

have changed 17 

* Less than 0.5%. 

20. (US Jan 7 '44) What kind of clothes in particular have 
you noticed going up? Asked of 66% of the sample who said 
clothing prices had gone up or that some had gone up and 
some down, (norc) 



June '44 

64% 
* 

1 
21 



14 



Dresses 18% 

Underwear 11 

Shoes (including boots). .. . 11 

Suits 9 

Coats and overcoats 9 

Yard goods 7 

Shirts 6 

Pants and overalls 6 

Stockings 5 

Sweaters and jackets 2 

Miscellaneous 14 

Practically all clothing 14 

Don't know 2 



114%* 



* Percentages add to more than 66 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

21. (Great Britain Aug '44) Did you have any of your old 
clothing coupons left at the beginning of this month? (dipo) 



Yes 40% 



No 55^ 



Don't know 5% 



22. (Great Britain Aug '44) How many clothing coupons did 
you spend during the iirst week of August? (bipo) 

Median 4 coupons 

23. (Great Britain Aug '44) Have you bought any utility 
clothes (excluding stockings)? (bipo) 

Yes 80% No 19%, Don't know 1% 

24. (Great Britain Aug '44) Would you like to see them [utility 
clothes] continued after the war? (bipo) 

Yes 33% No 67% 

25. (France Jan 16 '45) Which of the following articles would 
you like to be able to buy first: socks or stockings, shoes, suit 
or dress, underwear, overcoat, or work clothes? (fipo) 

Paris Provinces 

Shoes 30% 32% 

Underwear 21- 18 

Suit or dress 17 17 

Overcoat 13 10 

Work clothes 5 16 

Socks or stockings 5 5 

No answer 9 2 

26. (Great Britain Feb '45) Did you have any old clothing 
coupons left at the beginning of February? (bipo) 

Yes 40% No 55% Don't know 5% 

27. (Great Britain Feb '45) How many clothing coupons did 
you spend during the first week of February? (bipo) 

Median 5 coupons 

28. (Great Britain Aug 26 '45) What do you think is the 
main cause of the clothing shortage? (bipo) 

Shortage of labor . 35% 

Low wages to workers; poor working conditions 3 

World shortage of materials 12 

Lack of shipping to bring in supplies 3 

Inevitable consequence of war 5 

Equipment for the forces and demobilized men and women 14 

Materials being sent abroad; exports 8 

Government restrictions; red tape 6 

Obsolete machinery 1 

Black market; coupon rackets 2 

Miscellaneous 4 

No answer; don't know 7 



[ i^^o ] 



29. (Canada Dec 12 '45) Do you think women's hats are get- 
ting better or worse than they were a few years back? (cipo) 

No 
Better Worse difference Undecided 

DY SEX 

Men 

Women 



20% 35% 


28% 


17% 


36 33 


27 


4 


BY AGE 






38% 27% 


28% 


7% 


30 31 


30 


9 


22 41 


24 


13 



21-29 years 

30-49 years 30 

50 years and over. . 22 

30. (Netherlands Dec 12 '45) In general are you satisfied or 
dissatisfied with the system and working of textile distribu- 
tion? (nipo) 

Dissatisfied 63% Satisfied 25% No opinion 12% 

31. (Finland Jan 4 '46) Do you own the following winter 
clothing? (fgi) 

Have not Have 
Winter coat, cape, or other suitable outdoor 

apparel 11% 89% 

Winter cap 18 82 

Woolen stockings (socks) 16 84 

Winter shoes 22 78 

Winter gloves 12 88 

32. (Netherlands Apr 27 '46) Do you urgently need new cloth- 
ing and linen or could you manage with what you have a 
little longer? (nipo) 

Need Could manage 



National total . 



new textiles 
very urgently 
■ "70% 



a little 
longer 

29% 



No 
answer 

1% 



BY OCCUPATION 

Workers 83% 17% 

Farmers 78 22 

Civil servants 65 35 

Office assistants 62 38 

Independent middle class. . 59 41 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Lower incomes 79% 20% 

Middle incomes 53 47 

Higher incomes 35 64 



1% 
1 



33. (Hungary June '46) Have you managed to get new cloth- 
ing this year? Asked of Budapest residents and suburban people. 
(hipor) 



Yes No 

BY TYPE OF INCOME AND SEX 



Fixed income 

Men 

Women 

Variable income 

Men 

Women 



17.6% 
20.4 

23.8 
28.0 



Other, 
no answer 



0.3% 



BY' AGE 

Under 40 years 

Men 20.5% 

Women 22.9 

Over 40 years 

Men 17.2 

Women 20.2 



79.6 

76.2 
72.0 



79.3% 
77.1 

82.8 
79 8 



0.2% 



34. (Hungary June '46) Do you hope to be able to supply the 
deficiency in your clothing this year? Asked of Budapest resi- 
dents and suburban people, (hipor) 





Yes 


No 


no answer 


1 


BY TYPE OF INCOME AND 


SEX 




Fixed income 








Men 


41.9% 


58.0% 


0.1% 


Women 


40.2 


59.6 


0.2 


Variable income 








Men 


45.1 


54.5 


0.4 


Women 


40.8 


58.0 


1.2 




BY' AGE AND SEX 




Under 40 years 








Men 


41.6% 


58.3% 
57.0 


0.1% 
0.3 


Women 


42.7 


Over 40 years 








Men 


47.0 


52.6 


0.4 


Women 


31.0 


68.2 


0.8 



35. (Germany July 25 '46) Is your work especially hard on 
your shoes or your clothes? (omgus) 

Yes, shoes 10% 

Yes, clothes 7 

No, neither 39 

Yes, shoes and clothes 44 

No answer * 

* Less than 0.5%. 

36. (Germany July 25 '46) Has lack of suitable clothing or 
shoes so far hindered you from following your profession? 
(omgus) 

Yes, lack of shoes 6% 

Yes, lack of clothes 1 

No, neither 90 

Yes, both 3 

37. (Germany July 25 '46) Did lack of suitable shoes or clothes 
prevent you from accepting a certain type of work? (omgus) 
Yes 4% No 96% No answer * 

* Less than 0.5% 

38. (Belgium July-Oct '46) When buying material are you 
aware of, or do you take note of the official price (maximum 
legal price)? (insoc) 

Don't 
Never know 
24.8% 13.3% 



National total 



Always 



Often 
15.0% 



Karely 
12.2% 



BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 



Rural 33.9 14.8 13.5 

Industrial 36.9 16.1 11.2 



26.2 
21.0 



13.8% 

11.6 

14.8 



BY OCCUPATION 



Farmers 32.8% 17.4% 12.2% 26.1% 11.5% 

Workers 32.7 15-4 12.5 20.5 18.9 

White-collar 28.7 16.8 14.8 25.5 14.2 

Businessmen 436 10.2 10.2 22.5 13.5 

Professional 22.0 14.3 7.7 40.6 15-4 

Living on income . 38.9 11.7 9.3 25.3 14.8 

Housewives 39.3 153 131 28.0 4.3 

39. (Belgium July-Oct '46) Did you ever buy [material] with- 
out ration stamps or certificates? (insoc) 

Don't 
Often Karely Never know 

National total 27.0% 30.5% 34.7% 7.8% 



[121] 



Often 



Rarely 



BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Urban 27.8% 26.7% 

Rural 31.0 32.6 

Industrial 19.8 34.7 



Farmers 

Workers 

White-collar 

Businessmen 

Professional 

Living on income. 
Housewives 



BY OCCUPATION 

41.9% 26.9% 



19.4 
25.1 
35.4 
45.1 
17.3 
27.0 



31.9 
37.0 
31.2 
20.8 
21.0 
31.0 



Never 

36.6% 

30.4 

37.0 

24.5% 

38.0 

305 

22.8 

24.2 

54.3 

39.2 



Don't 
know 

8.9% 

6.0 

8.5 

6.7% 
10.7 

7.4 
10.6 

9.9 

7.4 

2 8 



40. (Hungary Aug '46) Are you able to supply deficiencies in 
clothing from your forint income? Asked of Budapest residents 
and suburban people, (hipor) 

Not 

yet. No Other, 
but opinion no 
Yes No Partly hope yet answer 

men's opinions by TYPE OF INCOME 

Fixed income 

17.2% 67.7% 15.1% - - - 



Higher income . , 
Lower income. . . 
Variable income 
Higher income. , 
Lower income. . , 
Lowest income. . 



19.0 70.2 6.2 • 2.8% 1.8% 



39.7 
20.3 

7.7 



45.6 
68.4 
85.6 



12.2 
59 

4.8 



0.8 
2.9 
1.9 



1.7 
2.5 



women s opinions by type of income 

Fixed income 

Higher income.. 21.0% 68.5% 3.5% 3.5% 3.5% — 

Lower income... 24.8 67.2 4.6 — 1.5 1.9% 

Variable income 

Higher income . . 38.8 46.2 7.5 — 7-5 — 

Lower income. , . 31.4 57.0 8.3 — 3.3 — 

Lowest income. . 14.8 81.2 — 2.7 1.3 — 

41. (Hungary Sept '46) Are you now able to buy sufficient 
clothing? (hipor) 

Yes 21%, 

No 42 

Partly 28 

Uncertain 9 

42. (Netherlands Sept '46) How long do you think it will 
take before all clothing can be bought without rationing? 
(nipo) 

Under 1 year 1% 

1 year 14 

1-2 years 5 

2 years 31 

2-3 years 3 

3 years 20 

4 years 9 

5 years 8 

6 and more years 4 

Don't know 5 

43. (US Sept 11 '46) Do you think the present price ceilings 
should be kept on or taken off the following items? Among 
others was listed: Clothing? (alpo) 

Kept on 49% Taken off 44% No opinion 7% 

44. (Hungary Oct '46) What textile goods do you need most? 
Asked of Budapest residents, (hipor) 



Men Women 

Woolen material 28.3% 24.2% 

Linen 13.6 11.8 

Jerseys; knitted goods 12.9 11.9 

Flannel 0.9 2.4 

Cloth 2.7 1.1 

Cotton 1.0 2.6 

Silk 2.8 6.8 

Yarn 0.5 1.2 

Underwear 18.3 15.9 

Stockings, socks 5-2 10.0 

Suits, dresses 6.4 5.8 

Damask 2.1 3.9 

Other; no answer 5.3 2.4 

45. (Hungary Oct '46) What color do you like best for your 

dresses or suits? Asked of Budapest residents, (hipor) 



For Slimmer 

Green 

White 

Light colors. . . 

Blue 

Red, pink 

Tan, yellow. . . 

Grey 

Black 

Variegated 
prints 

Makes no dif- 
ference 

Other; no 
answer 



Men 

0.3% 
18.4 
14.4 

2.2 

12.5 

33.9 

1.6 



BY 

Women 

1.3% 
23.3 
11.3 
19.6 
10.0 

4.0 

4.5 

3.1 



sex 

For ivinter Men 

Medium blue. . 0.2% 

Dark blue 14.0 

Brown 14.0 



Women 

1.3% 
27.1 
18.6 

5.2 

9.6 
21.2 

9.7 



0.7 17.6 

10.3 2.5 

5.7 2.8 



Dark green. . . . 0.6 

Dark grey 33.6 

Black 12.8 

Dark colors . . . 13.0 

Black striped. . 0.6 
Grey striped 
Whatever 

there is 9.0 

Other; no 

answer 2.2 5.4 



— 0.5 



1.4 



46. (US Oct 10 '46) Should the Congress to be elected this 

November keep or do away with price control on clothing? 

(aipo) 

Keep 33% Do away 61% No opinion 6% 



CLUBS 



1. (Denmark Mar 4 '43) Are you a member of any club for 
young people? Asked of a national cross-section of people aged 
eighteen to twenty-fivt years, (dgi) 

Yes 42.2% No 57.87o 

2. (Denmark Mar 4 '43) Which ones [clubs]? Asked of 42.2% 
of the sample of people aged eighteen to twenty-five years 
who said they belonged to a club for young people, (dgi) 

Sport clubs 48.4% 

Political societies 17.1 

Trade unions 6.2 

Christian associations 9.1 

Other clubs for young people. . 19.2 



100.0% of the club 
members 

3. (Denmark Mar 4 '43) Why did you join that club? Asked 
of 42.2% of the sample of people aged eighteen to twenty-five 
years who said they were members of a club for young people. 
(dgi) 



[122] 



Interested in sports 40.1% 

Reasons of health 1.9 

Open air life 3.3 

Cheap holiday 2.5 

Meet chums 15.2 

Utilize spare time 15 

Interested in a certain subject , 5 4 

Political interest 9.1 

Through school, parents, etc. . 3.7 

Reunions, dances 7.0 

Lectures 1.1 

Personal attitude 5.1 

Don't know 4.1 



100.0% of the club 
members 

4. (Germany Nov 25 '46) Have you heard anything about the 
program of the American army to promote German youth 
organizations? (omgus) 

Yes 55% No 45% No answer * 

* Less than 0.57o- 

5. (Germany Nov 25 '46) What do you think is the most 
important part of this program [of the American army to pro- 
mote German youth organizations] — that it teaches children 
about the American way of life or that it takes up their spare 
time, or takes them off the street? (omgus) 

Teaches about American way of life. . 26% 

Takes up spare time 19 

Takes them off streets 41 

Qualified answers 1 

No answer 1 

No opinion 12 



COFFEE 



1. (us Jan 20 '43) At the present time, are you buying all the 
coffee that your ration books entitle your family to? Asked of 
a national cross-section of women, (norc) 

Yes 85% No 14% Don't know 1% 

2. (US Jan 20 '43) Do your ration books allow you more 
coffee than you need for your family, or about the right amount, 
or less than you need? Asked of a national cross-section of 
women, (norc) 

More 13% 

About right 47 

Less 39 

Don't know 1 

3. (US Jan 20 '43) Right now, are you buying more coffee per 
person, or not as much as you did before it was rationed? 
Asked of a national cross-section of women, (noec) 

More 4% 

About same 38 

Not as much 56 

Don't know 2 



COMMERCE 



1. (us Oct 19 '35) What steps, in your opinion, should America 
take to remain neutral — prohibit all trade with nations at war; 



prohibit trade in war materials only; place no restrictions on 
trade? (aipo) 

Prohibit all Prohibit trade 
trade ivith na- hi war mate- No 

tiotis at war rials only restrictions 
National total 47% 37% 16% 



BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 41% 41% 

Middle Atlantic 43 36 

East central 44 39 

West central 52 36 

South 52 35 

Mountain 49 38 

Pacific coast 50 36 

BY POLITICS 

Republican 46% 35% 

Democratic 47 38 



18% 

21 

17 

12 

13 

13 

14 

19% 
15 



2. (US Jan '36) If one nation insists on attacking another, do 
you think we should join other nations in refusing to trade 
with the attacking nation? (for) 



Yes 47.9'? 



No 40.8% 



Don't know 11.3% 



3. (US Jan '36) Would you be willing to fight or to have a 
member of your family fight in case our foreign trade were 
seriously interfered vvith by force? (for) 

Yes No Don't know 

National total 34.4% 53.8% 11.8% 



Men . . . 
Women, 



BY SEX 

41.0% 
27.1 



48.4% 
59.7 



BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

Northeast 33.6% 51.2% 

Southwest 365 552 

West 48.2 34.9 



10.6% 
13.2 

15.2% 
8.3 
16.9 



4. (US Jan 25 '37) Should Congress renew the President's 
power to make trade agreements abroad? (aipo) 

Yes 64% No 36% = 100% No opinion 25% 

5. (Great Britain Dec '37) Would you like to see a trade agree- 
ment reached with the United States? (bipo) 

Yes 96% No 4% = 100% No opinion 32% 

6. (US Feb 14 '38) Have you heard about Secretary Hull's 
efforts to make trade treaties with other countries? (aipo) 
Yes 49% No 51% = 100% No opinion 1% 

7. (US Feb 14 '38) Do you approve of Secretary Hull's policy 
in seeking a reciprocal trade agreement with Great Britain? 
Asked of a national cross-section of people who had heard 
about Hull's efforts to make treaties with other countries. 
49% of the sample is represented, (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

National total 73% 27% = 100% 18% 

BY POLITICS 

Democratic 79% 21% 

Republican 61 39 

8. (US Apr '38) Are you in favor of boycotting Japan by re- 
fusing to buy Japanese goods? (for) (May 18 '39) Would you 
join a movement in this country to stop buying goods made 
in Japan? (aipo) 

Yes No Partly Don t know 

Apr '38 57.5% 25.0% 7.8% 9.7% 

May '39 66 34 — — 



[123] 



9. (US Sept 23 '38, Nov 22 '38, Mar 21 '39) Would you join 

a movement in this country to stop buying goods from Ger- 
many? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

Sept '38 56% 44% = 100% 10% 

Nov '38 61 39 =100 9 

Mar '39 65 35 =100 8 



NOV '38 RESULTS BY RELIGION 



Jewish . . . . 
Catholic. . . 
Protestant . 
Others . . . . 



96% 
64 
61 
50 



4% 
36 
39 
50 



10. (US May '39) There are three different opinions about our 
foreign trade. One is that the United States needs foreign trade 
to have real prosperity. Another is that foreign trade is by 
no means essential, but certainly helps some. The third is that 
this country has all the resources it needs and can get along 
just as well without foreign trade. With which do you agree? 
(for) 

We It Can do Don't 

need it helps without it know 

National total 47.4% 26.7% 18.1% 7.8% 

BY POLITICAL PREFERENCE* 

Preferring Hull 54.5% 26.0% 15.5% 4.0% 

Preferring Vandenberg. . 54.6 27.1 14.6 3.7 

* As indicated in answer to the question; If you had to choose be- 
tween these two men to succeed President Roosevelt in 1940, which 
one would you prefer as you feel now? 

11. (US May '39) Do you think we should make greater efforts 
to improve our business relations with South America so as to 
keep European nations from getting most of the trade there? 
74.8% of the sample who thought we should make greater 
efforts were asked: Do you think we should encourage South 
American trade to the extent of making loans to countries that 
want to trade with us but could not do it otherwise? (for) 

Yes, make loans 38.7% 

Don't make loans 27. 

Don't know whether or not loans should be made. ... 9.1 

Make no effort to improve business relations 8.0 

Don't know whether or not effort should be made. . . . 17.2 

12. (US Aug 8 '39) Do you approve of Secretary Hull's action 
in serving notice on Japan that the United States may end its 
trade treaty with Japan in six months? (aipo) 

Yes No 

National total 81% 19% 

BY POLITICS 

Democratic 81% 19% 

Republican 82 18 

Other parties 79 21 

13. (US Sept '39) Should the United States try to develop its 
own industries to the point where it does not have to buy 
any products from foreign countries? (for) 

Yes 64.1% No 23.6% Don't know or depends 12.3% 

14. (US Sept '39) Do you think we should continue to trade 
with the dictator nations if they declare war against other 
nations? (for) 

Yes 17.6% No 61.5% Don't know or depends 20.9% 

15. (US Oct '39) From your own observation do you find 
that competition from imported products has a destructive or 
stimulating effect on American manufacturers? Asked of a 
national cross-section of retailers, (for) 



National total. 



Makes 
no 
Destruc- dif- Stimu- De- Don't 
tive jerence lating pends know 
. 40.0% 2.7% 33.8% 2.2% 21.3% 



BY VOLUME OF BUSINESS 

$2,000,000 and over 22.6% 1.9% 50.9% 9.5% 15.1% 

$100,000 to $2,000,000. .. 37.2 1.8 31.8 3.6 25.6 

$30,000 to $100,000 45.3 3.4 33.1 — 18.2 

$10,000 to $30,000 44.0 3.5 30.8 — 21.7 

16. (US Oct '39) Do you favor the policy of Secretary of State 
Cordell Hull in promoting reciprocal trade agreements? Asked 
of a national cross-section of businessmen, (for) 

Don't 
Yes No Depends know 

National total 57.5% 18.9% 7.2% 16.4% 



BY TYPE OF BUSINESS 



Manufacturers 56.7% 23.5% 

Retailers 58.1 15.9 



10.1% 
53 



9.7% 
20.7 



BY ATTITUDE OF BUSINESSMEN TOWARD TARIFF POLICY 

Tariff should he 

Higher 41.2% 31.2% 4.5% 23.1% 

Same 66.1 15-7 6.7 11.5 

Lower 77.5 10.1 4.5 7.9 

17. (US Oct '39) In what one or two particular foreign coun- 
tries do you see the best chance of building up an export market 
for your own products or those of your industry? Asked of a 
national cross-section of businessmen, (for) 

National Capital Consumers' 



total 

Latin America* 48.3% 

England 11.1 

Canada 6.2 

South Africa 52 

Australia 31 

Other British 3.1 

Scandinavian countries 2.8 

Russia 1.9 

Other* 9.4 

None 35.2 

Don't cultivate export 7.7 

Don't know 4.3 



as 
63.4% 
13.4 

7.3 

6.1 

4.9 

2.4 

1.2 

7.3 
10.9 
22.0 

4.9 

4.9 



goods 

43.0% 

10.3 

5.8 

5.0 

2.5 

3.3 

3.3 

9.1 

39.7 

8.7 

4.1 



138.3%** 148.7%** 134.8%** 
* 21.6 per cent simply name Latin or South America. Higher rank- 
ing countries specifically mentioned were Brazil and Argentina, 7-7 
and 5-9 per cent. 

Germany and Italy between them account for only .6 per cent, Japan 
for 1.2. 

** Percentages total more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

18. (US Oct '39) What countries give you the most competi- 
tion in those markets you just named? Asked of a national 
cross-section of businessmen, (for) 

National Capital Consumers' 



Germany . 
England. . 



Japan . 

South American countries* . 

Canada 

Scandinavian countries 

Belgium 



total 
40.6% 
30.3 

9.1 

4.2 
3.6 
3.0 
30 



goods 
56.4% 
25. 5 

3.6 

1.8 

5.5 
5.5 



goods 
32.7% 
32.7 
11.8 

55 

55 

1.8 

1.8 



[124] 



National 
total 

Other 13. 3% 

None 23.0 

Don't know 8.5 



Capital 


Consumers 


goods 


goods 


9.1% 


15.4% 


20.0 


24.5 


9.1 


8.2 



138.6%** 136.5%** 139.9%** 
* Presumably South American countries competing with each other. 
** Percentages total more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

19. (US Jan 10 '40, Jan 19 '40, Dec 15 '43) What is your under- 
standing of the term "reciprocal trade treaties"? (aipo) 



JAN 


40 RESULTS 






Correct 


Incorrect 


Doubtful 


Don t knou 


10% 
8 


27% 
31 


10% 
9 


53% 
52 



Jan 10 '40 

Jan 19 '40 

DEC '43 RESULTS 

Agreement to trade with tariff (duty) reduced between 

the countries concerned 3% 

Agreement to trade tax-free between countries in agree- 
ment 2 

Agreement to trade between countries 22 

Agreement to trade equal amounts between countries. ... 2 

Vague definitions 11 

Incorrect definitions 4 

No answer 56 

20. (US Jan 10 '40 and Jan 19 '40) Do you think Congress 
should give Secretary Hull the power to make more such 
[reciprocal trade] treaties? Asked of a national cross-section of 
persons informed on the subject, (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

Jan 10 '40 57% 43% — 

Jan 19 '40 54 46 = 100% 16% 

21. (US Jan 10 '40) What is your personal opinion about 
Secretary Hull's reciprocal trade treaties? Asked of a national 
cross-section of persons informed on the subject, (aipo) 

Favorable 71% Unfavorable 29% 

22. (US Jan 30 '40) Some people say that in order to sell more 
manufactured goods to South American countries, we must 
buy from them more beef, grain, and other things competing 
with our own farm products. Would you approve of letting 
South America sell more farm products here? (aipo) 
Approve 22% Disapprove 64% No opinion 14% 

23. (US July 20 '40) If Germany wins the war against England 
and becomes the strongest country in Europe, do you think 
the United States should try to get along with Germany, or 
do you think we should stop all trade and diplomatic relations 
with Germany? (opor) 

Try to get along 66% 

Stop trade 19 

Qualified answers 6 

Don't know 9 

24. (US July 20 '40) Suppose it becomes clear that Germany 
is getting control of the South American countries — should the 
United States spend several hundred million dollars a year for 
South American beef, wheat, and other farm products so that 
Germany would not get control of South American trade? 
(opor) 

Should buy 48% 

Should not buy 22 

Qualified answers 13 

No answer 1 

Don't know 16 



25. (US Aug '40) If Hitler wins, should we find some way of 
continuing our European commercial business with Hitler's 
new Europe, or make every effort to develop business only 
with countries not under Hitler's control? (for) 

Continue with new Europe 44.2% 

Develop business only with coun- 
tries not dominated by Hitler. . . 40.0 
Don't know 15-8 

26. (US Aug 9 '40) Lindbergh says that if Germany wins the 
war in Europe, the United States should try to have friendly 
trade and diplomatic relations with Germany. Do you agree 
or disagree? (aipo) 

Agree 46% Disagree 41% No opinion 13% 

27. (US Aug 9 '40) At the same time as the previous question 
a comparable cross-section was asked: It has been suggested 
that if Germany wins the war in Europe the United States 
should try to have friendly trade and diplomatic relations with 
Germany. Do you agree or disagree? (aipo) 



Agree 55% 



Disagree 26% 



Don't know 19^ 



28. (US Sept '40) Do you believe it sounder business under 
present conditions for the United States to try harder to expand 
foreign trade, or to try to contract it as much as possible toward 
a self-sufficiency basis, or to continue foreign-trade policies of 
the past few years? Asked of a national cross-section of business 
executives, (for) 

Expand trade 47.4% 

Contract toward self-sufficiency . . . 29.2 

Continue recent policies 12.7 

Don't know, or no answer 10.7 

29. (US Sept '40) If cessation of hostilities leaves Germany 
with a large economic bloc, would you favor doing as much 
business with this bloc as possible even if it means the 
sacrifice of considerable profits? Asked of a national cross- 
section of business executives, (for) 







All 


De- 






Don't 




Much 


that 


pends 


Little 




know 




as 


comes 


on 


as 


None 


and 




pos- 


our 


circum- 


pos- 


at 


no 




sible 


way 


stances 


sible 


all 


answer 


National total. . . 


33.3% 


12.5% 


11 ■^% 


10.6% 


^■(f/o 


3.5% 


BY OPINIONS ABOUT ROOSEVELT 


AND WILLKIE 






ON 


FOREIGN AFFAIRS 






Willkie better. ., 


69.6% 


70.4% 


63.9% 


47.7% 


44.1% 




Roosevelt better. 


9.2 


8.6 


11.5 


24.6 


31.4 




Either one adc- 
















9.5 


9.8 


12.3 


15.0 


12.8 




Neither good 














enough 


3.2 


2.6 


1.4 


1.4 


2.9 




Don't know; no 














answer 


8.5 


8.6 


10.9 


11.3 


8.8 





30. (US Nov '40) Suppose the end of the war finds Germany 
controlling most of Europe. Do you think we should restore 
normal trade with all countries even though Germany does 
dominate them; or have as little as possible to do with a 
German Europe even if it means a serious loss to our foreign 
trade? (for) 

Restore normal trade 53.7% 

Have little to do with German Europe 27.7 

Don't know 18.6 

31. (US Dec 10 '40) Some people say that the best way to 
keep German influence out of Central and South America and 
to improve our relations with them is to let them sell more 



[125] 



grain, corn, and cotton in this country. Would you approve 
or disapprove of this? At the same time as the previous ques- 
tion a comparable cross-section was asked: Some people say 
that the best way to keep German influence out of Central 
and South America and to improve our relations with them is 
to let them sell more beef, grain, corn, and cotton here in com- 
petition with our own farmers? Would you approve or dis- 
approve of this? (Mar 29 '41) Some people say that the best 
way to keep German influence out of Central and South Amer- 
ica and to improve our relations with them is to let Central 
and South American countries sell more beef, grain, corn, and 
cotton here in competition with our own farmers. Would you 
approve, or disapprove, of this? A comparable cross-section 
was asked the question omitting beef, (opor) 

No opinion 
Dis- and 

Approve approve no answer 

DEC '40 RESULTS 

Grain, corn, and cotton 38% 43% 19% 

Beef, grain, corn, and cotton. . 32 52 16 

MAR '41 RESULTS 

Beef, grain, corn, and cotton. . 44% 45% 11% 

Grain, corn, and cotton 37 51 12 

32. (US Mar 12 '41) Do you think that, if England falls, Ger- 
many will soon be in control of all of our trade and foreign 
markets? (opor) 

Yes 59.7% • No 31.1% No opinion 9.2% 

33. (US Apr '41) Three comparable cross-sections were used 
for the following questions. The second and third groups were 
confronted with interventionist and non-interventionist bias 
in the questions. Do you think it would ruin us if Hitler was 
able to take away our foreign trade? (for) 



No 


Don't know 


447o 


16% 


53 


15 


46 


21 



Yes 46.3% 



No 40.4% 



Don't know 13.3*5 



Even if Hitler never invaded us, he would ruin us by selling 
goods to foreign countries cheaper than we could sell them. 
(for) 

Agree 61.9% Disagree 22.5% Don't know 15.6% 

Since only a small part of our products are now shipped 
out of the country, it wouldn't make any great difference to 
us if Hitler did steal our foreign trade, (for) 
Disagree 67.6% Agree 17.0% Don't know 15.47o 

34. (US June 17 '42) Do you think it would make any differ- 
ence in the way you personally live if this country had no 
foreign trade, or do you think you can get along just as well 
on what we grow and make in the United States? (opor) 

Would make difference 68% 

No difference 24 

No opinion 8 

35. (US Jan '43) After the war, should the United States try 
to develop its own industries, like rubber and sugar to such 
an extent that we don't have to buy any products from foreign 
countries, or do you think that we should keep on buying from 
other countries? (norc) 

Develop own 46.1% 

Keep buying 42.0 

Both 7.7 

Qualified answers 1.7 

Don't know 2.5 

36. (US Jan 11 '43, June 18 '43, Nov 15 '43) Do you think we 
should allow other countries to sell more goods in this coun- 
try after the war, even though it means more competition with 
our goods? (norc) 



Yes 

Jan '43 40% 

June '43 32 

Nov '43 33 

37. (US Sept '43) Do you think problems of trade between 
countries have anything to do with starting wars? (norc) 



38. (US Dec 15 '43) After the war, which of these things do 
you think the United States should try to do — do a lot of 
trading with foreign countries, selling them the things we 
can grow and make best in this country, and buying from them 
the things which they can produce more easily than we can, 
or try to grow and make in this country all the things that 
we need and use here, and do very little trading with foreign 
countries? (aipo) 

Trade with foreign countries 74% 

Grow and make all we need 26 

39. (US Dec 15 '43) What are the chief arguments for your 
choice [as to whether the United States should try to do a 
great deal of trading with foreign countries or very little]. 
Asked of those who had an opinion as to what the United 
States should do. (aipo) 

Arguments in favor of foreign trade 
All countries should work together and cooperate; estab- 
lish good diplomatic relations, good will, good neigh- 
bor policy, etc 28% 

We need the products of other countries as we can't raise 

all we need 11 

For mutual benefits — we need products from other coun- 
tries and they need our products; it's necessary; you 

can't do without foreign trade; etc 11 

It's important to prevent our becoming isolationist; we 

must not build a fence against other countries 8 

It would stimulate business; free competition is best for 

all; it's necessary for prosperity 7 

It gives a market for our surplus goods 2 

We'll have to do it a few years to re-establish destroyed 

countries 1 

We did it before and it works out well 1 

It would keep prices down; the US manufacturers would 

produce more cheaply 2 

Other reasons 1 

No reason given 3 



75%* 
Arguments against foreign trade 

It's important to be self-sufficient; in case of another war 
we would be ready; we're capable of producing all 
our needs 9% 

It's better not to fool with foreign countries; if we don't 
trade with them we are less apt to get into another 
war 10 

Don't want American wages and living standards low- 
ered by competition with cheap foreign labor 1 

We can help employment in this country more by pro- 
ducing everything for our needs 2 

Foreign trade benefits other countries more than it does 
our country; can't see any advantage to trading with 
other countries 1 

Other reasons 1 

No reason given 2 



26% 



* Percentages add to more than 74 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 



L 



[126] 



40. (US Dec 15 '43) After the war, which of these things do 
you think the United States should try to do — trade a lot with 
foreign countries if this permits some foreign goods to sell 
here at lower prices than our goods, or refuse to trade with 
foreign countries and let our people pay higher prices for these 
things produced here? (aipo) 

Trade a lot 60% 

Refuse to trade 21 

No opinion 19 

41. (US Dec 15 '43) What are the chief arguments for your 
choice [as to whether the United States should try to do a 
great deal of trading with foreign countries, or very little]? 
Asked of those who had an opinion as to what the United 
States should do. (aipo) 

Arguments in favor of foreign trade 
All countries should work together and cooperate; estab- 
lish good diplomatic relations; good will, good neigh- 
bor policy, etc 18% 

We need the products of other countries as we can't raise 

all we need . . 9 

For mutual benefits; we need products from other coun- 
tries and they need our products; it's necessary; you 

can't do without foreign trade; etc 8 

It would keep prices down; the US manufacturers would 

produce more cheaply 6 

It would stimulate business; free competition is the best 

for all 5 

It's important to prevent our becoming isolationist; we 

must not build a fence against other countries 3 

It gives us a market for our surplus goods 4 

We'll have to do it a few years to re-establish destroyed 

countries 1 

We did it before and it worked out well 1 

We're fighting for an equal opportunity for all and for 

no restrictions on trade 1 

Other reasons 1 

No reason given 4 



61%* 



Arguments against foreign trade 
It's important to be self-sufficient; in case of another war 
we would be ready; we're capable of producing all our 
needs 



3% 



It's better not to fool with foreign countries; if we don't 

trade with them we arc less apt to get into another war 4 
Don't want American wages and living standards low- 
ered by competition with cheap foreign labor 6 

We can help employment in this country more by pro- 
ducing evcrvthing for our needs 4 

Protect our industry; buy American things first 1 

Other reasons 1 

No reason given ' 2 



21% 



* Percentages add to more than 60 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

42. (US Jan 4 '44) If European countries can make shoes more 
cheaply than we can, should we buy most of our shoes from 
Europe and try to employ our workers in making other things 
that we can produce more cheaply than Europe? (aipo) 

Yes 32% No 46% No opinion 22% 

43. (US Jan 4 '44) If foreign countries can grow and sell cer- 
tain farm products more cheaply than we can, should we buy 
these products and get American farmers to raise other products 
which we can raise more cheaply than foreign countries? (aipo) 



Yes 44% No 32% No opinion 24% 

44. (US Jan 18 '44) After the war, should the United States 
try to sell more products to foreign countries? (aipo) 

Yes 76% No 12% No opinion 12% 

45. (US Jan 18 '44) After the war, should the United States 
buy more products from other countries? (aipo) 

Yes 68% No 19% No opinion 13% 

46. (US Jan 18 '44) After the war would you like to see the 
United States increase its foreign trade over what it was before 
the war? (aipo) 

Yes 62% No 10% Don't know 28% 

47. (Sweden Apr '44) If the Germans should take new violent 
steps in Norway and Denmark such as arresting and deporting 
students and Jews, do you think that, even though it meant 
serious drawbacks for our trade with Germany, Sweden should 
stop the traffic of persons and goods that still pass through 
Sweden between Norway and Germany? (sGi) 

Yes No Don't know 

National total 54% 16% 30% 



Men . . . 
Women . 



61% 
46 



18% 
14 



21% 
40 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 



Wealthy 46% 24% 30% 

Working parties 63 12 25 

48. (Sweden Apr '44) If the Germans should take new violent 
steps in Norway and Denmark such as arresting students and 
Jews, do you think that, even though it meant serious draw- 
backs for our trade with Germany, Sweden should stop the 
export of ore to Germany? (sgi) 

Yes No Don't know 

National tor-l 43% 23% 34% 

BY SEX 

Men 50% 26% 24% 

Women 36 21 43 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Wealthy 35% 32% 33% 

Working parties 53 19 28 

49. (US May '44) How do you regard the prospects for a 
large increase in United States foreign trade after the war if 
there is no international organization to keep the peace, and 
if there is one? Asked of a national cross-section of business 
executives, (for) 

Prospects Prospects Don't 

good dubious know 

If there is no international 

organization 30.9% 49.9% 19.2% 

If there is one 67.7 16.7 15.6 

50. (US May '44) Would your company benefit directly, indi- 
rectly, or not noticeably by an increase in United States foreign 
trade after the war? Asked of a national cross-section of business 
executives, (for) 

Not Don't 

Directly Indirectly noticeably know 

National total 30.9% 28.2% 37.8% 3.1%" 

BY TYPE OF BUSINESS 

Manufacturing 36,1% 25.0% 36.7% 2.2% 

Finance 28.9 32.7 34.1 4.3 

Commerce 20.2 29.9 44.6 53 

Utilities 26.1 41.5 30.0 2.4 

Other 25.8 30.2 40.8 3.2 



[ l-JT ] 



61. (US May '44) In which one or two parts of the world 
listed below do you expect to see the largest increase in foreign 
business? Asked of a national cross-section of business execu- 
tives, (for) 



National 
total 
South America 60.0% 

Asia 33.7 

Russia 33. 

Europe 23.6 

British Com- 
monwealth . 10.9 
Middle East... 8.6 
Africa 6.9 









Relative 








order 


North- 


Mid- 


Far 


in 


east 


west 


West 


1939* 


60.8% 


63.8% 


49.1% 


4 


29.4 


30.4 


60.1 


3 


35.8 


35.9 


23.4 


5 


23.0 


22.1 


18.9 


2 


12.1 


10.7 


10.7 


1 


6.8 


9.3 


9.5 


7 


5.4 


7.5 


1.8 


6 



176.7%** 173.3%** 179.7%,** 173.5%** 
* Rank is based on total dollar volume of exports and imports. 
** Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

52. (Australia July '44) It's been suggested that after the war 
Australia should make motor cars and trucks, even if they cost 
a good deal more than imported cars. Do you think we should 
make them or import them? (apop) 

Make some cars here 80% 

Import all cars 14 

Undecided 6 

53. (US Aug '44) About what per cent of the goods grown 
and manufactured in this country would you say were sold in 
other countries during the ten-year period before this war 
started in 1939? (for) 

Less than 5 per cent 2.7% 

5-10 per cent 16.1 

10-15 per cent 18.2 

15-20 per cent 13.4 

20-25 per cent 10.9 

Over 25 per cent 8.9 

Don't know 29.8 

54. (Denmark Dec 2 '44) After the war, do you think that 
the Government should interfere as little as possible with for- 
eign trade, or do you think that it should continue regulating 
import and export? (dgi) 

Government should regulate. . . . 48% 

Not regulate 20 

Don't know 32 

55. (Denmark Dec 2 '44) 48% of a national sample who were 
in favor of postwar government regulation of foreign trade 
were asked to what extent it should be regulated. Results 
follow: (dgi) 

More than before the war ^7% 

The same as before the war 47 

Less than before the war 7 

Don't know 19 



100%o of those 
who favored government regulation of 
foreign trade 

66. (Great Britain Jan '45) When goods are short, would you 
agree to selling them to other countries so that we can then 
buy from abroad, or should the goods be sold here? (bipo) 
Sell abroad 39% Sell here 46% Don't know 15% 



57. (US Feb '45) What can you say of your company's foreign- 
trade prospects after the final peace as compared to prewar? 
Asked of a national cross-section of business executives, (for) 



Prewar 

None 30.8% 

to 5 per cent 12.5 



5 to 10 per cent. . 
10 to 25 per cent . 
25 to 50 per cent . 
Over 50 per cent. 
No answer 



9.4 
6.3 
1.9 
0.4 
38.7 



'istimatec 
postwar 


16.1% 


7.6 


9.8 


11.8 


3.8 


0.8 


40.0 



58. (US Feb '45) In which one or two of the following areas 
do you think your trade prospects are best? Asked of 33.8% 
of the business executives who expected postwar foreign trade. 
(for) 

Latin America 53.6% 

China 44.8 

Australia and New Zealand. . . 20.3 

Europe 18.8 

Russia 18.5 

Netherlands Indies 16.1 

Japan 12.4 

Other 13.6 



198.1%,* 
* Percentages are based on the number of respondents who expected 
postwar foreign trade and add to more than 100 because each respond- 
ent was asked to name one or two countries. 

59. (Sweden Apr '45) Do you know anything about the Allies 
having blacklisted, for instance, certain Swedish concerns? 
58% of the sample who said they knew something about the 
blacklisting were asked: Do you know what the purpose of 
these blacklists is? (sgi) 

Know the purpose 41% 

Have heard of lists, but don't know the purpose. . 17 
Don't know anything about lists 42 

60. (Sweden Apr '45) Do you think this purpose [of the Allies 
in blacklisting certain Swedish concerns] is justified? Asked of 
41% of the sample who knew the purpose of the blacklistings. 
(sgi) 

Justified 39%, 

Not justified 43 

Don't know 18 



100% of those who 
knew the purpose of the blacklistings 

61. (US Apr '45) If the only way Japan could pay us for our 
cost of the war would be in goods, would you be willing for 
our country to accept any goods which could be sold cheaper 
than similar goods we make in this country? (norc) 

Willing to accept. . 21% 

Not willing 68 

Don't know 11 

62. (US May 2 '45) Will you tell me briefly what is meant 
by these terms? Among others was listed: Reciprocal trade. 
14% of the sample who defined the term correctly were asked: 
Have you heard about the trade agreements made by the United 
States with other countries through Secretary Hull? (aipo) 

Yes, have heard of agreements 9% 

No, have not heard of agreements. . . 5 

Defined term incorrectly 5 

Defined term vaguely 29 

No answer 52 



[128] 



63. (US May 2 '45) Congress has to decide whether or not to 
continue the trade agreements program. What do you think — 
should the program be continued or not? Asked of a national 
cross-section of those who had heard of Hull's trade agree- 
ments. 9% of the sample is represented, (aipo) 

Yes 75% No 7% Undecided 18% = 100% 

of those familiar with the Hull agreements 

64. (US May 2 '45) Would you approve or disapprove using 
this [trade agreements] program to get a further reduction of 
tariffs in both the United States and other countries? A com- 
parable cross-section was asked the question in the following 
form: Do you think it would be a good thing or a bad thing 
to reduce tariffs further in both the United States and other 
countries under the trade agreements program? Results were 
combined. Asked of a national cross-section of those who knew 
what Hull's trade agreements were. 9% of the sample is repre- 
sented, (aipo) 

Approve 57% Disapprove 20% No opinion 23% = 100% 
of those familiar with the Hull agreements 

65. (US June 28 '45) There have been all sorts of ideas sug- 
gested for things we should do in this country after the war, 
and we'd like to know how you feel about some of them. 
Do you think it is a good idea or not such a good idea to 
have reciprocal trade agreements with foreign countries? (nyht) 

Good idea Not so i^ood Don't know 
National total* 61.1% 8.1% 30.8% 

BY EDUCATION 

Grade school 43. 0% 

High school 67.2 

College 81.7 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Prosperous 81.7% 

Upper middle class 77.7 

Lower middle class 65.1 

Poor 41.3 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Urban 63.6% 

Rural 51.5 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 67-2% 

Middle Atlantic 66.0 

East north-central 67.0 

West north-central 58.6 

South Atlantic 51.6 

East south-central 47.6 

West south-central 54.3 

Mountain 51.4 

Pacific 68.6 

* National total from Fortune Aug '43. 

66. (US Aug 16 '45) There have been all sorts of ideas sug- 
gested for things we should do in this country after the war, 
and we'd like to know how you feel about some of them. 
Do you think it is a good idea or not such a good idea to 
build up our foreign trade — that is, both buy and sell more in 
foreign countries? (nyht) 

Good idea Not so good Don't know 
74.7% 9.7% 15.6% 



7.7% 


49.3% 


8.4 


24.4 


8.2 


10.1 


8.0% 


10.3% 


8.6 


13.7 


8.3 


26.6 


8.3 


50.4 


Y 

7.8% 


28.6% 


9.3 


39.2 


ON 

9.4% 


23.4% 


6.6 


27.4 


9.8 


23.2 


9.6 


31.8 


8.2 


40.2 


6.4 


46.0 


5.0 


40.7 


93 


39.3 


9.3 


22.1 



National total*. 



8.9% 


15.0% 


.2.6 


18.1 


3N 

■3.6% 


22.9% 


3.1 


23.6 


1.9 


14.9 


1.0 


11.4 


7.2 


12.0 


7.0 


21.0 


6.2 


12.0 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 



Prosperous 87.3%, 

Upper middle 86.8 

Lower middle 77. 6 

Poor 61.9 



4.8% 


7.9% 


7.0 


6.2 


10.0 


12.4 


12.1 


26.0 



Good idea Not so good Don't know 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Urban 76.1% 

Rural 69.3 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

South Atlantic 63.5% 

East south-central 63. 3 

New England 73-2 

East north-central 77.6 

Middle Atlantic 80.8 

West south-central 72.0 

Pacific 81.8 

* National total from Fortune Aug '45. 

67. (US Sept '45) In which one or two parts of the world 
listed below do you expect to see the largest increase in Ameri- 
can foreign business? Asked of a national cross-section of busi- 
ness executives, (for) 

South America 61.4% 

Russia 32.7 

Asia 28.3 

Europe 18.5 

British Commonwealth, , . 133 

Middle East 6.3 

Africa 2.4 

162.9%* 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

68. (US Sept '45) How soon do you think Russia will become 
an important competitor in the world market? Asked of a 
national cross-section of business executives, (for) 

Within 5 years 18.6% 

Within 10 years 47.8 

Within 25 years 20.7 

After 25 years 5.8 

Don't know 7.1 

69. (US Sept '45) Do you think it is or is not to the long-term 
advantage of the United States to promote trade relations with 
Russia? Asked of a national cross-section of business executives. 
(for) 

Is to US advantage 91.2% 

Is not 6.1 

Don't know 2.7 

70. (Finland Dec 14 '45) Do vou consider it desirable to im- 
port coffee just now, or should the same amount of currency 
be used to import something else? (fgi) 

Coffee 23% 

Other goods 76 

Don't know 1 

71. (Finland Dec 14 '45) What [things should we import]? 
Asked of 76% of the sample who thought it more desirable 
to import things other than coffee, (fgi) 

Clothes 54% 

Foods in general 26 

Sugar 19 

Shoes and leather goods 16 

Fuel and paraffin oil; artificial ferti- 
lizer; raw materials; etc 15 

Fats 14 

Grain (particularly wheat) 13 

Meat 4 



[129] 



Fruit 3% 

„ Tobacco 1 

(Others 7 
172%* 

* Percentages are based on the number of respondents who thought 
it more desirable to import other things than coffee and add to more 
than 100 because some respondents gave more than one answer. 

72. (Australia Feb-Mar "46) Should we now resume trade with 
Japan — selling wool and wheat, in exchange for silk, toys, and 
other goods? (apop) 

Yes No No opinion 

National total 45% 47%, 8%, 

Farm-owners only 55 36 9 

73. (US Mar '46) Which one of these three ideas comes closest 
to what you think — (1) our government should not allow any 
shoes from foreign countties to be sold in the United States; 
(2) out government should put a limit on the number of shoes 
from foreign countries which are sold in this country; (3) our 
government should allow foreign countries to sell as many 
shoes in the United States as they can? Each respondent was 
given a card with the three statements piinted on it. (norc) 

jB . Statement 1 26% 

■ Statement 2 54 

m Statement 3 20 

I 100% 

Don't know 6% 

74. (US Mar '46) In general, do you think we need to buy 
goods from foreign countries in order to sell goods to foreign 
countries, or isn't it necessary? (norc) 

Need to 76% Not necessary 18% Don't know 6% 

75. (US Mar '46) Would you be in favor of or would you be 
against letting goods come into this country which would 
sell for less than our goods? 74% of the sample who were 
against the idea were asked: Do you think many foreign coun- 
tries could ship very much into the United States if their goods 
sold for more than American goods? (norc) 

Could ship 12% 

Could not ship 55 

Don't know whether or not they could ship. . 7 

Favor foreign goods 20 

No opinion on shipment of foreign goods. ... 6 

76. (US Mar '46) Should each country make its own laws 
under which foreign goods can be shipped into its own country, 
or do you think the United Nations organization should make 
such jaws? (norc) 

Each country 42% United Nations 47% Don't know 11% 

77. (Netherlands Aug '46) Which goods do you think we can 
best spare for export to foreign countries and which ones should 
we get enough of in Holland? (nipo) 



I 



Textiles 

Bicycle tires 

Shoes 

Household articles. 

Furniture 

Irons 

Wireless sets 

Vacuum cleaners . . 

Bulbs (light) 

Pulbs (flowers). . . . 



First fo> 
ourselves 

92% 
86 
84 
74 
68 
36 
27 
26 
23 
1 



Export 

1% 

5 

2 
11 
15 
44 
57 
61 
63 
98 



Don t knou 

7% 

9 
14 
15 
17 
20 
16 
13 
14 

1 



78. (Netherlands Sept '46) A very close cooperation between 
Belgium and Holland is in preparation — particularly in affairs 
of ttade, industry, harbor traffic, etc. Do you approve or dis- 
approve of such close cooperation? (nfs) 

Don't 

Approve Disapprove know 

National total 80% 3% 17% 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Under 20,000 population 78%o 2% 20% 

20,000 up to 100,000 80 3 17 

100,000 and over 83 4 13 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

Northern and Eastern provinces 74% 4% 22% 

Western provinces 83 3 14 

Southern provinces 83 2 15 

79. (Hungary Oct '46) What imported articles do you miss? 
Asked in Budapest, (hipor) 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Well-ojf Medium Poor 

Rice 7.7% 6.2% 7.9%, 

Coffee 10.3 9.2 6.7 

Tea 5.4 5.8 5.0 

Chocolate 8.7 8.3 6.8 

Cocoa 4.0 2.7 2.8 

Oranges 50 4.9 4.7 

Lemons 7.1 8.7 6.9 

Bananas 1.7 1.4 0.7 

Sweetened dried fruits 4.9 52 30 

Canned food 1.1 1.9 — 

Textiles; clothes 12.3 13.6 13.9 

Leather; shoes; boots 1.3 36 2.6 

Silk 0.8 1.1 0.8 

Furs 0.3 0.9 0.2 

Silk stockings 0.7 0.2 — 

Tools; machine tools 0.9 0.4 0.6 

Optical instruments 0.4 0.4 0.3 

Mechanical instruments 1.5 0.9 0.2 

Chemicals 0.9 1.7 0.3 

Medicines 3.9 2.1 1.0 

Cosmetics 0.9 0.4 0.2 

Rubber 0.8 1.8 0.9 

Books; papers 2.4 0.6 0.3 

Cigarettes; tobacco 1.3 0.4 0.2 

Other; no answer 15.7 17.6 34.0 

80. (Canada Oct 9 '46) Taking a long view, do you think 
Canada really needs to start now to sell large quantities of 
goods to other countries, or can this country get along without 
this foteign trade? (cipo) 

Need to start now 62% 

Need markets but need not start now. ... 16 
Can get along without foreign markets. . 7 

Undecided and no opinion 15 

81. (Canada Oct 9 '46) Do you think Canada's chances of 
getting an equal opportunity for this world trade are being 
seriously hindered by our present strikes? (cipo) 

Yes, seriously hindering 63% 

Yes, but not seriously hindering 11 

No, not hindering 11 

Undecided 15 

82. (Australia Nov '46) Would you favor or oppose trading 
with Japan again? (apop) 



[130] 



National total. 



Favor 

51% 



BY OCCUPATION 



Professional and business. 

White-collar 

Farmers 

Skilled labor 

Semi-skilled labor 

Unskilled labor 



68% 
59 
59 
51 

48 

44 



Oppose 

41% 

26% 

35 

36 

43 

42 

46 



Undecided 
8% 

6% 

6 

5 

6 
10 
10 



83. (US Nov 13 '46) Some countries can make certain products 
more cheaply than we can. Would you favor a policy of letting 
these products come into this country and be sold here at a 
price which is lower than we can sell them for? 60% of the 
sample who were against the idea were asked: Would you 
approve of letting products of this type come into our country 
if it is necessary to build up trade between nations? (aipo) 
Favor allowing goods that can be sold cheaper into the 

country 30% 

Don't know whether or not goods should be allowed in. . 10 

Approve if necessary to build up trade 33 

Disapprove in any case 18 

Don't know whether or not goods should be allowed in 

if necessary to build up trade 9 

84. (Hungary Dec '46) How do you think Hungary's foreign 
trade will develop after peace is concluded? (hipor) 

Rapidly 41% 

Slowly 53 

No change 2 

No opinion 4 



COMMUNISM 



1. (us Nov 12 '37) In Quebec, Canada, a law permits the 
police to padlock places printing Communist literature. Would 
you favor such a law here? (aipo) 

Yes 54% No 35% No opinion 9% No answer 2% 

2. (us Nov 8 '39) Which of these statements best describes 
your opinion about the Communist party in the United States: 
(l) the Communist party in this country takes orders directly 
from Russia; (2) the policies of the Communist party in the 
United States are decided on by Communists in this country 
in consultation with Russia; (3) the policies of the American 
Communist party are decided entirely by Communists in the 
United States; (4) know nothing about the Communist party? 
(aipo) 

Statement 1 25% 

Statement 2 27 

Statement 3 9 

Statement 4 and no answer. . 39 

3. (US Nov 8 '39) About how many members do you think 
there are in the Communist party in the United States? A com- 
parable cross-section was asked the question with the phrase 
"would you guess" instead of "do you think." Results were 
combined, (aipo) 

No answer 60% 

Less than 10,000 2 

10,000 to 50,000 4 

50,000 to 100,000 3 

100,000 to 250,000 6 

250,000 to 500,000 3 



500,000 to 1,000,000 4% 

1 to 2 million 5 

2 to 5 million 3 

5 to 10 million 1 

10 million and over 1 

Thousands 1 

Millions 1 

A great many 4 

Miscellaneous 2 

Median 300,000 members 

4. (US Nov 8 '39) Do you think members of the Communist 
party should be allowed to hold public office in the United 
States? (aipo) 

Yes 16%, No 72% No answer 2% No opinion 10% 

5. (US June '40) Would you say that the Communists in 
America are composed of mostly good and intelligent people 
or half good and half bad people, or mostly bad or misguided 
people? Asked of a national cross-section of workers of all 
classes including unemployed, (for) 

Mostly good and intelligent people. . . . 4.1% 

Half good people, half bad people 21.9 

Mostly bad or misguided people 55.6 

Don't know . 18.4 

6. (US June '40) What, if anything, do you believe should be 
done about Communists in the United States? Asked of a na- 
tional cross-section of workers of all classes including unem- 
ployed, (for) 



Drastic action 

Impose some form of capital punishment. . . 2.0% 
Put them in jail or concentration camps. . . 2.6 

Deport them; dispose of the leaders 25. 8 

Find some way of getting rid of them 13.0 

Regulatory action 

Curb, control, register them 6.5 

Do not allow them to have say in govern- 
ment, or to have their own party 1.5 

Curative 

Educate them, teach them democracy 30 

Remove the causes — poverty; unemploy- 
ment; etc 0.9 

Do nothing, let them alone 

Other 

Don't know 



Total 



43.4% 



5.0 



3.9 

10.5 

3.2 

34.1 

103.1%* 



BY LABOR STATUS 



C< 



O S >~l^ 



Q 



% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


%* 


15.8 


10.5 


23.0 


1.0 


20.1 = 


104.8 


10.0 


5.9 


7.5 


4.2 


20.2 = 


104.0 


7.5 


3.1 


13.3 


2.8 


24.2 = 


103.0 


5.3 


4.2 


15.4 


4.4 


31.4 = 


101.3 



% 

Semi-professionals 34.4 
Railway workers . 56.2 
AFL members. .. . 52.1 
CIO members. ... 40 6 
* Multiple answers account for the total of more than 100. " 

7. (US July 31 '40, May 20 '41, June 9 '42) Do you think there^ 
should be a law to prevent people in this country from belong- 
ing to the Communist party? In 1941 a comparable cross-section 
was asked: Do you think membership in the Communist party 
in this country should be forbidden by law? Results were com- 
bined. In 1942 a comparable cross-section was asked the ques- 
tion with this addition: or should they be allowed to belong 



[131] 



to the party? Quly 31 '40*) Would you be in favor of doing 
away with the Communist party in this country? (Mar 13 '46 
and June 12 '46) Do you think membership in the Communist 
party in this country should be forbidden by law? (aipo) 



July 31 '40. 
July 31 '40* 
May 20 '41 . 
June 9 '42. 
Mar 13 '46. 
June 12 '46. 



Upper income 

Middle income 

Lower income including 
those on relief 



Yes 


No 


No opinion 


67% 


22% 


11% 


75 


12 


13 


71 


22 


7 


50 


36 


14 


49 


36 


15 


44 

CONOMK 


38 

: STATUS 


18 


70% 


28% 


2% 


71 


24 


5 



72 



16 



12 



8. (US Oct '41) Which one of these statements comes closest 
to what you think the government should do about Communist 
sympathizers — (l) nothing, or no more than it is doing now; 
(2) keep track of them so they could be rounded up if neces- 
sary; (3) keep track of them and also prevent them from agi- 
tating and organizing; (4) deport them or put them in jail? 
(for) (Mar 13 '46 and June 12 '46) What do you think should 
be done about the Communists in this country? (aipo^ 

1941 RESULTS 

Statement 1 4.5% 

Statement 2 16.5 

Statement 3 37.1 

Statement 4 29.9 

Don't know 12 

MAR '46 RESULTS 

No answer; don't know 24% 

Nothing, this is a democracy 20 

Should not be encouraged; should be taught differently. . 4 

Let them rave but watch them 5 

Curb them 11 

Keep them out of offices in the government 3 

Try to get rid of them 8 

Deport them 18 

Shoot them 2 

Jail them 2 

Outlaw them; take away their rights 2 

Miscellaneous 1 



National 
total . . . 



JUNE 

Take strong 
measures; 
get rid of 
them; de- 
fort them; 
jail them 

36% 



'46 RESULTS 



Curb them; 
keep them 
out of pub- 
lic office 

16% 



Let them 
rave hut 

watch 

them 



Do 

nothing 



No 
opinion 



7% 16% 25% 



BY OCCUPATION 



Business and 
professional 

White-collar . 

Manual 
workers . . . 

Farmers 



36% 
34 

37 
40 



18% 
15 

14 
21 



10% 



20% 
21 

14 
4 



16% 
22 

30 
26 



9. (Canada Sept 16 '42) Do you think that people in Canada 
should be allowed to join the Communist party and enter 
candidates in future elections, or do you think the present law, 
which outlaws the Communist party, should continue in effect? 
(cipo) 



People should be allowed to join. . . . 23% 

Ban should remain 62 

No opinion 15 

10. (Canada Oct 17 '42) Do you think that Tim Buck and 
the other reputed Communist leaders who have recently sur- 
rendered to the authorities should be freed, or do you think 
they should be interned? (ciPo) 

Would Would No 

free them intern them opinion 
National total 39%o 44%, 17%o 



BY PROVINCES 



43% 

80 

38 

17% 
53 



7% 
18 



All provinces outside Quebec . . 57% 

Quebec only 20 

Ontario only 62 

BY POLITICS 

CCF 76% 

Other major parties 29 

11. (Australia Dec '42) Should the ban on the Communist 
party be lifted or maintained? (apop) 

Lift the ban 35% 

Maintain it 44 

Undecided 14 

Insufficient knowledge to answer. ... 7 

12. (US June '43) After the war, do you think Russia will or 
will not try to bring about Communist governments in other 
European countries? (for) 

Will Will not Don't know 

National total 40.5%o 31.1% 28.4% 

BY OCCUPATION 

Executives 41.1%, 47.9%, 11-0% 

BY DEGREE OF INFORMATION 

Well-informed 46.3% 

Poorly informed 44.4 

Uninformed 32.4 

13. (Sweden Apr '44) Do you think that the Russians are still 
planning a world revolution or do you think they have given 
it up? (sGi) 

Still Given Don't 

planning it up know 



'.5% 


14.2% 


.2 


22.4 


.6 


46.0 



National total . 

Men 

Women 



Social Democrat. 
Communist 



29% 

BY SEX 

33% 
26 

BY POLITICS 

27% 
31 



27% 

34% 
19 



32% 
53 



44% 

33% 
55 



41% 
16 



14. (Sweden June '44) Do you think it would be good or bad 
for Sweden if the Communists became considerably stronger? 
(sGi) 



National total . 



Bad Good 


Wouldn't 
matter 


Don't 
know 


60% 7% 


11% 


22% 


BY POLITICS* 






76% 2% 
88 2 
82 1 
62 4 
8 71 


7% 

4 

8 
13 
12 


15% 

6 

9 
21 

9 



National party 76% 

Right party 88 

Agrarian 82 

Social Democrat. . . 

Communist 

* Political breakdown is based on what the respondent voted for in 
1942. 



k 



[ 132] 



15. (France Nov 16 '44) Do you think there is enough, not 
enough, or too much Communist representation in the gov- 
ernment? Asked of a cross-section of Parisians, (fipo) 

Not enough 15% 

Too much 28 

Enough 42 

No opinion 15 

16. (France Jan 1 '45) Do you think the Communist party has 
an important role in France? (fipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

Paris 58% 25% 17% 

Provinces 54 24 22 

17. (Germany Apr 15 '46) Do you think that the Nazi propa- 
ganda was right in saying that Russian bolshevism was dan- 
gerous? (oMGUs) 

Yes 68% 

No 18 

No opinion 12 

No answer 2 

18. (Germany Apr 26 '46) The Germans were asked whether 
they agreed with the following statement: The Americans 
should put Germany on its feet again as soon as possible, be- 
fore the German people fall prey to Communism, (omgus) 

Yes No No opinion 

American zone and Berlin .... 82% 10% 8% 

Berlin only 82 16 2 

19. (Germany Apr 26 '46) The Germans were asked whether 
they agreed with the following statement: That Russian bol- 
shevism is dangerous, was a Nazi lie. (omgus) 

Yes No No opinion 

American zone and Berlin 29% 58% 13% 

Berlin only 45 52 3 

20. (Canada May 1 '46) How would you define the difference 
between Communism and Socialism? (cipo) 

No difference 27% 

Might be a difference, but can't define it 48 

Miscellaneous answers 25 

21. (US June 12 '46) Would you say there are many or only a 
few Communists in the United States today? 57% of the sample 
who thought there were a great many and 28% who thought 
there were a few were asked: Can you name any in the United 
States today? (aipo) 

Don't know whether or not there arc any. . . . 17% 

Earl Browder 11 

Harry Bridges 10 

Philip Murray ? 1 

Hillman 2 

Curran 1 

Foster 2 

John L. Lewis 3 

Mentioned others 7 

Named no one 57 



111%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents named 
more than one person. 

22. (US June 12 '46) How much Communism would you say 
there is in the labor movement — a great deal, a fair amount, 
only a little? (aipo) 

Great Fair No 

deal amount Little None opinion 





Great 


Fair 




None and 




deal 


amount 


Little 


no opinion 




BY 


occupation 




Professional and 










business 


. 42% 


30% 


18% 


10% 


Farmers 


. 47 


26 


7 


20 


White-collar 


. 34 


32 


18 


16 


Manual workers. . 


. 35 


23 


17 


25 


Union members . . 


. 30 


28 


22 


20 



BY EDUCATION 

College 42% 28% 23% 

High school 38 31 16 

Grade school or less 38 23 14 



7% 
15 
25 



23. (US July '46) Do you think Russia wants to spread the 
Communist way of life, or that she isn't particularly inter- 
ested in whether or not other countries become communistic? 
(for) 

Wants to Not interested 

spread in spreading Don't 

Communism Communism know 

National total 54.0% 26.4% 19.6% 



BY EDUCATION 



College 62.1% 

High school 58.4 

Grade school 42.9 



30.2% 

28.9 

20.9 



7.7% 
12.7 
36.2 



24. (US July '46) Do you think this is mainly because she be" 
lieves the world will be better off with Communism, or mainly 
because she thinks it will make her more powerful? Asked of 
54.0% of the total sample who thought Russia wanted to 
spread Communism, (for) 



National total. 



Believes 
world will 
be better off 

7.8% 



Thinks it 
will make 
her more 
powerful 
43.2% 



BY EDUCATION 

College 12.4% 46.3% 

High school 8.1 47.6 

Grade school 4.1 35-5 



Don't 

know 

3.0% = 54.0% 

3.4% = 62.1% 
2.7 = 58.4 
3.3 = 42.9 



National total 



38': 



279 



16% 



2% 



17% 



25. (US July 24 '46) In general, do you think most American 
citizens who belong to the Communist party in this country 
are loyal to America or to Russia? (alpo) 

Loyal to America 23% 

Loyal to Russia 48 

No opinion 29 

26. (US July 24 '46) Should United States Communists be per- 
mitted to hold civil service jobs (regular government jobs) in 
this country? (aipo) 

Yes 17% No 69% No opinion 14% 

27. (US Dec 11 '46) Why do you think people in this country 
become Communists? (aipo) 

Dissatisfaction with economic conditions; living stand- 
ards, poverty, etc 18% 

Propaganda; Russia working here; interest aroused; curi- 
ous 11 

Ignorance 10 

Influenced by leaders, radicals 6 

Dissatisfaction; dissatisfaction with conditions as a 
whole 10 



[133] 



Dissatisfaction with government, government officials, 

present political system 7% 

Don't want to work 2 

Want power 1 

Personal gains 2 

Miscellaneous 2 

Don't know 32 



101%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 



COMPETITION 



1. (us Sept '40) Do you believe the government should waive 
competitive bidding in order to allocate rearmament orders to 
the plants best equipped to supply them fastest? Asked of a 
national cross-section of business executives, (for) 

Yes 75.5% No 23.4% No answer 1.1% 

2. (US Oct '43) Do you think that, as compared with 1939, 
business in the United States after the war needs about the 
same amount of competition within business, more competi- 
tion, or less competition? Asked of a national cross-section of 
business executives, (for) 

Same 76.2%, More 19.2%, Less 4.6% 

3. (US Oct '43) In your own business field, do you think after 
the war it would be a good thing if there were about the 
same number of competitots as now, more competitors, or fewer 
competitors? Asked of a national cross-section of business ex- 
ecutives, (for) 

Same 74.5% More 11.6% Fewer 13.9%, 



CONGRESSMEN 



1. (US Oct '37) Do you approve of the way your Congressmen 
in Washington have been representing your district and statj? 
(for) 

Dis- Don't 

Approve approve know 
Two Senators (average of both). . 47.9% 17.7% 34.4% 
Representative 47.4 15-5 37.1 

2. (US Nov '38) Do you believe that a Congressman should 
vote on any question as the majority of his constituents desire 
or vote according to his own judgment? (for) (Aug 8 '39 
and Apr 17 '40) Should Members of Congress vote according 
to their own best judgment or according to the way the people 
in their districts feel? (Apr 18 '40) In cases when a Congress- 
man's opinion is different from that of the majority of the 
people in his district, do you think he should usually vote 
according to his own best judgment, or according to the way 
the majority of his district feels? (aipo) 

Way No opinion 

people Own or 

feel judgment Don t know 

Nov '38 37.4% 54.1% 8.5% = 100% 

Aug 8 '39 61 39 = 100% 4 

Apr 17 '40 66 34 =100 6 

Apr 18 '40 63 37 = 100 8 



Way No opinion 

people Own or 

feel judgment Don' t know 

NOV '38 results by economic status 

Prosperous 41.5% 53.1% 5.4% 

Poor 35.0 54,7 10.3 

NOV '38 RESULTS BY GEOGRAPHIC SECTION 

Middle West. .. . 41.4% 50.3% 8.3% 

Mountain 29.3 66.0 4.7 

3. (US Mar 18 '42 and Mar 10 '43) Do you happen to know 
the name of the Congressman from your district? (Nov 10 '42) 
Do you happen to know the name of the Congressman who 
was elected from your district in the election on Tuesday, 
November 3? (Jan 3 '46 and June 12 '46) Do you happen to 
know the name of the Congressman (Member of the House 
of Representatives) from your district? The June '46 question 
read: (Member of the House of Representatives in Washing- 
ton). 55% of the Jan '46 sample said they knew the name but 
only 54% mentioned a name, (aipo) 

No, incorrect 
Yes, correct answer and 
answer don't know 

Mar '42 50% 50% 

Nov '42 51 49 

Mar '43 49 51 

Jan '46 46 54 

June '46 41 59 



MAR '42 RESULTS BY GEOGRAPHIC SECTION 



New England and mid-Atlantic 

East central 

West central 

South 

Far West 



44*? 

50 

56 

64 

50 



56% 

50 

44 

36 

50 



'42 RESULTS BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 



MAR 

Farmers 

Towns under 10,000 61 

Towns 10,000 to 100,000 54 

Cities 100,000 to 500,000 40 

Cities over 500,000 23 



67% 33% 

39 
46 
60 
77 



4. (US Jan 3 '46) The 55% of the Jan '46 sample who said 
they knew their Congressman's name were asked: Have you 
had a chance to follow his work in Congress — for example, 
do you know what committees he is on and how he has voted 
on important issues? (aipo) 

Yes 19% No 33% No opinion 2% No answer 1% = 55% 

5. (US Mar 18 '42) Before America entered the war, was your 
Congressman in favor of entering the war or staying out? 
(aipo) 

Don't know position he took 65% 

Know position he took 35 

6. (US June '44) How would you rate the job your own Con- 
gressman is doing — as good, only fair, poor, or haven't you 
paid any attention to him? (for) 

No Don't 

Good Fair Poor attention know 

National total 24.3% 20.4% 5.8% 43.9% 5.6% 

BY SEX 

Men 30.1% 25.8% 6.9% 32.6% 4.6% 

Women 19.5 16.1 50 53.0 6.4 

7. (US Nov 29 '44) Will you tell me for how many years 
Members of the United States House of Representatives are 
elected? (aipo) 



[134] 



National total. 



2 years 



3 years 
2% 



Over 

4 years 4 years 
27% 8% 



BY EDUCATION 



College 64% 2% 

High school 42 2 

Grade school or less .29 2 



21% 

32 

26 



10% 
9 

7 



Don't 

know 

25% 

3% 
15 
36 



8. (US Nov 29 '44) What do you think is the ideal length of 
time for which they [Congressmen] should be elected? (aipo) 

lyear 1% 

2 years 30 

3 years 2 

4 years 42 

5 years 1 

6 years 5 

7 years * 

8 years 1 

Over 8 years 1 

Depends on man 1 

Miscellaneous 1 

Don't know 15 

* Less than 0.5%. 

9. (US Nov 29 '44) Will you tell me how much pay a United 
States Representative receives a year? How much do you think 
he should be paid? (aipo) 



Is faid 

$5,000 or under 9*/ 

$6,000-$9,000 9 

$10,000* 24 

Over $10,000 6 

Don't know 52 



* Correct answer. 



Should be paid 

Under $5,000 8% 

$5,000 11 

$6,000-$9,000 12 

$10,000 24 

$11,000-$14,000 3 

$15,000 3 

Over $15,000 2 

Miscellaneous 4 

Don't know 33 



10. (US June 12 '45) Do you think members of Congress in 
Washington should be paid higher salaries than they are now 
getting? (aipo) 

Yes 24% No 56% No opinion 20% 

11. (US June 12 '45) Do you happen to know how much a 
Congressman is paid a year? (aipo) 

Correct ($10,000 a year) 32% Incorrect or don't know 68% 

12. (US June 12 '45) President Truman says that he favors 
raising the salaries of Congressmen from $10,000 to at least 
$15,000 a year after general wage ceilings are removed. Would 
you approve or disapprove of this? (Sept 19 '45) President 
Truman favors raising the salaries of Congressmen from $10,000 
to $20,000 a year. Do you approve or disapprove of this? (aipo) 

No opinion 
Dis- 
Approve 

May '45 31% 

Sept '45 23 

JUNE '45 RESULTS BY OCCUPATION 

Business and professional. .. . 55% 

White-collar 41 

Farmers 24 

Manual workers 22 

13. (US Aug 8 '45) For the whole nation, are there more 
Representatives or more Senators? (aipo) 
Representatives 77%. Senators 7% Don't know 16% 



Dis- 


or 


approve 


don't know 


50% 


19% 


65 


12 


ATION 

32% 


13% 


46 


13 


55 


21 


56 


22 



14. (US Mar 27 '46) If a Congressman is elected on the Demo- 
cratic ticket and he does not vote with his party on all major 
issues, should he be prevented from running for office again as 
a Democrat? (aipo) 

Yes 
National total 21% 



No 
69% 



No opinion 
10% 



BY POLITICS 

Democratic 25% 64% 11%, 

15. (US Aug '46) Do you think that the position of Member 
of Congress should nearly always be held by a man or by a 
woman? (for) 



Man 

Men 75.0% 

Women 66.9 



16. (US Aug 15 '46) People were asked to name which Repre- 
sentatives they thought were good and which they thought 
were not so good, (nyht) 



BY SEX 






Woman 


Either 


Don't know 


1.8% 


19.9% 


3.3% 


3.2 


23.8 


6.1 



Good 




Not so good 




Louis Ludlow 


1.4% 


John E. Rankin 


2.1% 


Clare Boothe Luce. . . 


1.2 


Clare Boothe Luce. . . 


.6 


Clare E. Hoffman. . . . 


.7 


Clare E. Hoffman. . . . 


.6 


Wright Patman 


.7 


Charles R. Savage. . . 


.4 


Sam Rayburn 


.6 


Vito Marcantonio . . . 


.4 


Frances P. Bolton . . . 


.5 


James M. Curley . . . . 


.3 


Merlin Hull 


5 


Robert K. Henry. . . . 
Herman Kopplemann 


.3 


William H. Stevenson 


.5 


.3 


E. E. Cox 


.4 


Paul W. Shafer 


.3 


Joseph W. Martin, Jr. 


.4 


James Wolfenden .... 


.2 


All others 


18.7 


All others 


7.7 


Don't know 


76.6 


Don't know 


86.7 


No answer 


1.7 


No answer 


2.4 



103.9%,* 102.3%* 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents named 
more than one Representative. 

17. (US Sept 11 '46) When a man is elected to the United States 
House of Representatives (Congressman), how many years 
does he serve in one term of office? (aipo) 

Don't know 
Correct or incorrect 
National total 47% 53% 

BY EDUCATION 

College 75% 

High school 55 

Grade school or no school 36 



25% 

45 

64 



18. (US Sept 11 '46) It has been suggested that the Constitu- 
tion be changed to make the term of office of Congressmen in 
Washington four years instead of two. Would you approve or 
disapprove of this change? Asked of 47% of the sample who 
knew what the term of office was. (aipo) 

Dis- No 

Approve approve opiniofi 
National total . 40% 51% 9% = 100% of those who 
knew the terra of office of a Congressman 

BY EDUCATION 



College 52% 41"; 

High school ... 36 53 
Grade school or 

no school .39 53 



7% 
11 



[ 135 ] 



19. (US Nov 27 '46) Will you tell me for how many years 
Members of the United States House of Representatives are 
elected? (aipo) 

Correct (2 years) 51% 

Incorrect (4 years) 19 

Other incorrect 8 

Don't know and no answer 22 



CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS 



1. (Great Britain Nov '39) Should a conscientious objector, 
when exempted from militarv service, be paid on the same 
basis as a soldier? (bipo) 

Same 38% 

According to work 43 

Less 4 

Don't know 15 

2. (US Jan '40) If we do go to war, what do you think should 
be done with conscientious objectors (people who have either 
moral or religious scruples against war^? (fok^ 





V 
1^* 


5i 


bo 












i 


b 


b 

'S 
















Q 






















J' 


































^ 


« 














g 


-« 












{■ 


g 


^ 


-?- 
































■£. 








.^ 










s 


.- 


b 


•^ 














^ 
•^ 




g 




s 




§ 




s 

1 


3 


a; 

1 




1 

s 

(5 




1 


a 


National 


















total . . . , 


. 13.20: 


?,37 


1% 


24.1% 


7-67, 


, i.n 


-, 2.0% 


14.7 



BY SEX 

Men 12.1% 36.2% 26.5% 11.0% 2.0% 2.5% 9.7% 

Women 14.3 38.1 21.7 4.2 0.6 1.4 19.7 



3. (US Nov 30 '40) A group of students studying for the 
ministry who are conscientious objectors refused to register 
for the draft and were sentenced to a year in jail. Do you 
think this punishment was too severe, or not severe enough? 
A comparable cross-section was asked the question as "not 
severe enough or too severe." Results were combined, (aipo) 
Too severe 24% About right 55% Not severe enough 21% 

4. (Australia Mar '42) Do you approve or oppose New Zea- 
land's idea of reducing incomes of objectors to military service 
to forty-nine shillings a week, the same as army privates? 
(apop) 

Approve 70% Oppose 14% No opinion 16% 

5. (US Sept 6 '45) Should all conscientious objectors be re- 
leased by selective service now that the war is over? A com- 
parable cross-section was asked the question omitting "now 
that the war is over." Results were combined and 45% of the 
total sample who were against releasing the men and 12% 
who had no opinion on the subject were then asked: Should 
conscientious objectors who have risked their lives in medical 
experiments or done other useful work be released? (aipo) 



All should be released 43% 

Release those who have done useful work 40 

Don't release them in any case 10 

Don't know whether or not the useful ones should be 
released 7 

6. (US Dec 31 '46) What does the term "conscientious ob- 
jector" mean to you? (aipo) 

Personal belief against killing 45% 

Faith does not believe in war 29 

Slackers; afraid to go to war 11 

Object to way country is run 1 

Miscellaneous * 

No opinion 14 

* Less than 1%. 

7. (US Dec 31 '46) During the war, some conscientious ob- 
jectors were sent to prison for refusing to serve in the armed 
forces. Do you think these men should now be let out of 
prison? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

National total 69% 23% 8% 

Veterans only 61 33 6 



Men . . . 
Women . 



65% 
73 



27% 
19 



BY EDUCATION 

College 77% 18% 

High school 70 23 

Grammar school or less 66 25 



8% 
8 



5% 

7 

9 



CONTROL OF CROPS 



1. (US Dec 7 '35) Are you in favor of the present administra- 
tion's agricultural policy as embraced in the AAA? (aipo) 



National total. 



Yes 

41% 



BY' POLITICS 

Democratic 70% 

Republican 8 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 22% 

Mid-Atlantic 30 

East central 34 

West central 44 

South 57 

Mountain 40 

Pacific coast 29 



No 
59% 

30% 
92 

78% 

70 

66 

56 

43 

60 

71 



2. (US Apr '36) Now that the AAA has been abolished do 
you think that the benefit payments to farmers should be 
given to them in some other way? (for) 

Yes No Don't know 

National total 49.3% 22.2% 28.5% 



Cities over 1,000,000 47 



100,000 to 1,000,000 50 

25,000 to 100,000 47 

2,500 to 25,000 35 

Under 2, 500 53 



BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

6% 20.7% 

2 24.6 



20.0 
33.0 
18.8 



31.7% 
25.2 
32.2 
31.2 

27.4 



I 



[136] 



3. (US Apr '36) Even if it takes a constitutional amendment 
[to continue benefit payments to farmers, do you think they 
should be continued]? Asked of 49.3% of the sample who 
thought that benefit payments should be continued in some 
other way since the abolishment of the AAA. (for) 

Yes 71.2% No and Don't know 28.8% = 100%, of those 

who thought payments to farmers should be continued 

4. (US June 12 '36) Do you favor the present agricultural 
policy of paying cash to farmers to reduce certain crops under 
the soil conservation plan? (aipo) 

Yes 30% No 70% = 100% No opinion 10% 

5. (US Feb 15 '37) Would you like to see the AAA (crop 
control act) revived? (aipo) 



Yes 



No 



No opinion 



BY PRINCIPAL CROPS 



Yt.< No 

National total 41% 59% 



No opinion 

100% 23% 



BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 26% 74% 

Middle Atlantic 39 61 

East central 35 65 

West central 45 55 

Southern 57 43 

Rocky Mountain 41 59 

Pacific coast 40 60 

Farmers 53 47 

6. (US Nov 30 '37) Do you think the government should at- 
tempt to regulate the size of farm crops or should it adopt a 
hands-off policy? Asked of a national cross-section of farmers. 
(aipo) 

Regulate crops 40% Hands off 60%= 100% No opinion 11% 

7. (US Nov 30 '37) If a farmer goes over his quota, should 
he merely lose the government loans or payments, or should he 
be penalized by a tax? Asked of a national cross-section of 
farmers, (aipo) 

Loss loans Tax penalty 
National total 48% 52% 

BY geographical section 

New England 54% 46% 

Middle Atlantic 54 46 

East central 56 44 

West central 45 55 

Southern 41 59 

Rocky Mountain 65 35 

Pacific coast 50 50 

8. (US Nov 30 '37) If two-thirds of the farmers producing 
any one crop agree to have marketing quotas set by the De- 
partment of Agriculture, should the other one-third be com- 
pelled to stay within these quotas? Asked of a national cross- 
section of farmers, (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

National total 62% 38% = 100% 15% 

BY geographical section 

New England 81% 19% 

Middle Atlantic 69 31 

East central 51 49 

West central 48 52 

Southern 75 25 

Rocky Mountain 63 37 

Pacific coast 50 50 



Cotton farmers 78% 

Corn farmers 52 

Wheat farmers 52 

Hog farmers 52 

Tobacco farmers 83 

Others 64 



22% 

48 

48 

48 

17 

36 



9. (US Nov 30 '37) Should the government soil conservation 
plan be continued? Asked of a national cross-section of farmers. 
(aipo) 

Yes 77% No 23% = 100% No opinion 18% 

10. (US Nov 30 '37) Have you an opinion on the ever-normal 
granary plan? Asked of a national cross-section of farmers. 
(aipo) 

Yes 28% No 72% 

11. (US Nov 30 '37) Do you approve of this [ever-normal 
granary] plan? Asked of 28% of a sample of farmers who had 
an opinion on the plan, (aipo) 

Yes 74% No 26% = 100% of those 

who had an opinion on the 
plan 

12. (US Nov 30 '37) Do you wish now that the Supreme Court 
had declared the AAA constitutional? Asked of a national 
cross-section of farmers, (aipo) 

Yes 42% No 58% = 100% No opinion 38% 

13. (US June '39) Do you think our government should or 
should not control the price of farm products by controlling 
production? (for) 

Should 22.9% 

Should not 61 8 

Don't know or depends. . . 153 



COOKERY 



1. (Sweden Apr '42) Do you bake more or less frequently in 
your household than before bread rationing? (soi) 

More often 23% Less often 39% The same 38% 

2. (Great Britain July '42) Do you cook a mid-day meal? 
Asked of a national cross-section of housewives, (bipo) 

Yes 77% No 23% 



CORPORATIONS 



Taxation 

1. (US Jan 25 '38) Do you think large corporations should 
pay special taxes not levied on small corporations? (aipo) 
Yes 52% No 32% No opinion 16% 

2. (US May 2 '39) Do you think that conditions in this coun- 
try would be more prosperous if taxes on business were re- 
duced? (aipo) 

Yes 61% No 19% No opinion 20% 



[137] 



3. (US Sept '40) If the corporation tax laws were amended to 
permit the amortization of plants devoted to war orders within 
the period of emergency, would you regard it as fair or unfair 
if such amortization charges were paid into a suspended ac- 
count, this account to be subject to tax only in so far as the 
plant proved to be of value after the emergency had passed? 
Asked of a national cross-section of business executives, (for) 
Fair 88.0% Unfair 8.9% Don't know or no answer 3.1% 

4. (US May 15 '45) Do you think Congress should reduce 
taxes on business this year, or should this wait until after 
Japan is defeated? (aipo) 

This year 16% Wait 74% No opinion 10% 

5. (US Aug 23 '45) There have been all sorts of ideas suggested 
for things we should do in this country after the war, and 
we'd like to know how you feel about some of them. Do 
you think it is a good idea or not such a good idea to reduce 
taxes on corporation profits? (nyht) 

Good idea Not so good Don't know 
National total* 33.3% 37.6% 29.1% 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 



Prosperous 48.6% 

Upper middle 41 .6 

Lower middle 30.9 

Poor 24.1 



BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 



Urban 35.6% 

Rural 24.4 

* National total from Fortune Aug '45- 



35.9% 


15.5% 


38.8 


19.6 


41.9 


27.2 


356 


40.3 


rY 
36.6% 


27.8% 


41.6 


34.0 



CORRUPTION (IN POLITICS) 



1. (us Apr 4 '36, May 10 '37, Mar 23 '38) In your opinion, 
does politics play a part in the handling of relief in your lo- 
cality? (aipo) 



Yes 



No 



National total 

Apr '36 

Reliefers only 

Apr '36 

May '37 62 

Mar '38 78 



65% 18% 



No 
opinion 

17% = 100% 



49 



25 
17 
22 



100% 

APR '36 RESULTS BY POLITICS 

Democratic 55% 25% 

Republican 80 8 

Socialist 77 9 

APR '36 RESULTS STATE BY STATE 

Arkansas 83% 14% 

New Jersey 78 12 

West Virginia 77 13 

Louisiana 76 9 

Rhode Island 76 14 

Connecticut 75 14 

Mississippi 75 14 

Washington 73 12 

Massachusetts 72 14 

Oklahoma 71 19 

New Mexico 71 18 

Kansas 70' 20 

Minnesota 69 17 



26 
21 
18 

20% 

12 

14 

3% 
10 
10 
15 
10 
11 
11 
15 
14 
10 
11 
10 
14 



= 100 
= 100 



I 



Arizona 

Maine 

New York 

South Dakota . . . 

Texas 

Wyoming 

Idaho 

Florida 

Alabama 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania. . . . 

California 

Tennessee 

Virginia 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

Missouri 

Indiana 

Michigan 

New Hampshire. 
North Dakota. . . 

Delaware 

Iowa 

Wisconsin 

Illinois 

Georgia 

Colorado 

Maryland 

Utah 

Oregon 

North Carolina. . 

Montana 

Vermont 

Kentucky 



Yes 

69% 

68 

68 

68 

68 

67 

67 

67 

67 

67 

67 

65 

65 

65 

65 

63 

63 

63 

63 

63 

62 

61 

62 

61 

60 

60 

59 

58 

56 

56 

55 

52 

51 

43 



No 

19% 
17 
16 
20 
17 
27 
21 
15 
13 
15 
18 
13 
22 
17 
20 
24 
23 
21 
10 
9 
30 
23 
22 
21 
18 
21 
28 
18 
27 
23 
18 
17 
38 
27 



No 
opinion 

15 
16 
12 
15 

6 
12 
18 
20 
18 
15 
22 
13 
18 
15 
13 
14 
16 
27 
28 

8 
16 
16 
18 
22 
19 
13 
24 
17 
21 
27 
31 
11 
30 



2. (US Mar 23 '38) How large a part does politics play in 
giving relief in this community? (aipo) 



None 
National total 16% 



A 
little 

31% 



Quite a 
bit 

53% = 



No 
opinion 

100% 25% 



BY POLITICS 

Republican 13% 27% 60% 

Democratic 20 34 46 

Reliefers 23 30 47 

3. (US Apr 27 '38) Would you favor a law making it a crime 
for a relief official to attempt to influence the vote of persons 
on relief? (aipo) 

No 
Yes No opinion 

National total 86% 14% = 100% 6% 

Reliefers 82 18 

4. (US May 27 '38) Do you think the Roosevelt administra- 
tion is using the WPA to elect New Deal candidates to Con- 
gress? (aipo) 

No 
Yes No opinion 

National total 54% 46% = 100% 18% 

Reliefers only 31 69 

BY TYPES OF democrats 

1936 Democrats who are still 

for Roosevelt 25% 75% 

1936 Democrats who are now 

against Roosevelt 73 27 



u 



[ l-'^8 ] 



Yes 



No 



No 
opinion 



BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 56% 44% 

Middle Atlantic 57 43 

East central 57 43 

West central 54 46 

South 48 52 

Far West 46 54 

5. (US May 27 '38) Do you, or would you, approve of such 
use of the WPA [to elect New Deal candidates to Congress]? 
(aipo) 

No 
Yes No opinion 

National tota 1 9% 91% = 100% 7% 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England &7o 92% 

Middle Atlantic 11 89 

East central 7 93 

West central 8 92 

South 10 90 

Far West 9 91 

6. (US Sept 13 '38) In getting relief in this community do you 
think it makes a difference whether a man is a Republican or 
a Democrat? 21% of the sample who thought it made a differ- 
ence were asked: In your opinion, which has the advantage, 
a Republican or a Democrat? (aipo) 

Republican has advantage 1% 

Democrat has advantage 19 

Don't know which has the advantage 1 

Politics makes no difference 66 

Don't know whether or not politics makes a difference. . 13 

7. (US Aug 17 '39) The Hatch Bill, recently passed by Con- 
gress, prohibits regular employees of the federal government 
from taking an active part in political campaigns. Would you 
favor such a law for state employees in this state? (aipo) 



Yes 60% 



No 25% 



No opinion 15% 



COST AND STANDARD OF LIVING 



1. (US Oct '35) Has your cost of living in the past year gone 
up, down, or stayed the same? (for) 

Up 76.4% Down 2.7% Same 18.6% Don't know 2.3% 

2. (US Oct '35) In what items did you notice the rise [in the 
cost of living]? Asked of 76.4% of the sample who said the 
cost of living had risen in the past year, (for) 

Groceries 35-1% 

Meats 31.1 

Everything 23.7 

Clothing 6.6 

Housing 2.6 

Other 5 

Don't know 4 



3. (US Jan 5 '37) How much income a year do you think the 
average family of four needs for health and comfort in this 
community? Qune 30 '42 and Nov 15 '44) How much income 
per week do you think the average family of four needs for 
health and comfort? (Jan 23 '46) What is the smallest amount 
of money a family of four (husband, wife, and two children) 
needs each week to get along on in this community? (aipo) 

JAN '37 RESULTS 

Under $549 2% 

$550 to $1,049 9 

$1,050 to $1,549 15 

$1,550 to $2,049 33 

$2,050 to $2,549 22 

$2,550 to $3,049 11 

$3,050 to $3,549 2 

$3,550 to $4,049 3 

$4,050 to $9,999 3 

$10,000 and over * 

* Less than 0.5%. 



Median 
National average (median). 



By week 
. $38 



100.0% of those 

questioned 



1937 RESULTS BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England $39 

Middle Atlantic 39 

East central ' 38 

West central 33 

South (excluding Negroes) 33 

Mountain 38 

Pacific coast 39 

1937 RESULTS BY OCCUPATION 

Professional and white-collar $40 

Merchants, businessmen 39 

Skilled laborers 39 

Farmers 28 

"Lower-third" 28 

1937 RESULTS BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

City dwellers $39 

Small-town dwellers 29 

JUNE '42 RESULTS 

$20 and under 11% 

$21 to $25 13 

$26 to $30 12 

$31 to $35 10 

$36 to $40 18 

$41 to $49 4 

$50 20 

$51 and over 9 

No answer 3 

NOV '44 RESULTS 

$20 and under 4% 

$21-$25 6 

$26-$34 6 

$35 8 

$35-$39 1 

$40-$44 15 

$45-$49 6 

$50-$54 28 

$55-$60 10 

$61-$79 9 

$80 and over ~ 4 

No opinion 3 



$2,020 
2,030 
1,980 
1,760 
1,760 
2,000 
2,030 



$2,044 
2,010 
2,010 
1,480 
1,500 



$2,010 
1,530 



[139] 



Average sum 
named 



National total . 



1944 RESULTS BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England $48 

Middle Atlantic 49 

East central 48 

West central 42 

South 40 

Mountain 48 

Pacific coast 50 

1944 RESULTS BY OCCUPATION 

Professional $51 

Business 50 

White-collar 50 

Skilled workers 49 

Semi-skilled 48 

Unskilled 42 

Farmers 38 

JAN '46 RESULTS 

No answer, don't know. . . . 4% 

Under $25 7 

$25 to under $30 10 

$30 to under $35 10 

$35 to under $40 11 

$40 to under $45 16 

$45 to under $50 5 

$50 to under $60 23 

$60 to under $70 8 

$70 to under $75 1 

$75 to under $80 3 

$80 to under $100 1 

$100 and over 1 

Median— $40 to under $45 

4. (US Jan 23 '46) Is your total weekly family income larger 
or smaller than this [amount mentioned by the Jan '46 sample 
in previous question]? (aipo) 

Larger 45% 

Smaller 32 

Same 12 

No answer 6 

Don't know 5 

6. (Great Britain Apr 3 '37 to Nov '46, dates listed below) 
(bipo) 

(Apr 3 '37) What annual income do you think an average 
family of four needs for fitness and comfort? 

Median £300 per year (or approximately $1,500 a year) 

Qune '37) How much a week does a family of four need to 
live decently? 

Median £4 per week 
(Oct '38) How much income a week do you think a family 
of four needs for health and comfort? 



Under £4 

£4 

£5 

£5/10s 

£6 

£6/10s. and over . 



Total 


Higher 


Middle 


Lower 


34% 


17% 


21% 


41% 


30 


27 


26 


29 


25 


23 


34 


23 


3 


5 


5 


1 


5 


11 


7 


4 


3 


17 


7 


2 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Hi^er 

Under £3 per week 5% 

£3-4 per week 17 

£4-5 per week 32 

£5-6 per week 21 

£6-7 per week 6 

£7-8 per week 5 

£8 and over 8 

Don't know 6 

Average £5/10 

National total average £5/0/2 
(Nov '46) How much income per week do you think a fam- 
ily of four (including husband and wife) needs for health and 
comfort? 



Middle 


Lower 


2% 


5% 


17 


22 


40 


45 


26 


20 


6 


3 


5 


2 


3 


1 


1 


2 


£5/6 


£4/18 



National 



Very 



total Higher Middle Lower poor 

Under £4 4% 1% - 5% 2% 

£4 12 3 2% 17 7 

£5 8 12 11 5 23 

£5,'10s 17 7 4 24 6 

£6 10 13 18 7 22 

£6/10s 12 4 5 13 4 

£7 14 12 16 13 15 

£8 6 13 19 2 12 

£9 4 4 4 4 1 

£10 9 18 15 6 4 

Over £10 4 13 6 2 4 



By year 
$1,560 



(Jan '45) What do you think is the smallest income per week 
a family of four (including husband and wife) can live on? 



6. (US May 24 '37) In your opinion, what is the smallest 
amount of income a family of four (husband, wife and two 
children) needs a week to live decently? (Feb 22 '39) What do 
you think is the smallest weekly income that a family com- 
posed of a husband, wife and two young children must have 
to live decently? The word "comfortably" was substituted in 
a question asked of a comparable cross-section. Results were 
combined. (June 30 '42) What is the smallest amount per week 
a family of four must have to live decently? (aipo) 

MAY '37 RESULTS 

By week 
National average (Median) $30 

1937 RESULTS BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England $30 $1,560 

Middle Atlantic 35 1,820 

East central 30 1,560 

West central 25 1,300 

South (white population) 25 1,300 

South (Negroes) 12 624 

Rocky Mountain 30 1,560 

Pacific coast 35 1,820 

1937 RESULTS BY OCCUPATION 

Professional and white-collar $35 $1,820 

Merchants, businessmen 35 1,820 

Skilled laborers 35 1,820 

Farmers 25 1,300 

"Lower third" 23 1,196 

1937 RESULTS BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

City dwellers $35 $1,820 

Small-town dwellers 25 1,300 

FEB '39 RESULTS 

Under $10 2% 

$10-$19 13 

$20-$29 38 



i 



[140] 



$30-$39 25% 

$4(V$59 17 

$60-$79 2 

$80 and over * 

No answer 3 

* Less than 0.5%. 

JUNE '42 RESULTS 

$10 and under 4% 

$11-$19 6 

$20-$24 10 

$25 16 

$26-$30 13 

$31-$35 12 

$36-$40 15 

$41-$50 16 

$51 and over 3 

No answer 5 

7. (US Oct 4 '37) In your opinion, is the cost of living higher, 
lower, or about the same as it was a year ago? (aipo) 

Higher Lower Same 

National total 86% 1% 13% 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 92% 

Middle Atlantic 85 

East central 88 

West central 82 

South 79 

Rocky Mountain 89 

Pacific coast 91 

8. (US Oct 4 '37) What of your expenses have gone up most? 
Asked of a national cross-section of people who thought liv- 
ing was higher than it was a year earlier. 86% of the sample 
is represented, (aipo) 

Coal 1% 

Food 59 

Clothing 18 

Rent 9 

Everything 4 

Household expenses in general 1 

Taxes 1 

All others 3 

Living costs 3 

Higher wages increase labor costs. . . 1 



1% 


7% 




13 




11 




17 




20 




10 




8 



1007c of those 
who thought the cost of living higher than a 
year earlier 
No answer 2% 

9. (US Oct 4 '37) V/hat, in your opinion, is the chief cause of 
the increased cost of living? Asked of a national cross-section 
of those who thought their cost of living higher than it was 
a year earlier. 86% of the sample is represented, (aipo) 

Higher wages 19% 

Unsettled labor situation 12 

Increased taxes 10 

Crop control ' 8 

New Deal policies 7 

Drought, bad weather 5 

Increase in business 5 

Shortage of hogs and cattle; food ... 4 

Government expenditures 4 

Increased prices 3 

Profiteering and monopoly 3 

Increased purchasing power 2 



Increased cost of production 2% 

WPA; welfare 2 

Foreign wars 

Increased price of farm products 

Inflation of money and credit 

More people employed 

Under production 

All others 8 

The middle man 1 



100% of those 
who thought their cost of living was higher 
than a year earlier 
No answer 35% 

10. (US Jan '38) How much money per week do you think 
the average family of four needs to live on around here, in- 
cluding necessities and a few inexpensive pleasures? (for) 



Under Mentioned 
$15 $25-$40 

National total 21.6% 49.0% 



ECONOMIC STATUS 



Prosperous 14.9% 45.5% 

Poor 256 53.9 

Negroes 59.2 25.0 



Over 

$40 

22.3% 

30.2% 

13.2 

10.3 



BY geographical section 



Mountain 10.7% 

Northeast 11.1 

Southeast 35.5 

Southwest 45. 7 



51.1% 
53.4 
47.5 
34.5 



BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Cities over 1,000,000. . . 5.2% 46.2% 

Cities 25,000 to 100,000 9-6 57.2 

Towns under 2,500. .. . 331 46.5 

Rural 359 42 5 

BY OCCUPATION 

Minor salaried workers 9.1% 56.0% 

Executives 15.5 54.4 

Factory labor 18.0 594 

Farm labor 53. 4 25.1 



35.5% 
28.2 
11.2 
13.8 

44.8% 
26.2 
13.4 
11.1 



31.6% 
26.6 
22.2 
4.7 



Don't 

know 

9.4% 

7.3 

55 

2.7% 
7.3 
58 
6.0 



3.8% 
7.0 
7.0 
10.5 

3.3% 
3.5 
1.4 
16.8 



11. (US Oct '40) Do you believe that it will be possible during 
the period of rearmament to maintain the United States stand- 
ard of living at present levels by continuing to meet our normal 
peacetime needs, or do you think that building our defenses 
will have to be done at the expense of production for ordinary 
use? Asked of a national cross-section of business executives. 
(for) 

Standards can be maintained 58.1% 

Standards must be lowered 39.7 

Don't know or no answer 2.2 

12. (US July 9 '41) What is the smallest amount per month a 
married couple needs for a decent living? (aipo) 

Median monthly sum 
for married couples 
National total $73 

BY geographical SECTION 

New England and mid-Atlantic. . . . $78 

East central 74 

West central 59 

South 59 

West 76 



[141] 



Median monthly sum 

for married couples 

BY AGE 

21-34 years $77 

35-44 years 74 

45-59 years 73 

60 years and over 62 

13. (US July 9 '41) What do you think is the smallest income 
per month that a single person over sixty needs for a decent 
living in your community? (aipo) 

Median monthly sum 
for single person 
National total $42 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England and mid-Atlantic ... $50 

East central 42 

West central 37 

South 32 

West 48 

BY AGE 

21-34 years $48 

35-44 years 46 

45-59 years 41 

60 years and over 40 

14. (US Feb 14 '42) When the war is over, do you think the 
United States should, or should not, take a full and active 
part along with other nations in helping to secure better work- 
ing and living conditions for people all over the world? (norc) 
Should 87% Should not 9% Don't know 4% 

15. (US Apr 15 '42) On the average, about how much does 
your family spend on food each week? (aipo) 

Median $11 
(Feb 13 '46) On the average, about how much does your 
family spend on food, including milk, each week now? (aipo) 

$5 or less 4% 

$6-$10 19 

$11-$15 25 

$16-$20 24 

$21-$25 14 

Over $25 14 

Median 
National median $17 

BY OCCUPATION 

Professional and business. . $20 

White-collar 18 

Manual workers 15 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Farms $10 

Towns under 10,000 15 

Towns 10,000-100,000 15 

100,000 and over 20 

16. (Sweden May '42) If you earn your living and live at home, 
how much do you pay for board and lodging? Asked of a na- 
tional cross-section of young people, (sgi) 

B More 

B One One 

" Half 'third quarter 

BY SEX 

All boys 23% 33% 14% 

All girls 25 25 12 



than 
half 

14% 



Less 

than a Noth- 
quarter ing 



More Less 
One One than than a Noth- 
Half third quarter half quarter ing 

SIZE OF COMMUNITY BY SEX 

Towns and provincial 

Boys 27% 29% 14% 19% 3% 8% 

Girls 26 28 12 9 4 21 

Country 

Boys 16 39 14 5 5 21 

Girls 21 18 10 6 12 33 

17. (US May 30 '42) As far as you know, has the government 
taken any steps to keep the cost of living from going higher? 
Those who said they thought the government had taken steps 
were asked: What steps? (aipo) 

Ceiling on prices 76% 

Rationing 3 

Increased taxes 1 

Ceiling on rents 7 

Wage control 1 

Other answers 1 

Thought the government had taken steps but did not 

name them 5 

Thought the government had taken no steps 15 

Didn't know whether or not the government had taken 

steps 2 



22.5% 


25.3% 


8.8% 


24.6 


26.2 


6.8 


28.0 


23.4 


7.2 


25.6 


24.8 


11.4 


26.3 


12.8 


14.4 



4% 
6 



12% 
24 



111%* 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

18. (US July '42) Five years after the war is over, do you 
think we Americans will be leading about the same sort of 
life as we did before the war, or will it be a better life, or a 
worse life? (for) 

Better Same Worse Don't know 

National total 41.5% 26.2% 23.4% 8.9% 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Prosperous 43.4% 

Upper middle 42.4 

Lower middle 41.4 

Poor 38.2 

Negro 46.5 

19. (US July '42) Five years after the war do you think that 
your standard of living will be higher, lower, or about the 
same as before the war? (for) 

Higher Same Lower Don't know 

National total 25.2% 41.4% 25.9% 7.5% 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Prosperous 16.0% 

Upper middle 22.4 

Lower middle 27.3 

Poor 258 

Negro 27.5 

20. (US Sept 15 '42) To keep the cost of living from going 
higher, do you favor keeping salaries and wages, and the prices 
of farm products from going higher? (aipo) 

Yes 71% No 11% No opinion 6% Qualified answers 12% 

21. (Canada Nov 25 '42) Do you think the cost-of-living bonus 
now paid to ordinary workers in Canada should also be paid 
to old-age pensioners and to dependents of men serving in the 
armed forces? (cipo) 



35.9% 


45.0% 


3.1% 


42.1 


31.7 


3.8 


43.0 


23.5 


6.2 


41.4 


22.0 


10.8 


36.8 


18.6 


17.1 



L 



[142] 



Yes 



No No opinion 
10% 6% 



National total 84% 

BY PROVINCES 

Maritimes 68% 21% 11% 

Quebec 75 



Ontario . 

Prairies 

British Columbia 



90 
96 



16 
6 
5 
2 



22. (Great Britain Dec 27 '42) Do you feel that the govern- 
ment will try to improve the standard of life after the war? 
(bipo) 

Yes 68% No 12% Don't know 20% 

23. (US May 22 '43, Jan 7 '44, June 23 '44) As you know, the 
government is trying to fix ceiling prices. Can you think of 
anything else the government is doing to try to keep the cost 
of living down? (norc) 

MAY '43 RESULTS 

Rationing 12% 

Rationing of fuel; cutting down of transportation 2 

Rationing (critical response) 1 

Controlling wages 11 

Controlling wages (critical response) * 

Increasing production 5 

Encouraging the purchase of war bonds 4 

Increasing taxes 3 

Subsidies to farmers 3 

Other help to farmer 1 

Encouraging thrift, saving, and discouraging unneces- 
sary buying 4 

Discouraging black markets and enforcing ceilings. ... 2 

Stabilizing rents 2 

Miscellaneous 3 

Critical answers 10 

Answers in terms of what the government should do , . 1 
Don't know what but know something is being done; 

they are doing all they can 5 

Not ascertainable 47 



116%** 

JAN '44 RESULTS 

Controlling wages 10% 

Subsidies to farmers 10 

Other help to the farmer * 

Rationing (general) 7 

Rationing of fuel; cutting down on transportation. ... * 

Buying war bonds 6 

Discouraging black markets and enforcing ceiling prices 5 
Encouraging thrift, saving, and discouraging unneces- 
sary buying 4 

Increasing taxes 3 

Increasing production 2 

Stabilizing rents 2 

Miscellaneous 3 

Critical answers 5 

Answers in terms of what the government should do . 1 

Praise of government 3 

Not ascertainable 50 



JUNE '44 RESULTS 

Controlling wages 7% 

Buying war bonds 7 

Rationing 5 

Rationing of fuel; cutting down on transportation. ... 1 



Discouraging black markets and enforcing ceiling prices 4% 

Encouraging thrift, saving, and discouraging buying. . 4 

Subsidies for farmers 3 

Other help for farmers 1 

Increasing taxes 3 

Increasing production 3 

Stabilizing rents 1 

Miscellaneous 1 

Critical answers 5 

Answers in terms of what government should do 1 

Praise of government 3 

Don't know 60 



109%** 
*Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

24. (US May 22 '43, Sept 9 '43, Jan 7 '44, June 23 '44) What 

do you think you personally could do to help keep the cost 

of living in this country from going too high? In May '43 the 
phrase "in this country" was shifted to the end of the ques- 
tion, (norc) 

May Sept Jan June 

'43 '43 '44 '44 
Saving; buying necessities 

only 41% 36%, 44%, 41% 

Producing food 20 12 10 13 

Canning and preserving 5 6 3 5 

Don't pay high prices (no 

mention of ceiling) 6 7 6 6 

Avoid black markets 6 6 11 11 

Abide by government regula- 
tions 3 2 5 4 

Don't pay over ceiling prices 2 4 7 8 
Report black markets and 

high prices 2 3 2 2 

Don't ask hi h prices or 

wages 1 2 2 1 

Buy bonds 5 7 6 6 

Don't go in debt . .' * — * — 

Take public action 12 2 2 

Miscellaneous 1 3 1 — 

Nothing to do 16 16 13 14 

Not ascertainable 8 12 — — 

Don't know — — 12 13 



117%** 118%** 124%** 126%** 

* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

25. (US May 22 '43, Sept 9 '43, Jan 7 '44, May 18 '44, June 23 
'44) If we didn't have rationing, do you think the cost of living 
would be higher or lower than it is now? Those who thought 
the cost of living would be lower in Jan '44 and those who 
thought it would be either higher or lower in the May and 
June samples were asked: Why do you think so? or just why? 
In Jan '44, 9% of the sample thought the cost of living would 
be lower; in May '44, 66% thought it would be higher and 
6% thought it would be lower; in June '44, 69% thought it 
would be higher and 8% thought it would be lower, (norc) 

May Sept Jan May June 

'43 '43 '44 '44 '44 

Think cost of living 

would be higher. . .^ . 74% 71% 68% — — 

Think it would be the 



13 



13 



13 



15? 



15% 



[143] 



May 


Sept 


Jan 


May 


June 


V3 


'43 


'44 


'44 


'44 


Don't know whether it 










would be higher or 










lower 5% 


5% 


10% 


13% 


8% 


Would be lower (not 










asked why) 8 


11 


— 


— 


— 


Prices would be lower 










because 










1 People buy to use cou- 










1 pons; rationing in- 










\ creases demand — 


— 


5 


2 


2 


Normal laws of supply 










and demand don't 










, operate under ra- 










' tioning — 


— 


2 


1 


2 


Merchants charge 










more for things peo- 










ple have to have ... — 


— 


1 • 


1 


1 


Black market exists 










with rationing — 


— 


* 


1 


1 


Rationing raises prices 










on unrationed goods — 


— 


* 


* 


* 


Miscellaneous reasons — 


— 


1 


1 


1 


Don't know any rea- 










son — 


— 


1 


1 


1 


Prices would be higher 










because 










Overbuying and 










hoarding would 










cause shortages .... — 


— 


— 


14 


26 


People would buy 










more and there 










wouldn't be enough 










to go around — 


— 


— 


13 


10 


People would pay 










higher prices and 










bid against each 










other — 


— 


— 


12 


12 


Dealers would raise 










prices; profiteering; 










black market — 


— 


— 


12 


13 


Rationing is a good 










thing; helps control 










prices (general). ... — 


— 


— 


11 


8 


People would be more 










wasteful — 


— 


— 


1 


1 


Miscellaneous reasons — 


— 


— 


* 


— 


Don't know any rea- 










son — 


— 


— 


4 
102%** 


3 


100% 


100% 


101%** 


104% 



* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

26. (US May 22 '43, Sept 9 '43, Jan 7 '44, June 23 '44) Do you 
think there is any danger of the cost of living going so high 
in the next year that you'll really have trouble getting along? 
(norc) 

III Y,s 

mt May '43 30% 

■- Sept '43 32 

B Jan '44 23 

W June '44 21 

27. (Canada May 26 '43) If you (or your husband) found 
yourself out of a job tomorrow and had no money or property 



Na 


Don't know 


60% 


10% 


61 


7 


61 


16 


67 


12 



at all, what is the least amount of money that you (or your 
immediate family) would need to get along on? (cipo) 

IN COMPARISON WITH BEVERIDGE BENEFITS 

Single Two Three Four or more 

persons persons persons persons 

Public estimate $15.00 $20.00 $25.00 $25.00 

Beveridge benefits .. . 4.85 8.08 9.70 11.32 

28. (Canada June 19 '43) Have you found that your cost-of- 
living bonus is large enough to take care of the increased cost 
of living — that is, without taking higher taxes into considera- 
tion? (ciPo) 

Yes 15% No 77% Not sure 8% 

29. (Canada June 19 '43) Do you happen to know whether 
the money for the cost-of-living bonus comes from the gov- 
ernment or from your employer? (cipo) 

From government 21% 

From employer 48 

Both 8 

Don't know 23 

30. (US Sept 9 '43, Jan 7 '44, June 23 '44) Have you heard 
anything on the radio recently about what people can do to 
keep the cost of living in this country from going too high? 
In Sept '43, 35% of the sample; in Jan '44, 46% of the sample, 
and in June '44, 33% of the sample who said they had heard 
something were asked: What were they asking people to do? 
(norc) 

Sept Jan June 
'43 '44 '44 

Hadn't heard anything about it 63% 51% 65% 

Don't know whether or not have 

heard 2 3 2 

Economize and buy as little as pos- 
sible 11 18 15 

Avoid black markets and watch ceil- 
ing prices 11 10 9 

Buy war bonds and stamps 6 5 7 

Buy bonds instead of buying other 

things 4 6 1 

Produce and preserve food 2 2 3 

Report black markets and ceiling vio- 
lations 2 1 1 

Other specific answers 1 — — 

Pay no more than top legal prices — 9 7 

Support rationing — 5 3 

Don't ask more for goods or wages 

and salaries — 1 

Pay off your old debts and avoid mak- 
ing new ones — 

Don't know what they were asking. . — 3 1 

Miscellaneous general answers * 2. * 

Had heard about what to do but 

didn't offer any answer 1 — — 

Pay willingly any taxes; higher taxes — — * 

103%** 116%** 114%,** 

* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

31. (US Sept 9 '43, Jan 7 '44, June 23 '44) How about maga- 
zines and newspapers? Have you read anything lately about 
what people can do to keep the cost of living in this country 



[144] 



from going too high? In Sept 1943, 33% of the sample, in 
Jan '44, 37% of the sample and in June '44, 30% of the sample 
who said they had read something were asked: What were 
they asking people to do? (norc) 

June 
'44 

16% 

8 
9 



Sept 
••/3 
Economize and buv as little as pos- 
sible '. 14% 

Avoid black markets and watch ceil- 
ing prices 10 

Buy war bonds and stamps 4 

Buy bonds instead of buying other 

things 3 

Produce and preser\'e food 3 

Report black markets and ceiling vio- 
lations 1 

Don't ask more for goods or wages or 

salaries — 

Pay willingly any taxes — higher taxes — 
Pay off your old debts and avoid mak- 
ing new ones — 

Support rationing — 

Pay no more than top legal prices. ... — 
Don't know what they were asking. . — 

Miscellaneous 1 

Other miscellaneous specific answers . . 1 

Not ascertainable 2 

Hadn't read anything 64 

Didn't know whether or not had read 
anything 3 



Jan 
'44 

20% 

7 
12 

1 
2 



59 



68 



106%** 121%** 117%** 

* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 



32. (Sweden Oct '43) In your opinion, is living more expensive 
now than it was in the autumn of 1942? (sGi) 



More Less 

expensive expensive 
National total 53% 30% 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Towns 59% 26% 

Country' 50 32 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 



Upper class 44% 



Middle class . 
Workers . 



49 
56 



34% 
33 

27 



Don't 
know 

17% 



18 

22% 

18 

17 



Easier 


Same 


Don't knoii 


12.6% 


36.8% 


1.0% 


95 


47.2 


2.3 


9.2 


50.0 


3.3 



33. (US Dec '43, Aug '45, Jan '46) Compared with last year, 
are you finding it harder, easier, or about the same to make 
both ends meet? (for) 

Harder 

Dec '43 49.6% 

Aug '45 41.0 

Jan '46 375 

34. (US June 23 '44) Have you seen anything in the movies 
lately about what people can do to keep the cost of living in 
this country from going too high? 17% of the sample who 
said they had seen something were asked: What were they 
asking people to do? (norc) 

Buy only what vou need, conserve what vou have. . . . 6% 
Buy and hold war bonds 6 



Avoid black markets (general) 5% 

Pay no more than top legal prices 2 

Support rationing 2 

Produce or preserve food 1 

Report violations * 

Buy war bonds instead of other things * 

Don't ask more for goods, wages, or salaries * 

Pay willingly any taxes, higher taxes, your country 

needs * 

Pay off your old debts and avoid making new ones. ... * 

Miscellaneous * 

Don't know what they were asking 1 

Haven't seen anything 82 

Don't know whether or not have seen anything 1 



1 



I 



* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 



35. (Australia Apr '45) How much money a week do you 
think the average family of four needs, if they pay rent? (apop) 



£5.. 

£6 

£7.. 

£10. 



Don't know. 



. 18% 

. 46 

. 23 

. 10 
. 3 

100% 

. 10% 



National average £6. 7/11 

State Average 

South Australia £6/1/3 

Tasmania £6/2/1 

Queensland £6 4/2 

Victoria £6. 7/5 

New South Wales £6,,'9/6 

Western Australia £6/10/8 



36. (France July '45, Jan '46, July '45, Nov '46) In your opin- 
ion, how much money does a familv of four persons need per 
month to live in your locality? (fipo) 

BY size of community 



July '45 Jan '46 July '46 Nov '46 



Under 2,000 pop- 
ulation 

2,000-20,000 . . 
20,000-40,000. 
40,000-100,000 
Over 100,000. . 



5,600 fr. 
7,100 fr. 
8,500 fr. 



7,900 fr. 
10,500 fr. 
12,850 fr. 



9,900 fr. 
11,600 fr. 
15,600 fr. 



12,100 6-. 
15,000 fr. 
19,200 fr. 



9,700 fr. 14,500 fr. 16,000 fr. 19,400 fr. 
10,300 fr. 15,850 fr. 17,000 fr. 21,800 fr. 



37. (US Aug '45) Of course no one can tell for sure, but just 
as a guess in about a year do you think you will be finding it 
harder, easier, or about the same as now to make both ends 
meet? (for) 

Harder 31.1% 

Easier 10.6 

Same 49-2 

Don't know 9.1 



38. (Hungarv Jan '46) When do vou expect living conditions 

to improve? (hipor) 



4 



[145] 



Opinions in Budapest 



Opinions outside Budapest 



EDUCATED 






working 



BETWEEN 



danubian tisza 



After signing of peace 
treaty 

After harvest 

When loan comes 

After completion or can- 
celing of reparations; 
after stabilization 

Shortly 

After 1-2 years 

After 3-5 years 

After 6-10 years or more . . 

Qualified; undecided; no 
answer 



f5 


%> 

5 


S: H !s S; 

fe ^ ^ ^ 




% 


% 


% % % % 


07 
rO 


25.7 


29.3 


34.6 26.0 26.0 22.6 


24.1 


4.8 


39 


2.3 3.0 4.9 5.0 


7.0 


4.2 


3.2 


8.3 3.0 5.4 2.3 


5.1 


2.6 


2.8 


6.0 4.5 1.1 3.2 


0.6 


9.0 


2.8 


3.8 11.8 5.0 10.1 


12.8 


20.0 


20.1 


17.2 18.5 23.4-20.7 


19.1 


19.6 


19.0 


15.0 19.2 25.0 18.0 


19.1 


8.2 


9.8 


7.6 9.6 4.8 9.9 


7.7 



5.9 9.1 5.2 4.4 4.4 8.2 4.5 



Opinions outside Budapest 



After signing of peace 
treaty 

After harvest 

When loan comes . . . 

After completion or 
canceling of repara- 
tions; after stabili- 
zation. 

Shortly 

After 1-2 years 

After 3-5 years 

After 6-10 years or 
more 

Qualified; undecided; 
no answer 







AREA 












BETWEEN 








IRANS 


danube- 






beyond 


DANU 


BIAN 


TISZA 


north 


TISZA 


a 




1 




s 


1 

2 


Towns 
Villages 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% % 


12.8 


8.3 


9.5 


7.5 


14.7 


17.4 28.3 26.4 


4.5 


3.6 


4.5 


— 


2.4 


9.5 


— — 


0.8 


— 


2.2 


0.9 


— 


— 


1.0 — 



0.5 2.4 0.6 — 3.3 1.5 7.7 5.7 

6.5 13.1 11.2 6.0 10.8 16.2 — — 

33.0 37.0 32.6 28.5 15.1 13.2 — 19 

18.2 18.9 22.7 33.4 10.8 11.0 — 3.8 

6.0 3.6 7.9 19.0 7.5 2.2 6.5 15.1 

17.7 13.1 8.8 4.7 35.4 29.0 56.5 47.1 



39. (Hungary Jan '46) With democracy, do you think the 
standard of living will be higher, lower, or the same? (hipor) 



Opinions in Budapest 



middle 
educated class working 



I 



Higher 

Lower 

Unchanged 

Depends on conditions 
Other; no answer 



% 



% 



^ :§ ^ 

% % % 

55.3 62.2 57.6 49.3 51.8 

20.5 16.7 22.0 18.8 24.4 

16.8 13.9 16.7 22.5 16.6 17.4 

59 4.8 3.7 8.7 6.1 8.8 

1.5 2.4 — 0.7 1.1 0.9 



a 

% 

54.8 
18.1 



% 

59.0 

22.1 

13.2 

2.5 

3.2 



ss 
S 

% 

Higher 76.0 

Lower 3.8 

Unchanged 17.2 

Depends on condi- 
tions 0.5 

Other; no answer. . . 2.5 



% 
73.9 

3.5 
21.4 



% 



% 



s 

% 



% 



80.6 87.0 87.8 77.9 
8.7 5.1 4.2 2.9 
7.3 7.4 7.5 19.2 



0.5 



a 
t^ 

% 
56.4 
38.1 

4.4 



% 
56.7 
43.3 



1.2 3.4 — 0.5 — 1.1 — 



40. (Germany Jan 14 '46, Jan 31 '46, Feb '46, May 8 '46, 
July 1 '46, Oct 28 '46) Is the total income of your family 
enough to cover necessary expenses? Those who said the family 
income was not enough were asked: How can you purchase 
the things your family needs? The second question represents 
32% of the Jan 14 sample, 29% of the Jan 31 sample, 31% of 
the Feb sample, 29% of the May sample, and 32% of the July 
sample. In Oct the second question was not asked, (omgus) 



Family income is suf- 



Not able to purchase 

needed items 3 

Buying needed items 

from savings 23 

Buying by other 

means 6 

Didn't say how were 

buying — 

Getting help from 

relatives — 

Bartering for needed 

items — 

Getting help from 

welfare agency ... — 
Doing temporary 

work — 

Didn't answer the 

question 1 

No — 

No answer — 



71% 68% 71% 68% 60% 
2 3 2 5 — 



23 
3 
1 


23 


22 


23 


2 


2 


1 


— 


4 


3 


3 



39 
1 



100% 100% 100% 100% 101%** 100% 

* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

41. (Germany Feb '46) Do you think that the increased taxes 
will make it impossible for you to meet all your necessary 
expenses? (omgus) 

Yes 24% 

No 53 

No opinion 17 

No answer 6 

42. (Netherlands Mar '46) What income, that is, what wages 
or salary a week does a family of a man, woman, and two 
children need in order to be able to make both ends meet? 
(Oct '46) In your opinion, what wages or salary per week 



I 



[146] 



does a family of a man, wife, and two children need to be 
able to make both ends meet? (nipo) 

Mar '46 Oct '46 

Less than 30 fl* 3% 1% 

30 fl 6 4 

31-35 fl 12 8 

36-40 fl 27 19 

41-45 fl 22 17 

46-50 fl 22 27 

51-55 fl 2 6 

56-60 fl 5 11 

More than 60 fl 1 7 

Median 48 fl. per week 

* 10 Dutch florins were approximately one English pound at this time. 

43. (Hungary Mar '46) Do vou think the standard of living 
is higher or lower as a consequence of democratic organiza- 
tion? (hipor) 

BY geographical SECTION 

Higher Lower Same Uncertain 

Budapest 56% 21% ' 17% 6% 

West Hungary 77 8 12 3 

East Hungary 69 16 11 4 

44. (Hungary Mar '46) When do you expect a rise in the stand- 
ard of living will occur? (hipor) 

This year 42% Later 52% Uncertain 6% 

45. (Canada Apr 10 '46) What do you think is the smallest 
amount of money a family of four (husband, wife, and two 
children) needs each week to live in health and decency in this 
community? (cipo) 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Towns under 10,000 population $35 per week* 

Towns over 10,000 population 40 per week 

* Because of difficulty in differentiating between cash and other in- 
come on the farm, results were based on non-farm communities. 

46. (Germany June 7 '46) Have you heard whether or not the 
four occupation powers have announced their plans as to how 
much industry Germany is to have in the future? 36% of the 
sample who said they had heard were asked : Under the new 
plan, will the German people have a standard of living as 
good as or worse than the average of the continental European 
countries — that is, will it be as good as or worse than the 
average of the European countries excluding England and 
Russia? (oMGUs) 

Announcement ha not been made 11% 

Don't know whether announcement has been made 53 

Standard of living will be as good 3 

Will be worse 21 

Will be about the same 9 

Don't know how it will be 3 

47. (Germany June 7 '46) 64% of the German sample who 
thought the announcement about the future industry in Ger- 
many had not been made or who didn't know whether or not 
it had been made were asked; What does the phrase "standard 
of living" mean to you? (omgus) 

What you need to live (material); so you can get along 
without difficulty; ways and means of living; what 

people work for — money and food 24% 

Fundamental things of life (both material and otherwise) 4 
Cross-section of what makes up living in every field. ... 5 
Other r * 



No answer 10% 

Don't know; can't say; irrelevant 21 



* Less than 0.5%. 



64% 



48. (Germany June 7 '46) How well the German people will 
be able to live, how much they will be able to buy, and what 
kinds of things they can buy is being specifically outlined by 
the four Allied powers. Under this new plan, do you expect 
that the German people will have a standard of living as good 
as or worse than the average of the cont nental European 
countries — that is, will it be as good as or worse than the 
average of the European countries, excluding England and 
Russia? Asked of the same 64% as the previous question. 
(omgus) 

As good as 5% 

Worse than 24 

About the same 14 

Can't judge 17 

No answer 4 

64% 

49. (Germany June 7 '46) And what about the limits on your 
standard of living — do you believe that they are justified or 
unjustified? (omgus) 

Justified 30% 

Unjustified 48 

No opin on 21 

No answer 1 

50. (Germany June 7 '46) Why [do you believe the limits on 
vour standard of living arc] justified? Asked of 30% of the 
sample who thought the limits on their standard of living 
were justified, (omgus) 

The restrictions are consequence of war; we lost the war; 
this always happened after a war; we've got to be good 
losers. ..'. 16% 

The restrictions are consequence of war; we deserve pun- 
ishment; we should be punished * 

The restrictions are necessary (for Germany); available 
things will be fairly divided; everybody will get a 
share of what little there is; general equalization; every- 
body must live 6 

The restrictions are necessary (for Europe); other coun- 
tries are as badly off or worse off than we are; as long 
as other nations are hungry, we should be hungry too; 
we did the same to other countries 4 

Generally justified; everybody must make the best of the 
situation 2 

Restrictions don't affect me, or don't affect me much; I 
am better off than people who have lost everything. . . 1 

Other ■ * 

No answer 1 



30% 



Less than 0.5%. 



51. (Germany June 7 '46) Why [do you believe the limits on 
your standard of living are] unjustified? Asked of 48% of the 
sample who thought the limits on their standard of living 
were unjustified, (omgus) 
Not humane; people have a right to live; we are human 

beings; everybody wants and deserves a decent life; 

I am hungry 26% 

Not guilty so don't deserve punishment; many %vere 

innocent, not everybody wanted war; most did not 

want war, did not know what was happening; the 



innocent should not suffer for the mistakes of the 
guilty leaders; I did not want war 13% 

Restrictions are too strong, go too far 5 

Standard of living is too low; results will be Com- 
munism; conditions foster radicalism * 

Standard of living is too low; Germany is a cultured 
nation and should be treated as such; we are used 
to and deserve better treatment; a reversing of culture 
is never justified; we will never get back to our proper 
level of culture 3 

No answer 3 



[147] 

Other or 

Yes No Partly no answer 
Women with fixed income 

Higher 19.9% 42.7% 36.6% 0.8% 

Lower 24.8 33.8 39.0 2.4 

Women with variable in- 
come 

Higher 40.3 40.3 19.4 — 

Lower 26.8 30.2 41.6 1.4 

Lowest 21.3 36.0 36.0 6.7 



50%** 
* Less than 05%. 

** Percentages add to more than 48 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

52. (Germany June 7 '46) How long do you think that these 
limitations [on your standard of living] will be maintained? 

(OMGUS) 

3 years or under; a short time 15% 

4-10 years; a few years 17 

11-15 years 1 

Over 15 years; a long time; "forever department" 8 

Until Allies realize that we are human beings; until the 
Allies realize that they have treated us badly; until 
Allies change their way of thinking about us; until Al- 
lies realize that we are their allies 8 

Until economic situation is better; until there are jobs 

and food for all; until food situation is cleared up; until 

trade is re-established; until world situation is cleared 16 

Until Germany has been sufficiently punished for war 

guilt; until boundaries are settled; until reparations 

are paid 1 

Until Germany and/or youth is re-educated; until we 

can govern ourselves 4 

Other (until refugees leave; until Allies have come to an 

agreement) 2 

Don't know; can't say; only God knows; hope not for 

long 29 

Anti-occupation remarks: e.g. until they have ruined 
Germany; until many Germans have been killed off; 

until Americans stop following Russian policy 2 

No answer 1 



104%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answec. 

53. (US June 12 '46) Do people in Russia have a higher or 
lower standard of living than people in this country? (aipo) 

_ Higher 4% 

B Lower 81 

K Same 5 

■ No opinion 10 

54. (Hungary Aug '46) Are you able to defray expenses of 
lodging, heating, lighting, and cooking from your income? 
Asked of Budapest residents and suburban people, (hipor) 

BY TYPE OF INCOME AND SEX 

Other or 

Yes No Partly no answer 
Men with fixed income 

Higher 28.6% 41.1% 29.6% 0.7% 

Lower 24.0 32.6 40.0 3.4 

Men with variable income 

Higher 48.3 28.4 23.3 — 

Lower 23.2 41.4 32.0 3.4 

Lowest 12.6 55.4 29.1 2.9 



I 



55. (Hungary Aug '46) Is your income in forints sufficient for 
your food needs? Asked of Budapest and suburban people. 
(hipor) 

by type of income and sex 

Other, no 

Yts No Partly answer 
Men with fixed income 

Higher 70.8% 16.7% 12.5% — 

Lower 75.0 13.7 9.9 1.4% 

Men luith variable income 

Higher 82.8 7.8 8.6 0.8 

Lower 74.1 16.4 8.9 0.6 

Lowest 64.2 25.2 7.7 2.9 

Women with fixed income 

Higher 77.0 12.8 9.7 0.5 

Lower 78.1 14.5 6.8 0.6 

Women with variable in- 
come 

Higher 85.0 10.5 4.5 — 

Lower 81.2 13.4 5.4 — 

Lowest 64.0 26.7 8.0 1.3 

56. (Hungary Dec '46) How soon do you expect a peace stand- 
ard of living after the signing of the new peace treaty? (hipor) 

Educated Bourgeoisie Workers 

In less than one year 9.9% 5-9% 12.0% 

1-2 years 20.3 16.4 25.9 

2-5 years 44.1 43-6 34.8 

5-10 years 14.7 18.4 16.3 

More than 10 years 3.8 8.2 1.6 

Never; other; no answer. , 7.2 7.5 9.4 



COUGHLIN, CHARLES E., REV. 



1. (us Apr 6 '38) Have you listened recently to Father Cough- 
lin's radio talks? (aipo) 

Yes 24% No 76% 

2. (US Apr 6 '38 and July 17 '39) Do you listen to him [Father 
Coughlin] regularly? (aipo) 

Only occa- 
sionally or 
No or used to listen 
Yes no answer regularly 

Apr '38 9% 91% — 

July '39 6 56 38% 

1938 RESULTS BY POLITICS 

Democratic 55% 45% 

Republican 23 77 

Lcmkc voters and others . . 22 78 



[148] 



3. (US Apr 6 "38) Did you listen to him [Father Coughlin] 
regularly before the 1936 election? (aipo) 

Yes 30% No 70% 

4. (US Apr 6 '38 and Dec 16 '38) In general, do you approve 
or disapprove of what Father Coughlin says? Asked of those 
who listened to the programs, (aipo) 

Approve Disapprove 

All listeners Apr '38 83% 17% 

Regular listeners Dec '38 67 33 

Occasional listeners Dec '38 51 49 

6. (US Dec 16 '38) Have you listened to any of Father Cough- 

lin's radio talks in the last month? (aipo) 

Regularly 5% Occasionally 17% Not at all 78% 

6. (US July 17 '39) In general, do you approve or disapprove 
of Father Coughlin's ideas? (aipo) 

Approve 15% Disapprove 38% Don't know or no answer 47% 

7. (US July 17 '39) In general, do you agree or disagree with 
what Father Coughlin says? (aipo) 

Agree 15% Disagree 31% Don't know or no answer 54% 



COURAGE 



1. (Germany Apr 26 '46) The Germans were asked whether 
they agreed with the following statements: (omgus) 



AMERICAN ZONE 
AND BERLIN 

No 
opin- 
ion 



Yes No 



BERLIN ONLY 

No 
opin- 
ion 



Yes No 



A man who does not distin- 
guish himself by physical 

heroism is an inferior sort 

of fellow 7% 91% 2% 12% 88% 

A man who, from lack of 

courage, cannot face a dan- 
gerous situation should be 

severely punished 18 76 ( 

In spite of the fact that a 

man may never have done 

a heroic deed, he can still 

be highly esteemed by his 

fellow-citizens 95 4 ] 

Fear is a natural thing and 

those who show fear when 

in danger should be treated 

with vmderstanding 94 4 2 99 1 — 



28 72 — 



97 



COURTS 



1. (us Sept 8 '35) As a general principle, would you favor 
limiting the power of the Supreme Court to declare acts of 
Congress unconstitutional? (Nov 13 '36) As a general policy, 
are you in favor of limiting the power of the Supreme Court 
to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional? (aipo) 



No 


No opinion 


63% = 


= 100% 


16% 


53 




16 = 


59 = 


= 100 


19 



Yes 
Sept '35 excluding no 

opinion 37% 

Sept '35 including no 

opinion 31 53 16 = 100% 

Nov '36 41 

SEPT '35 RESULTS BY POLITICS 

Democratic 55% 45% = 100% 5% 

Republican 14 86 =100 10 

BY geographical section 
New England 

Sept '35 25% 

Nov '36 33 

Middle Atlantic 

Sept '35 32 

Nov '36 41 

East central 

Sept '35 27 

Nov '36 38 

West central 

Sept '35 32 

Nov '36 35 

South 

Sept '35 35 

Nov '36 46 

Mountain 

Sept '35 35 

Nov '36 44 

Pacific coast 

Sept '35 33 

Nov '36 50 

2. (US Jan 11 '36) Do you think that more than a five to four 
vote of the Supreme Court should be required to declare an 
act of Congress unconstitutional? (aipo) 

Yes No 

National total 53% 47% 



63% 
67 


12' 


56 
59 


12 


50 
62 


23 


49 
65 


19 


52 
54 


13 


41 
56 


24 


51 
50 


16 



26% 
72 



BY politics 

Democratic 74% 

Republican 28 

3. (US Jan 11 '36) Which of the following modifications do 
you favor — six to three, seven to two, eight to one, or unani- 
mous vote? Asked of 53% of the sample who thought that 
more than a five to four vote of the Supreme Court should be 
required to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional, (aipo) 

Unanimous 
6-3 7-2 

Total questioned 16% 12% 

BY politics 

Democratic 18% 17% 

Republican 15 6 

4. (US Jan 18 '36) Should the Constitution be ^mended to 
require a Supreme Court ruling on the constitutionality of laws 
passed by Congress before these laws go into effect? (aipo) 
Yes 66% No 34% = 100% No opinion 19% 

6. (US Apr '36 and July '37) Do you think the Supreme Court 
has recently stood in the way of the people's will or do you 
think it has protected the people against rash legislation? (for) 

In the Protected 
way of the 

the people people 

Apr '36 21.7% 39.2% 

July '37 23.1 43.1 



S-1 

6% 
2 



vote 

21% = 53% 

33% = 74% 
5 =28 







Don't 


Neither 


Both 


know 


6.3% 


— 


32.8% 


4.6 


4.3% 


24.9 



[149] 



1936 RESULTS BY ATTITUDES TOWARD ROOSEVELT 





Supreme 


It pro- 






Court 


tected the 


Neither or 




in the way 


people 


don' t know 


Re-election essential 


. 30.4% 


1^A% 


45.2% 


Best man despite mistakes. . 


. 27.8 


31.2 


41.0 


Usefulness now over 


. 10.9 


54.9 


34.2 


Re-election a calamity 


8.8 


64.9 


26.3 


Uncertain 


8.2 


40.6 


51 2 



6. (US Nov 13 '36 and Mar 1 '37) Should the Supreme Court 
be more liberal in reviewing New Deal measures? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

Nov '36 59% 41% = 100% 9% 

Mar '37 61 39 =100 13 

1936 RESULTS BY POLITICS 

Yes No 

Democratic 80% 20% 

Republican 22 78 

Socialist 67 33 

Lemke voters 52 48 

7. (US Feb 8 '37) Is the authority of the Supreme Court likely 
to be increased or decreased by enlarging the Court? (aipo) 
Increased 22% Decreased 35% Makes no difference 43% 

8. (US Feb 15 '37, Mar 10 '37, Mar 15 '37) Are you in favor 
of President Roosevelt's proposal regarding the Supreme Court? 
(aipo) 

Yes No 

Feb '37 47% 53% 

Mar 10 '37 48 52 

Mar 15 '37 49 51 



BY geographical SECTION 

New England 

Feb '37 40% 

Mar 10 '37 44 

Mar 15 '37 45 

Middle Atlantic 

Feb '37 49 

Mar 10 '37 47 

Mar 15 '37 49 

East central 

Feb '37 44 

Mar 10 '37 43 

Mar 15 '37 44 

West central 

"Feb '37 45 

Mar 10 '37 46 



37. 
37. 



Mar 15 '37. 
South 

Feb '37 . . . 

Mar 10 

Mar 15 
Mountain 

Feb '37 

Mar 10 

Mar 15 '37 
Pacific coast 

Feb '37 . . . 

Mar 10 '37 

Mar 15 '37 



37. 



47 

53 
54 
48 

46 
50 
48 

57 
59 
58 



BY POLITICS 

Feb '37 

Democratic 70% 

Republican 8 



60% 

56 

55 

51 
53 
51 

56 
57 
56 

55 

54 
53 

47 
46 
52 

54 
50 
52 

43 
41 
42 



30% 
92 



\ 



Yes No 

Mar 10 '37 

Democratic 73% 27% 

Republican 5 95 

Democratic listeners* 74 26 

Republican listeners* 6 94 

Democratic non-listeners* 72 28 

Republican non-listeners* 5 95 

Mar 15 '37 

Democratic 74 26 

Republican 6 94 

BY SELECTED GROUPS 

Reliefers 

Feb '37 73%, 27%, 

Mar 15 '37 74 26 

Lawyers 

Feb '37 23 77 

Farmers 

Feb '37 42 58 

Mar 15 '37 45 55 

Urban voters 

Feb '37 48 52 

Mar 15 '37 50 50 

MAR 15 '37 RESULTS BY SELECTED GROUPS 

Young persons 50% 50% 

Women 49 51 

Small-town voters 44 56 

FEB '37 RESULTS BY AGE 

21-24 years 54% 

25-34 years 50 

35-44 years 55 

45-54 years 48 

55 years and over 42 



46% 

50 

45 

52 

58 

MAR 15 '37 RESULTS BY LABOR UNION MEMBERS 



Total union members 66% 34% 

CIO 71 29 

AFL 68 32 

Company unions 58 42 

Others 63 37 

* Listeners and non-listeners to Roosevelt's March 4 and March 9 
radio talks. 

9. (US Feb 15 '37) What action should Congress take on 

Roosevelt's plan to reorganize the Supreme Court — pass it, 

modify it, or defeat it? (aipo) 

Pass Modify Defeat 

plan plan plan 

National total 38% 23% 39% 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 32% 



Middle Atlantic. 
East central. . 
West central . 

South 

Mountain. . . . 
Pacific coast . 



38 
34 
27 
48 
37 
35 



21% 


47% 


23 


39 


23 


43 


25 


48 


27 


25 


20 


43 


28 


37 



10. (us Feb 15 '37) Do you think a majority of the nation's 
voters approve of Roosevelt's plan [to reorganize the Supreme 
Court]? (aipo) 

Yes 52% No 48% 

11. (US Feb 22 '37 and Mar 1 '37) Do you think some kind of 
change is necessary regarding the Supreme Court? (aipo) 



[loO] 



Feb '37. 
Mar '37 . 



Yes No No opinion 

60% 40% = 100% 15% 

58 42 = 100 10 



National total . 



Yes 

61% 



12. (US Mar 10 '37) Do you think that President Roosevelt 
should have made his [Supreme Court] plan an issue in the 
last election? (aipo) 

Yes 68% No 32%o = 100% No opinion 16% 

13. (US Mar 10 '37) Did you hear President Roosevelt's radio 
speech in defense of his Supreme Court proposal on either 
March 4 or March 9? (aipo) 

March 4 8%o 

March 9 20 

Both 22 

Neither 50 

14. (US Mar 10 '37) Do you thinl; he [Roosevelt] gained or 
lost supporters for his plan by these speeches [in defense of 
his Supreme Court proposal]? (aipo) 

Gained 63%, Lost 24% Neither 13%, = 100% No opinion 43% 

15. (US Apr 5 '37, Apr 26 '37, May 17 '37, May 24 '37) Should 
Congress pass the President's Supreme Court plan? In the May 
24 question the term "proposal" was used instead of "plan." 
(June 7 '37) Should Congress pass the President's plan to en- 
large the Supreme Court? (aipo) 

Yes No 

Apr 5 '37 47% 53% 

Apr 26 '37 46 54 

May 17 '37 42 58 

May 24 '37 41 59 

June 7 '37 40 60 



No opinion 
100% 14% 



BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 



New England, 

Apr 5 '37... 

Apr 26 '37... 
Middle Atlantic 

Apr 5 '37... 

Apr 26 '37... 
East central 

Apr 5 '37... 

Apr 26 '37... 
West central 

Apr 5 '37... 



41% 
39 

49 
48 

41 

40 

46 



59% 
61 

51 

52 

59 

60 

54 
56 

47 
49 

48 
49 

44 
45 



Apr 26 '37 44 

South 

Apr 5 '37 53 

Apr 26 '37 51 

Mountain 

Apr 5 '37 52 

Apr 26 '37 51 

Pacific coast 

Apr 5 '37 56 

Apr 26 '37 55 

APR 5 '37 RESULTS BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Fanners 41% 59%o 

Small towns 43 57 

Urban 50 50 

APR 26 '37 RESULTS BY POLITICS 

Democratic 68% 32% 

Republican 7 93 

Others 42 58 

16. (US Apr 5 '37) Do you think the President will win his 
fight to enlarge the Supreme Court? (aipo) 



BY POLITICS 

Democratic 75% 

Republican 38 

BY geographical SECTION 

New England 56% 

Middle At antic 63 

East central 60 

West central 54 

South 67 

Mountain 56 

Pacific coast 65 



No 
39% 

25% 
62 

44% 

37 

40 

46 

33 

44 

35 



17. (US May 24 '37) Are you more in favor or less in favor of 
the [Supreme] Court proposal now than you were when it was 
first announced? (aipo) 

More 42%o Less 58% = 100%, No opinion 43% 

18. (US July 5 '37) Would you favor or oppose a filibuster in 
the Senate to defeat any compromise bill for enlarging the 
Supreme Court? (aipo) 

Favor 49% 

Oppose 51 



100% 

No opinion . 1 1% 

Don't understand 4 

19. (US July 12 '37) The Senate is now debating a plan which 
permits the President to enlarge the Supreme Court by adding 
one new judge each year. Do you favor this plan? (July 19 '37) 
Are you in favor of the plan now being discussed in the Senate 
to enlarge the membership of the Supreme Court? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

July 12 '37 38% 62% = 100% 15% 

July 19 '37 38 62 =100 20 

20. (US July 12 '37) Why do you think President Roosevelt 
wants to enlarge the Supreme Court? (aipo) 

To complete his program 13% 

Wants more power 11 

To have more votes; his own way, pack it 8 

Wants to be a dictator; strengthen power 5 

Because he sees a need for it 4 

Give younger men a chance 

For his own personal use 

To liberalize it 

To put some of his friends in office 

Old men set in their ways 

So he can have party in 

Because the laboring class hasn't anything and he wants 
to help them 

Progressive policy to make a more liberal government. . 

To get more opinions on varied subjects 

.Get more work done 

-^o perfect justice 

To have better conditions 

All others 

No answer 33 

21. (US Aug 16 '37 and Sept 16 '37) Would you like to have 
President Roosevelt renew his fight to enlarge the Supreme 
Court? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

Aug '37 32% 68% — 

Sept 37 26 59 15% 



[151] 



Yes No No opinion 

AUG '37 RESULTS BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 28% 72% 

Middle Atlantic 37 63 

East central ' 29 71 

West central 28 72 

South 35 65 

Mountain 29 71 

Pacific coast 30 70 

AUG '37 RESULTS BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Better-than-average income 17% 83% 

Average income 25 75 

Less-than-average income 37 63 

Poor, not on relief 42 58 

On relief 59 41 

22. (US July 27 '38) Did you favor the President's plan to 
enlarge the Supreme Court last year? A comparable cross-section 
was asked the question about "President Roosevelt's plan." 
Results were combined, (aipo) 

Yes 29%o No 57% No opinion 14% 

23. (US Feb 14 '41) Do you think the United States Supreme 
Court has been too conservative, about right, or not conserva- 
tive enough in its decisions in the last year or so? (aipo) 

Too conservative 4% 

About right 39 

Not conservative enough 19 

No opinion 38 

24. (US Feb 14 '41) Do you think the present United States 
Supreme Court has been too liberal, about right, or not liberal 
enough in its decisions in the last year or so? Asked of a sepa- 
rate cross-section comparable to that used for the previous 
question, (aipo) 

Not liberal enough 3% 

About right 46 

Too liberal 18 

No opinion 33 

25. (US June 12 '46) Some people say that the Supreme Court 
decides many questions largely on the basis of politics. Do 
you agree or disagree with this? (aipo) 

Agree 43% Disagree 36% Don't know 21% 

26. (US June 12 '46) Has your attitude toward the Supreme 
Court changed in recent years? 30% of the sample who said 
their attitude had changed were asked: Do you have a higher 
or a lower regard for the Supreme Court now? (aipo) 

Attitude hasn't changed 45% 

No opinion on the subject 25 

Have higher regard now 3 

Have lower regard now 27 

27. (Netherlands July '46) Are you satisfied or dissatisfied 
with the purge of the Supreme Court? (nipo) 

Satisfied 9% Dissatisfied 46% Don't know 45% 

28. (Germany Sept 3 '46) If you should be charged with a 
civil offense — such as speeding with an automobile, etc. — 
would you rather be tried by a German court or by a military 
government court? (omous) 

German court 37% 

Military government court 18 

No opinion 32 

Both < 4 

No difference, both the same ... 9 

No answer * 

* Less than 0.5%. 



29. (Germany Sept 3 '46) Why [would you rather be tried 
by a German court instead of a military government court]? 
Asked of 37% of the sample who said they would prefer trial 
by a German court for a civil offense, (omgus) 
It is German justice; because I can have more confidence 
in the Germans; because as a German I want to be tried 

by a German court 55% 

Because of the language; I can't speak English; I'll get 

along better with a German court 18 

Have more confidence in a German court; they understand 

me better; think in a more civil way 16 

Military government court judges very harshly; fear of 
military government court; as a German you won't 

have any right before Americans 8 

No answer 3 



100% 
of those who preferred trial by a German court 

30. (Germany Sept 3 '46) Why [would you rather be tried by 
a military government court instead of a German court]? Asked 
of 18% of the sample who said they would prefer trial by a 
military government court for a civil offense, (omgus) 
Because I trust; one can speak one's mind; think kindly 

toward people * 

Both have to judge according to law * 

Prefer court that is sentencing the mildest 3 

No answer 97 

100% 
of those who preferred trial by military govern- 
ment court 

* Less than 0.5%. 

31. (Germany Dec 10 '46) Do you happen to know whether 
the court system in Germany has changed? (omgus) 

Yes, changed 14% 

Not changed 5 

No opinion 81 

No answer * 

* Less than 0.5%. 



CRIME AND CRIMINALS 



1. (us Jan 5 '37) Should Congress enact a law which would 
make lynching a federal crime? (Aug 16 '37) Should Congress 
pass a law making lynching a federal crime? (Oct 28 '37) 
Should Congress pass a law which would make lynching a 
federal crime? (aipo) 

Yes No 

Jan '37 70% 30% 

Aug '37 71 29 

Oct '37 72 28 

BY geographical SECTION 

New England 

Jan '37 75% 25% 

Oct '37 75 25 

Middle Atlantic 

Jan '37 72 28 

Oct '37 79 21 

East central 

Jan '37 77 23 

Oct '37 77 23 



[152] 



Yes No 

West central 

Jan '37 70% 30% 

Oct '37 78 22 

South 

Jan '37 65 35 

Oct '37 57 43 

Mountain 

Jan '37 65 35 

Oct '37 75 25 

Pacific coast 

Jan '37 59 41 

Oct '37 65 35 

JAN '37 RESULTS BY SPECIAL GROUPS 

Women 75% 25% 

Young persons 77 23 

Reliefers 72 28 

Farmers 69 31 

Small towns 75 25 

Urban 70 30 

2. (US Nov 19 '37) If a local peace officer is negligent in pro- 
tecting a prisoner from a lynch mob, should the federal gov- 
ernment have the right to punish this peace officer? (aipo) 
Yes 59% No 27% No opinion 14% 

3. (US Dec 13 '37) Congress is now considering a lynching 
bill which gives the federal government power to fine and 
imprison local policemen who are negligent in protecting a 
prisoner from a lynch mob, and also to make a county in 
which a lynching occurs pay a fine up to ten thousand dollars 
to the victim or his family. Do you approve of this bill? 
Qan 10 '40) Congress is now considering a bill against lynch- 
ing which would punish lynching in these two ways: will 
you please read this card and tell me whether you approve or 
disapprove of this bill against lynching. The card read: Under 
the proposed federal law against lynching, the federal govern- 
ment would fine and imprison local policemen who fail to 
protect a prisoner from a lynch mob, and make a county in 
which a lynching occurs pay a fine up to ten thousand dollars 
to the victim or his family, (aipo) 

Yes, 
approve 

Dec '37 53% 

Jan '40 55 

4. (US June 10 "38) Do you think it should be against the law 
for a family to pay ransom to a kidnapper? (aipo) 

Yes 67% No 33% = 100% No opinion 7% 

5. (US June 10 '38) Do you think there would be fewer kid- 
nappings if it were against the law for a family to pay ransom 
to a kidnapper? (aipo) 

Yes 78% No 22% = 100% No opinion 6% 

6. (US June 8 '38) Would you favor such a law [prohibiting 
payment of ransom to a kidnapper]? (aipo) 

Yes 70% No 21% No opinion 9% 

7. (France Jan 16 '45) In your opinion, was the explosion of 
the Simone chateau in the Vaucluse an accident or an attempt 
at crime?* (fipo) 

Accident 9% Attempt at crime 60% No answer 31% 
* The explosion took place on November 26, 1944, and there were 
ihirty-four victims. On November 28 the Minister of the Interior 
made an announcement on the subject. 

8. (Canada Nov 21 '45) Do you think there is more crime 
in Canada today than there was before the war? (cipo) 



Yes 53% 



No 29% 



Undecided 18% 



No, or 


No 


isapprove 


opinion 


47% = 100% 
45 = 100 


16% 
9 



9. (Finland Jan 18 '46) Have you personally been a victim oi 
criminal activity this year? Presumably the question was asked 
late in 1945. (fgi) 
Yes 11%, No 85% Don't know 4% 

10. (Finland Jan 18 '46) In what way [have you been a victim 
of criminal activity]? Asked of 11% of the sample who said 
they had been a victim during the preceding year, (fgi) 

Theft, burglary, robbery 84% 

Injuries 5 

Disturbance of public peace 4 

Fraud 2 

Others 5 



100% of those 
who had been criminally victimized 

11. (Italy Apr '46) Do you think crimes have increased or 
decreased in your region during the last six months? (doxa) 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 
Decreased 

North Italy 33% 

Central Italy 29 

South Italy 12 

Islands 14 

12. (Italy Apr '46) What crimes are causing most concern in 
your region? (doxa) 



No change 


Increased 


Don t know 


19% 


^1% 


6% 


18 


44 


9 


19 


63 


6 


19 


61 


6 



BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 



Political 



Don't 



Job- 
beries 

North Italy 57% 

Central Italy 45 

South Italy 28 

Islands 64 



13. (Italy Apr '46) What is the principal motive that starts 
a person on the road to delinquency? (doxa) 



Thejts 


crimes 


Other 


know 


29% 


5% 


4% 


5% 


38 


2 


8 


7 


56 


2 


10 


4 


19 


2 


6 


9 









fi 






a 






-41 



National total 47.9% 15.1% 12.8% 0.8% 17.2% 2.8% 3.4% 



BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

North Italy.. 38.0% 16.8% 18.1% 1.1% 20.3% 2.8% 2.9% 

Central Italy. 49.0 17.0 10.4 1.0 15-0 3-5 4.1 

South Italy... 68.3 8.2 2.7 0.4 12.4 1.9 6.1 

Islands 62.2 12.3 6.5 0.1 13.3 3.0 2.6 



Men 47.7% 

Women 48.1 



BY SEX 

26.4% 
31.9 



20.1% 3.1% 2.7% 
13.7 2.5 3.8 



14. (Italy Apr '46) What means are best adapted to stamp out 
delinquency in Italy? (doxa) 



Men Women 

Better economic conditions 51.9% 49.5% 

Strong police measures 32.1 24.2 

Religious crusade 5.1 12.2 

Censorship of books and films 0.8 2.0 



[153] 



Men Women 

More allied troops 2.5% 2.4% 

Fewer allied troops 1.2 0.9 

Other means 3.4 3.1 

Don't know 3.0 5.7 



CULTURE 



1. (Germany Dec 6 '45) What do you think of the work the 
American occupation authorities have done in the cultural field 
(radio, theater, cinema, press, publishing)? (omgus) 

Very good work 10% 

Good work 39 

t Fairly good work 17 
Bad work 2 
., Very bad work 31 

No answer 1 

2. (Germany Dec 13 '45) In your opinion, have too many or 
not enough Nazis been removed from cultural activities? 
(oMGus) 

Too many 16% 

Too few 9 

All right as it is 27 

No opinion 47 

Both 1 

3. (Hungary Dec '46) Do you expect considerable progress in 
science and art life after the signing of the peace treaty? Asked 
in Budapest and suburbs, (hipor) 

Rapid Slow No Other; 

progress progress change no answer 

Educated 40% 56% 3% 1% 

Bourgeoisie 43 54 2 1 

Workers 40 51 2 7 



CURRENT EVENTS 



1. (Sweden Dec '42) Which single event in foreign politics do 
you think you will remember most distinctly from 1942? (sgi) 

National 
total Town Country Men Women 
Transportation of about 

1,500 Jews from Nor- 
way to Poland (Nov) 25% 22% 27% 20% 30% 
Battle of Stalingrad 

(Aug) 13 14 13 18 9 

The American invasion 

ofNorth Africa (Nov) 9 12 8 15 4 

The German occupation 

of the non-occupied 

part of France; the 

storming of Toulon 

and the devastation of 

the French fleet (Nov) 8 12 6 10 7 

Emergency state in 

Trondheim with 34 

executions (Oct). ... 8 8 8 7 9 

The Norwegian Church 

strife (Feb) 3 2 4 2 5 

Quisling becoming 

Prime Minister (Feb) 3 2 3 3 2 



National 

total Town Country Men Women 

King Christian's illness 1.5% 1% 1% 0.5% 2% 

English offensive in 

Egypt (Oct) 1.5 2 1 2 0.5 

Assassination of Heyd- 
rich, followed by 
state of emergency 
and about 1,400 exe- 
cutions in the protec- 
torate (May) 1 1 1 1 1 

Russian U-boats in the 

Baltic sea (July) 1 1 1 0.5 1.5 

Fall of Singapore (Feb) 5 5 5 5 5 

British-Russian 20 
years' military alli- 
ance (May) 5 5 5 5 5 

German offensive in Af- 
rica (Jan-June) 5 5 5 5 5 

Japanese occupation of 

Dutch Indies (Mar). .5 5 5 5 5 

Gandhi arrested (Aug). 5 5 5 5 5 

First 100-plane raid on 
Cologne (May) 5 5 5 5 5 

Danish crisis (Sept). ... 5 5 5 5 5 

Dieppe raid (Aug) 5 5 5 5 5 

FallofSebastopolQuly) 5 5 5 5 5 



119%* 123%* 118%* 124%* 116%* 

Don't know 21% 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

2. (Sweden Dec '43) Which two events during the war year 
1943 do you think you will remember longest? (sgi) 

National 
total Town Country Men Wotnen 

Ulven goes down (Apr) 59% 58% 59% 54% 64% 

Persecutions of Jews in 

Denmark (Oct) 19 17 20 16 23 

Capitulation of Italy, 
the fall of Mussolini 
Quly-Sept) 16 18 15 23 10 

Capitulation of the Ger- 
mans at Stalingrad 
(Feb) 11 15 9 17 5 

The great bombard- 
ments of Berlin (Nov) 9 9 9 11 7 

German warships sink 
Swedish fishing boats 
(Aug) 8 7 9 8 9 

Arresting of students in 
Oslo (Nov-Dec) 6 6 6 6 6 

Shooting down of the 

Grippen (Oct) 6 6 6 7 6 

Stopping of troop transit 

(Aug) 5 7 4 5 4 

Destruction of Hamburg 
(July) 4 5 3 4 3 

Military emergency con- 
ditions in Denmark. . 3 3 2 3 3 

Mussolini freed (Sept). . 3 4 2 4 2 

Other replies 18 18 19 17 19 

Don't know 16 15 17 12 21 



183%* 188%* 180%* 187%* 182%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 



I 



[154] 



Men 


Women 


42% 


57% 


49 


23 


18 


29 


10 


13 


12 


10 


14 


7 


6 


12 


5 


7 


4 


3 



3. (Sweden Dec '44) Which two war events during 1944 do 
you think you will remember most vividly? (sGi) 

National 
total 

The sinking of the Hansa (Nov) 49% 

Allied invasion of France (June) 36 

The murder of Kaj Munk (Jan) 23 

The distress of Northern Norway (Oct- 

Dec) .' 12 

The attempt to assassinate Hitler (July) 11 

Finnish-Russian armistice (Sept) 10 

Refugees come from Finland (Oct-Nov) 9 

Russians bomb Stockholm and Strang- 
nSs (Feb) 6 

German- Finnish fight in Tornea (Oct). 3 

King Gustaf sympathizes with Hungar- 
ian Jews (July) 3 

Sweden stops mercantile marine connec- 
tion with Germany (Sept) 2 

Russian bombs on Haparanda (Feb). . . 2 

Robot planes against England (June). . 2 

Exchange of war prisoners in Goteborg 
and Trellcborg (Sept) 2 

Swedish maps found in German trans- 
ports (Apr-May) 2 

Russians cross Norwegian frontier (Oct) 2 

Germans in Paris capitulate (Aug). ... 1 

Coal mine export crisis (Apr) 1 

Allies cross German border (Sept) 1 

Rumania capitulates and declares war 
against Germany (Aug) 1 

Other events 4 

Don't know 18 



5. (Sweden Dec '45) Which two events that have occurred 
since the war, either here or abroad, do you think you will 
remember most vividly? (sgi) 



2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


— 


1 


— 


5 


3 


16 


24 



200%* 204%* 201%* 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 



4. (Sweden June '45) Which two war events, of those that 
have occurred since January 1st of this year, do you think you 
will remember most vividly? (sgi) 

The capitulation in Norway (May) 46% 

The death of Roosevelt (Apr) 31 

The capitulation in Denmark (May) 29 

The information on Buchenwald and other German con- 
centration camps (May) 19 

Death of Hitler (May) 15 

The final battle of Berlin (Apr-May) 10 

The peace negotiations of Folke Bcrnadotte (Apr) 10 

Allied break-through of the German Western front (Mar- 
Apr) 5 

Prisoners from concentration camps brought to Sweden 

(May) ''. 4 

Russian winter offensive conquers Warsaw, Budapest, 

Danzig (Jan-Mar) 3 

The Yalta meeting (Feb) 3 

General Donitz elects himself Hitler's successor (May). . 2 
Quislings in Norway and other occupied countries taken 

prisoner or commit suicide (May-June) 2 

Russians occupy Bornholm (May) 2 

Disagreement over Poland (Feb) 1 

Other replies 6 

Don't know 11 



^ 



% 
66 



25 23 28 16 23 29 



^ 


^ 


b- 


:§ 


^ 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


89 


43 


39 


51 


81 



19 


7 


32 


6 


18 


22 


13 


15 


11 


13 


14 


12 


11 


10 


12 


14 


12 


10 


10 


5 


6 


11 


10 


10 


8 


10 


6 


6 


7 


8 


8 


10 


7 


6 


6 


11 


6 


10 


2 


1 


5 


8 


5 


4 


6 


4 


4 


5 


5 


7 


3 


3 


7 


4 



199%* 



* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 



The atom bomb 

Quisling's sentence and execu- 
tion 

Coffee and tea given ration- 
free 

The Nuremberg trials 

The problem of the Baltic ref- 
ugees 

King Haakon's return to Nor- 
way 

Demobilization of Swedish 
home guard 

End of the metal strike 

Tobacco ration-free 

S. S. Delos wrecked 

Petrol ration-free 

English elections; fall of 
Churchill 

The amateur question in the 
sports world 

Capitulation of Japan 

Opposition against King Leo- 
pold 

Trial and death sentence of 
Petain 

Trial of Finland's former gov- 
ernment 

P. A. Hansson's 60th birthday 

Laval's sentence and removal. 

The majority cabinet replaces 
the coalition 

The San Francisco conference. 

Divergences of opinion at the 
London conference 

Meeting at Potsdam 

Rumors of Stalin's death 

Aland's desire to join Sweden 



Percentages 210* 231* 181* 173* 197* 240* 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 



6. (Finland Mar 15 '46) Mention two of the most remarkable 
happenings which have taken place this last year at home or 
abroad which you think you will remember most vividly. 
(fgi) 

Currency exchange '22% 

The trials to decide war responsibility and consequent 

arrest 16 

Use of the atom bomb 10 

Germans thrown out of Northern Finland 9 

Military breakdown of Germany , 8 

The parliamentary elections in Finland 6 

Violent deaths of Hitler and Mussolini 5 

Two years' extension of payment on war reparations. ... 4 

Renewed diplomatic relations with victorious nations. . . 4 

The weapon smuggling affair 4 

Capitulation of Japan and end of the world war 2 



4 


7 


2 


6 


5 


4 


4 


6 


3 


2 


5 


3 


4 


2 


2 


5 


4 


4 


4 


4 


3 


8 


4 


3 


3 


4 


3 


8 


6 


11 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


1 


4 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


5 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


— 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


— 


1 


1 



[ 155 ] 



80-year birthday of Sibelius, President Mannerheim's 

journey abroad 2% 

Death of President Roosevelt 2 

Founding of UN 1 

The Krim conference 1 

Churchill's election defeat 1 

The Nuremberg trials 1 

No answer 2 



100% 
of the total number of answers given 



CURTIN, JOHN 



1. (Australia July '42, Dec '42, Aug '43) Which of these state- 
ments comes nearest to expressing your feelings about Mr. 
Curtin as Prime Minister? In July '42 "as Prime Minister" was 
omitted from the question, and in Aug '43 the question read: 
Which of these statements on the reverse of the card comes 
nearest, etc. The card read: (l) Mr. Curtin has done an excel- 
lent job as Prime Minister in these difficult times. (2) Mr. 
Curtin has made some mistakes, but on the whole he is doing 
a fairly good job. (3) Mr. Curtin has done some good things, 
but another Prime Minister might do a better job. (4) Mr. 
Curtin has not been a success as Prime Minister, (apop) 



State- State- 
ment 1 ment 2 

July '42 35% 43% 

Dec '42 37 43 

Aug '43 31 41 



BY POLITICS 

Labor voters 

July '42 48% 

Dec '42 49 

Aug '43 52 

Non-Labor 

July '42 21 

Dec '42 24 

Aug '43 9 



39% 

39 

43 

47 
48 
38 



State- 
ment 3 

13% 

14 

20 



6% 
7 



No 
answer* 



State- 
ment 4 

5% 4% 
3 3 



21 
22 
37 



3% 
2 



7 

3 

16 



4% 
3 



* Those ■who didn't ans'wer were excluded from the percentages in 
Aug *43. 



CZECHOSLOVAKIA 



Foreign Relations 



1. (Czechoslovakia Oct '46) Have you changed your opinion 
about the Western powers since the end of the Paris Peace 
Conference? (czipo) 

Yes 30% No 47% Don't know 23% 

2. (Czechoslovakia Oct '46) Do you look upon them [the 
Western powers] more or less favorably [than before the Paris 
Peace Conference]? Asked of 30% of the sample who said they 
had changed their opinion of the Western powers since the 
conference. (cziPo) 

More favorably 21% Less favorably 79% = 100% 

of those who had changed their minds 



History 

1. (Czechoslovakia Dec '46) Which period in Czechoslovakian 
history do you consider the most glorious? (czipo) 

The period of St. Wenccslaus 8% 

The period of Charles IV 17 

The Hussite wars 19 

The period of George of Podebrad 7 

The period of the national renaissance 3 

The first republic 8 

The present period 16 

Don't know 22 

2. (Czechoslovakia Dec "46) In your opinion, which was the 
period of greatest decadence [in Czechoslovakian history]? 
(cziPo) 

The period of the Brandenburgs in Bohemia. . 4% 

The thirty years war 26 

The second republic 3 

The protectorate 54 

Don't know 13 

3. (Czechoslovakia Dec '46) If you visit a new town, are you 
interested in local historical monuments? (cziPo) 



Yes 59% 



No 19^ 



Don't know 22% 



Internal Relations 

1. (Czechoslovakia Dec '46) Do you know any Slovak per- 
sonally? (cziPo) 

Several 61% One 12% None 27% 

2. (Czechoslovakia Dec '46) Do you get along with him [the 
Slovak whom you know personally] well, on the whole? 
Asked of 73% of the sample who said they knew one or more 
Slovaks personally. (cziPo) 

Yes 71% No 6% Sometimes 23% = 100% 

of those who knew one or more Slovaks personally 

3. (Czechoslovakia Dec '46) Are you in favor of the present 
position of Slovakia in relation to the Czechoslovak Republic, 
are you in favor of Slovakia's prewar position, or are you in 
favor of still greater autonomy for Slovakia? (czipo) 

In favor of present position 36% 

In favor of prewar position 35 

In favor of more autonomy 10 

Don't know 19 

Politics and Government 

1. (Czechoslovakia Mar '46) Do you consider the national 
committees better fitted organs of self-administration than the 
former local councils? (cziPo) 

BY POLITICS AS INDICATED BY NEWSPAPERS READ 

Yes 

People's party 40.3% 

National Socialist 45-2 

Social Democratic 64.6 

Communist 72.3 

2. (Czechoslovakia Mar '46) How effective have local national 
committees proved so far? (czipo) 

BY politics AS INDICATED BY NEWSPAPERS READ 

Very 
effective 

People's party 40.3% 

National Socialist 38.1 

Social Democratic 50.2 

Communist 67. 





Don't 


Other 


No 


know 


answers 


28.0% 


18.9% 


12.8% 


25.1 


17.9 


11.8 


13.0 


14.0 


8.4 


10.4 


10.0 


7.3 



Little 


Don't 


Other 


effect 


know 


answers 


23.7% 


14.6% 


21.4% 


28.5 


15.8 


17.6 


17.2 


15.4 


17.2 


13.8 


8.8 


10.4 



[156] 



3. (Czechoslovakia May '46) Have you read the whole Kosice 
government program, or do you know it only from newspaper 
articles? (czipo) 

Know the whole program 29-1% 

Know only newspaper extracts. ... 55-1 
Don't know at all 15.8 

4. (Czechoslovakia May '46) Do you agree with the Kosice 
government program? Asked of a national cross-section of 
people who were familiar with the program, (czipo) 

Agree entirely 62.9% 

Agree with reservations 28.8 

Disagree but recognize its good points 6.4 

Disagree entirely 1.9 

100% of 
those questioned 

5. (Czechoslovakia May '46) On the whole, are you satisfied 
or dissatisfied with the present government? (czipo) 

Satisfied Dissatisfied 
National total 81.6% 18.4% 



Women 83.8% 16.2% 

Men 79.3 20.7 



DAYLIGHT SAVING 



1. (US May 3 '37 and Mar 13 '40) Are you in favor of day- 
light saving time? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

1937 57% 43% = 100% 13% 

1940 60 40 =100 19 

1940 RESULTS BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England and mid- 
Atlantic 75% 25% 

East central 64 36 

West central 45 55 

South 44 56 

Far West 51 49 

2. (US Sept 13 '38) Would you rather have daylight saving 
time or regular (standard) time in the summer months? (aipo) 

Daylight saving time 35% 

Regular time 45 

No difference 20 



No opinion . 



100% 

■ 4% 



3. (US Mar 13 '40) Would you approve or disapprove of hav- 
ing daylight saving time here all year round instead of only in 
the summer? Asked of a national cross-section of those who 
favored daylight saving. Qune 7 '41) Would you favor or 
oppose keeping the country on daylight saving time through- 
out the coming year? (Sept 17 '41) Would you like to have 
daylight saving time in this community for the entire year? 
(Dec 18 '41) As long as the war lasts, would you favor or op- 
pose daylight saving time in this community for the entire 
year beginning in January 1942? (aipo) 



Favor Oppose 

daylight daylight No 

saving saving opinion 

Mar '40 40% 60% — 

June '41 38 41 21% 

Sept '41 35 53 12 

Dec '41 57 30 13 

JUNE AND DEC '41 RESULTS BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Farmers, June 45% 34% 21% 

Farmers, Dec 36 45 19 

All towns, June 64 20 16 

Towns under 10,000, Dec. ... 49 34 17 
Towns between 10,000 and 

100,000, Dec 61 30 9 

Cities. June 77 13 10 

Cities, Dec 72 19 9 

JUNE AND DEC '41 RESULTS BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England and mid-Atlantic 

June 54% 46% — 

Dec 69 24 7% 

East central 

June 47 53 — 

Dec 52 35 13 

West central 

June 36 64 — 

Dec 48 35 17 

South 

June 49 51 — 

Dec 45 36 19 

Far West 

June 42 58 — 

Dec 54 28 18 

4. (US June 7 '41) To save electricity and to increase daylight 
working hours, it has been suggested that the entire country 
be put on daylight saving time until the end of September. Do 
you favor or oppose this suggestion? (aipo) 

No 
Favor Oppose opinion 
National total 67% 19% 14% 

BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England and mid-Atlantic. . . . 78% 

East central 66 

West central 56 

South 64 

Far West 58 

5. (Australia Sept '41) Would you favor advancing the clock 
an hour in summer? (Feb '42 and Mar '43) Are you satisfied or 
dissatisfied with daylight saving? (Aug '43) Do you think we 
should have daylight saving again next summer from October 
to March? (Feb '44) Do you like daylight saving? After the 
war would you like us to have daylight saving? (Aug '44) 
Would you like daylight saving again next summer? (Apr '45) 
Would you have liked daylight saving during the summer? 
(Nov '46) Would you like daylight saving next summer? 
Western Australia was excluded from the Feb '44 cross-section 
because it did not have daylight saving, (apop) 





9% 


21 


13 


25 


19 


16 


20 


27 


15 



Favor Oppose 

daylight daylight 

saving saving 

Sept '41 50% 34% 

Feb '42 69 23 

Mar '43 65 29 

Aug '43 54 44 

Feb '44 47 44 



Favor 
for four 

months Undecided 

— 16% 

— 8 

— 6 

2% . - 

— 9 



[157] 



Oppose 


Favor 




daylight 


for four 




saving 


months 


Undecided 


Ai7o 


— 


9% 


47 


— 


8 


52 


— 


9 


51 


— 


8 



Favor 

daylight 

saving 

Feb '44* 44% 

Aug '44 45 

Apr '45 39 

Nov '46 41 

SEPT '41, AUG '43, AND APR '45 RESULTS BY STATES 

Victoria 

Sept '41 54% 30% — 16% 

Aug '43 61 39 — — 

Apr '45 47 44 — 9 

New South Wales 

Sept '41 52 30 — 18 

Aug '43 54 46 — — 

Apr '45 41 50 — 9 

Tasmania 

Sept '41 53 39 — 8 

Aug '43 66 34 — — 

Apr '45 50 47 — 3 

Western Australia 

Sept '41 48 37 — 15 

Aug '43 65 35 — — 

Apr '45 28 62 — 10 

South Australia 

Sept '41 43 38 — 19 

Aug '43 48 52 — — 

Apr '45 30 54 — 16 

Queensland 

Sept '41 41 46 — 13 

Aug '43 41 59 — — 

Apr '45 24 70 — 6 

* "After the war, etc." 

6. (Sweden Apr '42) Do you think that daylight saving time 
should be introduced in Sweden? (soi) 

Yes No No opinion 

National total 28% 39% 33% 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Towns 40% 32% 28% 

Country 21 43 36 

7. (US May '42) Would you be in favor of putting the clock 
another hour ahead for this summer? In other words, adding 
another hour to daylight saving time? 54% of the sample who 
said they would be against adding another hour of daylight 
saving and 8% of the sample who said they didn't know were 
asked: If the government said that putting the clock an hour 
ahead would help the war effort, would you be in favor of it? 
(norc) 

In favor of an extra hour 35% 

In favor if it helps the war effort 51 

Makes no difference 3 

Against it even if it helps the war effort 7 

Don't know 4 

8. (US Feb 23 '43, Mar 7 '45, Aug 8 '45, Aug 22 '45, Mar 27 
'46) In 1943 the question was: A bill in Congress calls for the 
return to standard time throughout the nation. If the question 
were voted on in this state would you vote for returning to 
standard time or staying on war time? In Mar '45 two com- 
parable cross-sections were used. The first was asked: Before 
the war some places were on standard time only, and others 
on standard time in the winter and on daylight saving in the 
summer. Do you think we should go back to these, or should 
we stay on war time the year round until the war is over? The 
second was asked: Do you think the entire country should go 



back to standard time or should we stay on war time the year 
round until the war is over? Results were combined. The Aug 
8 '45 question was the same as that asked of the second Mar '45 
cross-section. Two cross-sections were used for the Aug 22 '45 
questioning. The first was asked: Which of the following 
would you prefer — stay on war time the year round as at pres- 
ent; have daylight saving time in the summer and standard 
time for the rest of the year; or stay on standard time the year 
round? The second was asked: During the coming fall, winter, 
and early spring months, should we stay on war time or go 
back to standard time? Results were not combined. The 1946 
question was the same one used for the first Aug 22 '45 cross- 
section, (aipo) 



•5 



a 






■i5 s* 



1% 



Feb '43 results 44% 42% — 

Mar '45 results 49 38 — 

Aug 8 '45 results 41 48 2% 

Aug 22 '45 first cross-section 17 46 25 — 

Aug 22 '45 second cross-section . . 22 65 — — 

Mar '46 results 19 45 31 — 

FEB '43 RESULTS BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Farms 23%, 66% — — 

Cities and towns under 10,000. . . 39 46 — — 

Cities and towns over 10,000 ... . 53 32 — — 

MAR '45 RESULTS BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Farms 34% 55% — — 

Towns under 10,000 47 40 — — 

10,000 to 100,000 53 34 — — 

100,000 and over 57 29 — — 

MAR '45 RESULTS BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England and mid-Atlantic. . 59% 30% — — 

East central 49 36 — — 

West central 29 56 — — 

South 48 39 — — 

Pacific coast 49 37 — — 



■I 

14% 
13 

8 
12 
13 

5 



11% 

15 

15 

11% 

13 

13 

14 

11% 
15 
15 
13 

14 



AUG 22 '45, FIRST CROSS-SECTION AND MAR '46 RESULTS 
BY' KIND OF TIME USED BEFORE THE WAR 

Areas with daylight saving before 

the war, 1945 21% 31% 37% — 11% 

Areas with daylight saving before 

the war, 1946 23 32 40 — 5 

Areas on standard time before the 

war, 1945 14 60 14 — 12 

Areas on standard time before the 

war, 1946 14 60 21 — 5 

MAR '46 RESULTS BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Farms 12% 68% 16% — 4% 

Cities over 100,000 23 32 39 — 6 . 

9. (US Feb 23 '43) In your own case, which do you think is 
more convenient — war time or standard time? (aipo) 

Wartime 30% 

Standard time 39 

No difference 29 

No opinion 2 

10. (Great Britain June 10 '43) Would you like to see double 
summer time continued after the war? Quly '45) Would you 



[158] 



approve or disapprove of the introduction of double summer 
time next year? (bipo) 

Approve Disapprove Don't know 

8% 
7 



Approve Disapprove Don't know 



June '43 44%, 

July '45 43 50 

JULY '45 RESULTS BY SEX 

Men 41% 51% 

Women 44 49 

JULY '45 RESULTS BY AGE 

21-29 years 47% 

30-49 years 45 

50 years and over 39 

JULY '45 RESULTS BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher 42% 51% 

Middle 42 52 

Lower 43 49 



50 
52 



8% 
7 

9% 
5 



7% 
6 



Just 



11. (Canada July 28 '43, Dec 16 '44, Sept 22 '45) Do you think 
we should have daylight saving time all the year rotind as at 
present, or just in the summer months, or not at all? 36% of 
the 1943 sample and 35% of the 1944 sample who said they 
would like daylight saving all year were asked: Would you 
like to see it continued after the war or just for the duration? 
The 1945 question was: Which of the following would you 
like to see done about daylight saving — stay on daylight sav- 
ing time the year round, as at present, have daylight saving 
time in the summer only, or go back to standard time the year 
round? (cipo) 

Total 
all 
Unde- year 
cided round 

1% = 36% 
2 =35 
— 25 

1943 AND 1944 RESULTS BY RURAL AND URBAN COMMUNITY 

Farm, 1943 21% 32% 45% 2% 

Non-farm, 1943 41 38 17 4 

Farm, 1944 20 35 42 3 

Non-farm, 1944 42 39 12 7 

1945 RESULTS BY TYPE OF TIME USED IN PREWAR DAYS 

Had daylight saving 31%o 40% 24%o 5%, 

Didn't have daylight saving 17 27 50 6 

12. (Denmark Apr 1 '44) Are you for or against keeping day- 
light saving time after the war? (dgi) 







After 
the 


Dura- 
tion 






war 


only 


J"iy 

Dec 

Sept 


'43 ... . 

'44 

'45. . .. 


... 28% 
...28 


7% 
5 



in 


Not 




sum- 


at 


Unde- 


mer 


all 


cided 


36% 


25% 


3% 


37 


24 


4 


37 


33 


5 



For 50.9% 



gainst 25.0% 



Don't know 24.1% 



13. (Denmark Sept 8 '45) Are you satisfied or dissatisfied with 
discontinuing daylight saving time on August 15? (dgi) 



Satisfied 55.1*; 



Dissatisfied 44.! 



14. (Great Britain Sept 29 '45) It is proposed to return soon 
to Greenwich mean time, doing away with summer time. Do 
you approve or disapprove? (bipo) 

Approve Disapprove Don't know 
National total 50% 38% 12%, 



Men . . . 
Women . 



BY SEX 

53% 
48 



21-29 years 41% 

30-49 years 49 

50 years and over 55 



38% 
38 

45% 

40 

33 



14 

14% 

11 

12 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher 53% 44% 

Middle 51 42 

Lower 50 36 



3% 
7 
14 



DEFECTIVE AND DELINQUENT 
CLASSES 



1. (US Nov 13 '36 and Jan 20 '39) Do you favor mercy deaths 
under government supervision for hopeless invalids? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

1936 46% 54% = 100% 16% 

1939 46 54 =100 10 

1936 RESULTS BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 43% 

Middle Atlantic 

East central 

West central 

South 

Mountain 

Pacific coast 



43% 


57% 


54 


46 


40 


60 


32 


68 


38 


62 


63 


37 


64 


36 



Men . . . 
Women 



1936 RESULTS BY SPECIAL GROUPS 

Women 48%o 52%, 

Young people 54 46 

Doctors 53 47 

1939 RESULTS BY SEX 

49% 51% 

42 58 

1939 RESULTS BY AGE 

Under 30 years 52% 48% 

30-49 years 44 56 

50 years and over .... 41 59 

2. (US Jan 11 '37) Do you favor sterilization of habitual crimi- 
nals and the hopelessly insane? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 



National total. 



New England 759 

Middle Atlantic 

East central 

West central 

South 

Mountain 

Pacific coast 



84%, 


16% = 100% 


iGRAPHIC 


AL SECTION 


75% 


25% 


80 


20 


88 


12 


83 


17 


84 


16 


92 


8 


92 


8 



14% 



3. (Great Britain Jan 14 '37) Do you consider that doctors 
should be given power to end the life of a person incurably ill? 
(bipo) 

Yes 69% No 31%o = 100% No opinion 2% 

4. (US July '37) Some people advocate compulsory sterilization 
of habitual criminals and ment.-il defectives so that they will 
not have children to inherit their weaknesses. Would you ap- 
prove of this? (for) 









For 


Don't 




Yes 


No 


some 


know 


habitual criminals. . 


. 63.2% 


17.8% 


8.3% 


10.7% 


mental defectives . . . 


, 66.3 


15.1 


8.0 


10.6 



[ 159 ] 



6. (US July '37) Some people believe that doctors should be 
permitted to perform mercy killings upon infants born perma- 
nently deformed or mentally handicapped. Under what circum- 
stances would you approve this? The same thing is suggested 
for persons incurably and painfully ill. Under what circum- 
stances would you approve this? (for) 

Defective infants Incurably ill 

No circumstances 40.5% 47.5% 

With patient's permission. . — "1 11.6 

With family's permission. . . 13.9 4.2 

With approval of medical 

board 23.3 10.9 

With patient's and family's r45.0% f-37.3% 

permission — 1.7 

With permission of medical 

board and family's and/or 

patient's 7.8 J 8.9 

Don't know 14.5 152 

B. (US May 12 '38) In Chicago recently a family had to decide 
between letting its newborn babv die, or have an operation 
that would leave the baby blind for life. Which course would 
you have chosen? (aipo) 

Let 
Operate baby die No opinion 

SFational total 63% 37% = 100% 15% 

BY RELIGION 

Roman Catholics 73% 27% 

Protestants 63 37 

Non-church members 58 42 

1. (US Jan 20 '39) Recently a man in New York chloroformed 
to death his seventeen-year-old son who was incurably fceblc- 
tninded. Do you think the father was justified? (aipo) 
5fes 37% No 54% No opinion 9% 

B. (Great Britain Apr '39) Should those suffering from an 
incurable disease be allowed the option, under proper medical 
safeguards, of a voluntary death? (bipo) 
yes 62% No 22% No opinion 16% 



DEMOCRACY 



1. (Sweden Aug '44) Can you give me an example of a typical 
democratic state? (sgi) 

Yes No 

National total 70% 30% 

BY SEX 

Men 78% 22% 

Women 59 41 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper class 83% 17% 

Middle class 73 27 

Workers 65 35 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Country 64% 36% 

Towns 76 24 

BY POLITICS 

Right party 77.4% 22.6% 

Liberal party 76.6 23.4 

National party 67.7 32.3 



Yes No 

Agrarian party 72.3% 27.7% 

Social Democratic 63.5 36.5 

Communist 94.4 5-6 

Others 60.0 40.0 

2. (Germany Apr 26 '46) The Germans were asked whether 
they agreed with the following statements: (omgus) 

AMERICAN ZONE 

AND BERLIN BERLIN ONLY 

a R 



•S 



■S 
■Si, 



The strength of a nation is 
weakened by a democratic 
form of government 8% 83% 9% 8% 86% 6% 

The history of the past fifty 
years shows that there have 
been few Germans with an 
understanding of, or confi- 
dence in democracy 63 22 15 73 21 6 

Democracy is a good form of 
government, because it can 
develop a superior armed 
force 38 44 18 52 41 7 

The greatest strength of Amer- 
ican democracy does not lie 
in its military power 55 28 17 65 26 9 

It is important that all demo- 
cratic elements in Germany 
be given freedom in political 
affairs 79 12 9 86 12 2 

3. (Germany July 25 '46) What do you consider the chief 
principles of a democratic government? (omgus) 

Freedom of speech; individual freedom 25% 

Influence of people on government; demands of the 
people to be considered; honesty of government 

toward people 12 

Equality; unity; sovereign rights of the peoples; peace- 
ful negotiation between peoples 12 

Free elections 3 

Equal justice for all; equal rights and duties 14 

Social welfare; living costs and wages in sound relation 

to one another 7 

Peace and order within state 2 

High living standard; economic development 2 

Others * 

No opinion, don't know; don't understand anything 

about it because I don't bother about politics 38 

No answer 1 



116%** 
* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than lOO because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

4. (Sweden Aug 29 '46) What does the term "democracy" 

mean to you? (sgi) 

Democratically governed state; the people have the right 

of determination 20% 

Same rights to all 13 

Freedom of speech; liberty of the press 8 

The people elect the government; popularly elected gov- 
ernment 8 

Free election; universal suffrage 6 

No person, no party has absolute rule, power 3 

Contrast to dictatorship 2 



[160] 



Like Sweden 4% 

Social democratic government; labor government 4 

Miscellaneous 7 

Know nothing about it; no answer 31 



National total. 



106%* 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

5. (Sweden Aug 29 '46) Which of the following states do you 
consider democracies: England, Finland, France, Sweden, 
United States, Russia, Spain, and Poland? (sgi) 

Sweden 95%* 

England 86 

United States 85 

Finland 65 

France 59 

Poland 25 

Russia 14 

Spain 3 

None of these 2 

* Percentages add to considerably more than 100 because some re- 
spondents mentioned several countries. 

6. (Hungary Oct "46) In your opinion does the progress of 
democracy increase or decrease with the part charity plays in 
social care? Asked in Budapest, (hipor) 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Increases 

Well-off 40.2% 

Middle class 55.1 

Poor 54.8 

7. (Great Britain Nov '46) Would you say that we have de- 
mocracy in Britain? (bipo) 

Yes No Don't know 

National total 50% 32% 18% 





Other and 


'Decreases 


no answer 


51.7% 


7.1% 


38.3 


6.6 


34.8 


10.4 



Men . . . 
Women. 



BY SEX 

•■ 54% 
46 



BY AGE 

21-29 years 47% 

30-49 years 52 

50 years and over 49 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher 51% 

Middle 52 

Lower 49 

Very poor 46 



Ganservative. 
Labor voters. 

Liberal 

Other voters . 



BY POLITICS 

. . . . 50% 
. . . 55 



44 

29 

Non-voters 45 



36% 
27 

34% 
33 

29 

42% 
36 
29 
27 

34% 

29 

37 

63 

28 



10% 
27 



19% 

15 

22 

7% 
12 
22 
27 

16% 
16 
19 
8 

27 



8. (Great Britain Nov '46) What do you think democracy 
stands for? (bipo) 

Freedom 40% 

Government by the people 15 

Equality 7 

Social betterment 4 

Don't know and all others 34 

9. (Netherlands Dec 10 '46) Do you think there is a democracy 
in the Republic of Java (Indonesia)? (nipo) 



Yts 


No 


Don t know 


10% 


42% 


48% 


7% 


39% 


54% 


12 


33 


55 


8 


55 


37 


27 


28 


45 


6 


49 


45 


6 


60 


34 



Catholic People's party. . . . 

Labor party 12 

Anti-Revolutionary party . . 

Communist party 27 

Christian-Historic party. . . . 
Liberal party 



10. (Netherlands Dec '46) Can you tell me what you mean 
by democracy? (nipo) 

Government chosen by the people 29% 

Freedom 20 

Social betterment (e.g. a good living for everybody; eco- 
nomic democracy) 7 

Equal rights 6 

Unity; cooperation of all members of the community . . 4 

Miscellaneous 7 

Could not answer 36 



Nj 


No opinion 


15% 


18% 


10 


22 


15 


26 


16 


33 


19 


34 


66 


23 


70 


27 



109%* 
* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

11. (Netherlands Dec '46) Do you think there is a democracy 
in this country, in England, in the United States, in Belgium, 
in France, in Russia, and in Spain? (nipo) 

Yes 

Netherlands 67% 

England 68 

United States 59 

Belgium 51 

France 47 

Russia 11 

Spain 3 



DEMOCRATIC PARTY 



1. (US July 18 '44) Did you happen to read the Democratic 
platform drawn up at their convention in Chicago recently? 
(aipo) 

Yes, all of it 12% 

Yes, only part of it 21 

No, not any 67 

2. (US Oct '44) What are one or two things you don't like 
so well about the Democratic party, or that you think it should 
improve? (for) 

National Prefer P.efer 

total Roosevelt Dewey 

Too much spending, waste, ex- 
travagance; too many on gov- 
ernment payroll 11.0% 

Too much bureaucracy; bureaus 

need control 4.4 2.6 6.9 

Too much red tape; OPA poorly 

handled, prices not regulated . 2.2 2.0 2.7 

They cater to labor; let unions go 

too far; accept backing of CIO 6.3 4.6 8.8 

Too radical or communistic 1.5 .7 2.5 



6.1% 18.0% 



[161] 



National Prefer Prefer 
total Roosevelt Dewey 

One-man rule; dictatorship 3.7% 1.4% 6.6% 

Centralization of power; control 
of government and courts ... . 2.3 1.5 3.5 

Attitude on Negro question 
(wrong, or too much or too 
little aid) 3.2 3.6 2.7 

Party machinery too powerful; 
too much "boss" politics; con- 
vention was controlled 1.9 1.2 2.8 

Lack of unity 1.8 2.2 1.4 

Other 30.7 19.9 45.1 

Don't know 51.4 64.5 32.7 



DENMARK 



120.4%* 110.3%* 133.7%* 

* Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 



3. (US Apr 10 '46) At the present time, what is your chief 
criticism of the policies of the Democratic party? (aipo) 

None, no faults 27% 

Not well organized; lack cooperation 16 

Too much for working man; not enough for corpora- 
tions 1 

Too much politics; trying to keep power 7 

Failure to settle strikes 3 

Communists; Socialists; dictatorship 6 

Inflation and OPA failures 1 

Spendthrifts; bureaucrats 12 

In with isolationists * 

General policy is bad; don't believe in New Deal 4 

Miscellaneous 4 

No answer 21 



102%* 



* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer, 



4. (US Oct 10 '46) Would you say you are more in favor or 
less in favor of the Democratic party today than you were six 
months ago? 51% of the sample who said they were less in 
favor of it were asked: What in particular has caused you to 
change your feelings about the Democratic patty? (aipo) 

More in favor of it 10% 

Don't feel differently about it 32 

Don't know whether or not feelings have changed. ... 7 
Disotganized; lack of unity; no program; don't get 

things done 14 

Bad leadership, Truman is not a good leader 10 

Killing the OPA; bungling OPA 7 

Present conditions of the country; country in a mess; etc. 6 

Food problems 2 

Bad foreign policy 1 

Need a change 1 

Meat situation 2 

Other shortages 1 

Housing * 

Miscellaneous answers 6 

Don't know what caused change 4 



103%^ 



Defenses 

1. (Denmark May 9 '43) Should Denmark, in the future, have 
its own military defense? Asked of a national cross-section of 
people eighteen to twenty-five years old. (dgi) 

Yes 67.3% No 13.7% Don't know 19.0% 

2. (Denmark May 9 '43) Do you realize that a military defense 
system means higher taxation and a lower standard of living 
for all? Asked of a national cross-section of people eighteen to 
twenty-five years old. (dgi) 

Yes 63.9% No 36.1% 

3. (Denmark June 27 '43) Apart from a [Northern] union, are 
you for or against a joint Scandinavian defense system after 
the war? (dgi) 

For 37.4% 

Against 10.1 

Don't know 50.0 

No answer 2.5 

4. (Denmark July 8 '45) Is your attitude toward the question 
of defense different today than it was before the war? (dgi) 
Yes 26.3% No 58.2% Don't know 15-5% 

5. (Denmark July 8 '45) Do you think Denmark should build 
up a strong defense? (dgi) 

Yes 61.9% No 25.2% Don't know 12.9% 



Foreign Relations 



* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 



1. (Denmark Sept 29 '45) Are you satisfied or dissatisfied with 
our foreign politics during the last few months? (dgi) 
Satisfied 32% Dissatisfied 26% Don't know 42% 

Parliament 

1. (Denmark Feb 4 '45) Do you want more, fewer, or the 
same number of Members of Parliament? (dgi) 

More 2.0% 

Fewer 18.3 

Same number 38.9 

No answer 3.8 

Don't know 37. 

Politics and Government 

1. (Denmark Dec 8 '45) After the election results, were you 
satisfied or dissatisfied that the Left party formed a govern- 
ment? (dgi) 

Satisfied 32% Dissatisfied 45% Don't know 23% 

2. (Denmark Dec 8 '45) What party or parties do you think 
should have formed a government? Asked of 45% of the sample 
who were dissatisfied that the Left party formed a government. 
(dgi) 

The Social Democratic party 51% 

Labor 11 

Conservative 11 

Coalition 7 

Communist 8 

Social Democratic and Radical 2 

Social Democtatic and Conservative . 2 

Other combinations 8 

100% of those 
who were dissatisfied 



[162] 



3. (pcnmark J;in '46; May 31 '46; Nov "46) Do you think that 
the peasant government has managed well, fairly well, or badly 
during its term of office? (dgi) 

Well Fairly well Badly 

Jan '46 36% 

May '46 37 

Nov '46 2 



Fairly well 

31% 

30 

33 



33 
39 



BY POLITICS 

Social Democratic 

Jan '46 15% 

May '46 13 

Nov '46 8 

"Radical-Liberal 

Jan '46 35 

May '46 46 

Nov '46 19 

Conservative 

Jan '46 34 

May '46 48 

Nov '46 26 

Peasant 

Jan '46 84 

May '46 83 

Nov '46 73 

Independent 

Jan '46 47 

May '46 36 

Nov '46 29 

Communist 

Jan '46 9 

May '46 5 

Nov '46 3 

Danish unions 

Jan '46. 

May '46. 



32 

64 

Nov '46 32 



33% 
29 

27 

51 
43 

48 

40 
34 
47 

16 
17 
27 

40 
50 
23 

15 
23 
13 

46 
24 
68 



52% 

58 

65 

14 
11 
33 

26 
18 
27 



13 

14 
48 

76 
72 
84 

22 
12 



Prime Ministers 

1. (Denmark Feb 11 '45) Who do you think is going to be 
premier immediately after the war? (dgi) 

Edward Buhl 5-9% 

Christmas M0ller 4.4 

Other replies 36 

No answer 18.8 

Don't know 67.3 



DEWEY, THOMAS E. 



1. (US Sept 29 '43) We %vould like to find out what things 

people like and dislike about Thomas Dewey. What do you, 
yourself, like best about him? (aipo) 

His abilirv'; ambition; resourcefulness; aggressiveness. . . . 11% 
His record as a district attorney; did away with gangsters; 

he's a good prosecutor 12 

His straightforwardness; honesty; frankness; sincerity; 

and dependableness 14 

His fearlessness and daring; he pulls no punches 6 

His personality and speaking ability 3 

He can't be bribed or swayed 1 

He tries to give everyone an even break; his impartiality. . 1 
He's doing a good job as governor; he's a good leader and 

administrator 2 



He's a Republican; like his politics 1% 

Just like him — no specific reason given 2 

Like nothing about him 6 

No opinion 41 

Miscellaneous * 

* Less than 0.5%. 

2. (US Sept 29 '43) Now what would you say you like least 
about him [Thomas Dewey]? (aipo) 

He's too young and inexperienced; lacks executive train- 
ing; trying to advance rapidly in politics 7% 

He's too aggressive and radical; has too much personal 

ambition 5 

His personality; his looks 3 

He's too conservativ 2 

He's a Republican; his politics and supporters 4 

He's insincere 2 

He's narrowminded and prejudiced; would favor the rich 3 

Other reasons 2 

Just don't like him — no specific reason given * 

Dislike nothing about him 19 

No opinion 54 

• Less than 0.5%. 

3. (US Sept 29 '43) What kind of a job do you think he [Dewey] 
would do in running the country? (aipo) 

Excellent job 7% 

Good job 23 

Fair job 14 

Poor job 10 

Very poor job 2 

Better than Roosevelt 1 

Same or not as good as Roosevelt ... 1 

No answer; don't know 42 

4. (US Sept 29 '43) Do you think he [Dewey] could handle 
big problems like unemployment better than Roosevelt, as 
well as Roosevelt, or not as well? (aipo) 

Better 13% 

As well 24 

Not as well 33 

No opinion 22 

No answer 8 

5. (US Sept 29 '43) Do you think he [Dewey] would be good 
at handling problems which will come up after the war con- 
cerning our relations with other nations? (aipo) 

Yes 29% 

No 25 

Don't know 39 

No answer 7 

6. (US Sept 29 '43) Do you think he [Dewey] has a good 
understanding of world problems? (aipo) 

Yes 32% 

No 20 

Don't know 40 

No answer 8 

7. (US Sept 29 '43) Do you think he [Dewey] has a good 
understanding of national problems? (aipo) 

Yes 49% 

No 12 

Don't know 31 

No answer 8 

8. (US Sept 29 '43) Do you think he [Dewey] could get along 
with businessmen. Congress, labor union leaders, workers 
themselves? (aipo) 



[163] 





Don't knou 


No 


no answer 


6% 


37% 


16 


46 


29 


47 


16 


42 



Yes 

Businessmen 57% 

Congress 38 

Labor union leaders 24 

Workers 42 



9. (US Aug 16 '44) Do you think Dewey's looks will help or 
hurt him in getting elected President this year? (aipo) 

Help 16% 

Hurt 19 

No difference 51 

No opinion 14 

10. (US Aug 16 '44) Do you think Dewey's voice will help or 
hurt him in getting elected President this year? (aipo) 

Help 28% 

Hurt 5 

No difference 38 

No opinion 11 

Never heard Dewey 18 

11. (US Sept 15 '44) With which of these statements do you 
come closest to agreeing? (for) 

Dewey has an excellent record and it would be the best 
thing for the country to elect him President for the 
next four years 25.1% 

While Dewey may not be ideal for the job, it certainly 
would be better to have him than Roosevelt for the 
next four years 19.3 

Although Dewey may have some very good qualities, 
he still could not do the job as well as Roosevelt 
during the next four years 34.3 

It would be a very bad thing for this country to elect 
Dewey as President for the next four years 15.0 

Don't know 6.3 



DICTATORS 



1. (US Sept 23 '38) Would you like to see President Roosevelt 
openly criticize Hitler and Mussolini for their warlike atti- 
tudes? (aipo) 

Yes 33% No 67% = 100% No opinion 8% 

2. (US Oct 1 '38) If you absolutely had to decide which dic- 
tator you liked best, Mussolini, Stalin, or Hitler, which would 
you choose? (aipo) 

Mussolini 53% 

I Stalin 34 
Hitler 13 



100% 
None and no opinion 21% 



3. (France Oct 16 '44) Do you think Franco should resign 
after the war? Asked of a cross-section of Parisians, (fipo) 

Yes 67% No 15% Don't know 18% 

4. (France Dec 1 '44) Should France help the Spanish Republi- 
cans throw out Franco? (fipo) 

jL- Yes No No opinion 

F National total 37% 51% 12% 

By men 44 46 10 



\ 



5. (France Dec 14 '44) Mr. Churchill and President Roosevelt 
have been invited to Paris. Do you think Stalin should have 
been asked too? (fipo) 

Yes 73% No 17% No opinion 10% 

6. (US July 25 '45) Will you tell mc who General Franco is? 
(aipo) 

Correct answers 53% Incorrect and don't know 47% 

7. (US July 25 '45) What is your opinion of him [General 
Franco]? Asked of a national cross-section of those who knew 
who Franco was. 53% of the sample is represented, (aipo) 

A fascist; helped Nazis; dictator like Hitler 26% 

A scoundrel; two-faced; stooge; etc 23 

Don't like him, not much 12 

Remove him from office 6 

Should be punished; war criminal 1 

Spain should have gotten rid of him long ago .... 1 

O.K. because he has to be 1 

O.K.; did well or would be out of Spain 4 

Dangerous to the world * 

Should be killed 1 

Miscellaneous answers 1 

No opinion 24 



100% 
of those who knew who Franco was 



* Less than 0.5%. 



8. (US July 25 '45) Should Spain become a member of the 
United Nations under its present government? Asked of a na- 
tional cross-section of those who knew who Franco was. 
53% of the sample is represented, (aipo) 

Yes 12% No 76% No opinion 12% = 100% 

of those who knew who Franco was 

9. (Germany Apr 26 '46) The Germans were asked whether 
or not they agreed with the following statement: Only a gov- 
ernment headed by a dictator is able to create a strong nation. 
(oMGUs) 

American zone 

and Berlin Berlin 

Yes 18% 33% 

No 75 65 

No opinion 7 2 

10. (Sweden May '46) Who is Franco? (sgi) 

Correct Wrong 



National total 71% 



BY POLITICS 



Right party 

National party 72 

Agrarian party 64 

Social Democrat 71 

Communist 85 



5% 

5% 

3 

6 



No 
answer 

24% 



11% 

25 

30 

23 

12 



DIES COMMITTEE 



1. (US Nov 13 '38, Jan 10 '39, Feb 16 '39, Nov 30 '39, Dec 
22 '39, Nov 19 '40) Three questions were used: (1) Have you 
heard or read about the Dies Committee for investigating un- 
American activities? (2) Have you heard or read about the 
Dies Committee? (3) Have you heard of the Dies Committee? 



[164] 



The 1938 sample was asked the first question. Two comparable 
cross-sections were used for the Jan '39 sample. The first and 
second questions were used. Results were combined. The Feb 
'39 sample comprised two cross-sections that were asked the 
first and third questions. Results were combined. The Nov and 
Dec '39 samples were asked the second question, the Nov '40 
sample was asked the third question, (aipo) 

Yes No 



Nov '38 59% 

Jan '39 59 

Feb '39 66 

Nov '39 72 

Dec '39 



81 

Nov '40 87 



41% 

41 

34 

28 

19 

13 



2. (US Nov 14 '38) Do you think its [Dies Committee's] find- 
ings have been important enough to justify continuing the 
investigation? (Jan 10 '39) Do you think its [Dies Committee's] 
findings have been important enough so that the investigation 
should be continued? A comparable cross-section was asked 
the question: Do you think the Committee has done a good 
job in its investigation? Results were combined. (Jan 10 '39) 
Should Congress appropriate one hundred fifty thousand dollars 
for the [Dies] Committee to continue its work? All questions 
were asked only of those who were informed about the Dies 
Committee, (aipo) 

Yes No 

Nov '38 results 74% 26% = 100% 

Jan '39 first results 74 26 =100 

Jan '39 second results ... 67 33 = 100 

NOV '38 RESULTS BY POLITICS 



No opinion 

24% 

22 

20 



Republican 83 17 

Third parties 71 29 

NOV '38 RESULTS BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Upper incom 77% 23% 

Middle income 73 27 

Lower income 74 26 

NOV '38 RESULTS BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 72% 28% 

Middle Atlantic 69 31 

East central 80 20 

West central 78 22 

South 80 20 

West 70 30 

3. (US Feb 16 '39) The Dies Committee has promised to study 
three major subjects this year. Which one of the three follow- 
ing do you consider the most important: studying Communist 
activities in this country, studying Nazi activities in this coun- 
try, or studying war propaganda in this country? A comparable 
cross-section was asked about the "Dies Committee for investi- 
gating un-American activities." Results were combined. Asked 
only of those who were informed about the Dies Committee. 
(aipo) 

War Nazi Communist 

propaganda activities activities 
National total 42% 32% 26% 



BY POLITICS 



Democratic 40% 

Republican 44 



25% 
35 



BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 



New England 38% 31% 

Middle Atlantic 43 29 



35% 
21 



31% 
28 



Nazi 


Communist 


activities 


activities 


27% 


28% 


34 


22 


40 


23 


38 


24 



War 
propaganda 

East central 45% 

West central 44 

South 37 

West 38 

4. (US Feb 16 '39) How good a job do you think the Dies 
Committee has done so far? Asked only of those who were 
informed about the Dies Committee, (aipo) 

Excellent 10% 

Good 24 

Fair 30 

Poor 8 

Very poor 5 

No opinion 23 

6. (US Feb 16 '39) At the same time as the previous question 
was asked, a comparable cross-section was asked the follow- 
ing question: Do you think the Dies Committee has done a 
good job or a poor job so far? Asked of those who were in- 
formed about the Dies Committee, (aipo) 
Good 48% Poor 21% No opinion 31% 

6. (US Oct 18 '39 and Nov 13 '39) Do you think Congress 
should provide money to continue the Dies Committee another 
year? In Oct '39 the question was put to a comparable cross- 
section using "set aside" instead of "provide." Results were 
combined, (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

Oct '39 53% 14% 33% = 100% 

Nov '39 75 25 = 100%, 28 



BY POLITICS 



32% 
26 



i 



Democratic Oct 52% 16% 

Democratic Nov 72 28 

Republican Oct 63 11 

Republican Nov 79 21 

7. (US Nov 11 '39) What is your opinion regarding the Dies 
Committee — Congress should appoint some other committee 
to do the work; Congress should provide money so the Dies 
Committee can continue for another year; the investigations 
should be discontinued? Asked only of those who were in- 
formed about the Dies Committee, (aipo) 

Should appoint other committee. . . . 12% 

Provide money to continue 75 

Discontinue investigations 13 

8. (US Dec 22 '39) Which of the following do you consider 
more important for the Dies Committee to investigate — Com- 
munist activities in this country or Nazi activities in this 
country? Asked of a national cross-section of people who had 
heard or read about the Dies Committee, (aipo) 

Communist activities. .. . 70% 
Nazi activities 30 



100% 
Don't know 24% 

9. (US Nov 19 '40) Do you think the Dies Committee should 
be continued? (aipo) 

Yes 65% No 7% No opinion 28% 

10. (US Nov 19 '40) The Dies Committee is asking for one 
million dollars to continue its work. Would you approve or 
disapprove of Congress setting aside this sum for the Dies 
Committee? (aipo) 

Approve 57% Disapprove 11% No opinion 32% 



[165] 



DIET 



1 






1. (US Nov 13 '41) Have you changed the food or diet of 
yourself or your family in recent months? Asked of a national 
cross-section of housewives, (aipo) 

Yes, have changed because of higher prices for food 17% 

No, have not changed 83 

2. (US Nov 13 '41) What changes [in the food or diet of your 
family] have you made, and why have you made them? Asked 
of 17% of a sample of housewives who had changed their diet 
because of food prices, (aipo) 

Change for the better 1% 

Less meat 7 

Lower grade of food 3 

Less eggs and butter 2 

Less fruit 1 

Fewer desserts 1 

Miscellaneous changes 2 

Fewer vegetables 1 

Less milk 3 

No answer 2 

23%* 
* Percentages add to more than 17 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

3. (Canada Jan 9 '42 and Jan 6 '43) We want to find out what 
the average Canadian eats in the course of a day. Would you 
tell me what you had for breakfast today? Lunch? Dinner? 
Did you have anything to eat between meals? From the re- 
sponses to these questions in Canada, an analysis was made 
of actual diet conditions as contrasted with the official food 
rules. Canada's official food rules required the following items 
— fruits: one serving of tomatoes, or citrus fruit, or juices and 
one serving of other fruit daily; cereals and bread: one serving 
whole grain cereal and 4~6 slices of Canadian approved bread; 
milk and cheese; one-half-pint of milk daily and some cheese; 
vegetables: two servings daily, leafy green or yellow; meat, 
fish, eggs, poultry: one serving per day. (cipo) (US Jan 7 '43 
and Dec 28 '44) The United States question was the same as 
that asked in Canada in '42 and '43 except that "person" was 
substituted for "Canadian." (aipo) 



<5 



•T3 

e 

<3 












a 



^ 



li ^ ^ ^ 

1942 Results in Canada 

Adults having proper diet 17% 60% 59% 90% 97% 

Adults not having proper diet .... 83 40 41 10 3 

Children having proper diet 23 85 93 91 95 

Children not having proper diet .. . 77 15 7 9 5 

1943 Results in Canada 

Adults having proper diet 17% 60% 75% 90% 97% 

Adults not having proper diet .... 83 40 25 10 3 

1943 Results in Canada by Economic Status 

Upper income having proper diet.. 24% 57% 61% 86% 96% 
Upper income not having proper 

diet 76 43 39 14 4 



I 



5^ 

Middle income having proper diet. 20% 66% 58% 85% 
Middle income not having proper 
diet 80 



Lower income having proper diet. . 14 
Lower income not having proper 
diet 86 



34 
58 



42 
60 



15 

82 



98% 

2 
97 



42 40 18 



1943 Results in United States 



60 ^^ 

a "^ 

<s >- 2 -c^ -^ § 

■5 \ ■« 5 ■« 

•- ^ 5 5 • -^ 

5s ^ :*^ t; b t: '3 

■O tti ^ t^ ^ O O 

National total* 45% 48% 34% 25% 12% 8% 3% 

BY economic status 

Upper income 24% 45% 27% 19% 7% 6% 3% 

Middle income 35 43 26 21 8 6 2 

Lower income 56 52 40 29 15 10 3 

DY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England and mid- 
Atlantic 46% 53% 43% 28% 9% 8% 3% 

East central 41 51 31 26 12 8 4 

West central 43 49 31 25 12 5 2 

South 53 41 31 21 14 12 3 

Far West 41 46 28 24 14 7 3 

* The figures represent the number of persons who ate none of the 
foods listed as necessary daily in each Category. 

1944 Results in United States 



i; S 5 5 t> 

■a 5- s. ^ '5> 'S 

J- ■=,_■- -Pi^ ^*--v 

^ *:^ K "^ "5 2t ■i* 

National total*... 32% 46% 23% 9% 9% 40% 4% 22% 
BY economic status 

Upper 26% 24% 15% 9% 6% 34% 3% 13% 

Middle 26 36 17 8 7 38 4 17 

Lower 36 57 28 11 11 44 4 27 

* Percentages equal the per cent of the adult population who had 
none of the particular type of food for the twenty four hours preceding 
the questioning. 



4. (Great Britain Apr '42 and Nov '42) If it would save ship- 
ping for the war effort do you think you could do with a 
smaller amount of food and still be able to do your work 
properly? The Nov sample was asked the same question with 
the phrase "do you think" omitted, (bipo) 



[166] 



Apr '41. 
Nov '42. 



Yes 


No 


DonV /^Bou; 


48% 
45 


45% 
46 


7% 
9 



6. (Great Britain July '42) Do you generally get a full meal at 
midday? (bipo) 

Yes 74% No 26% 

6. (US Jan 20 '43) Do you think food rationing in England 
has made the people as a whole healthier or not as healthy 
as they were before? Asked of a national cross-section of women. 
(norc) 

Healthier 24% 

About same 13 

Not as healthy 20 

Don't know 43 

7. (US Jan 20 '43) How has it [food rationing] made them 
healthier? Asked of 24% of the sample of women who thought 
food rationing in England had made the people healthier. 
(norc) 

Because they have cut down on rich foods 3% 

Because they are getting more fresh foods 3 

General statement that diet has improved 11 

Distribution of food is more equitable 5 

Overeating is eliminated 2 

Miscellaneous 1 

Not ascertainable 1 



26%* 

* Percentages add to more than 24 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

8. (US Jan 20 '43) At the present time, do you think the Eng- 
lish diet is more healthful or not as healthful as ours is now? 
Asked of a national cross-section of women, (norc) 

More 8% 

Same 8 

Less 49 

Don't know 35 

9. (US Jan 20 '43) How about after our new food rationing 
goes into effect next month? Do you think our diet will be 
more healthful or not as healthful as the English diet is now? 
Asked of a national cross-section of women, (norc) 

More 52% 

Same 15 

Less 3 

Don't know 30 

10. (Sweden Feb '43) What did you eat as main course for 
dinner yesterday? (sGi) 



<; f~< <o t) < s 

Rationed meat 36% 37% 36% 48% 36% 35% 

Non-rationed meat 6 7 5 9 6 6 

Fish 21 26 15 17 22 21 

Meat or vegetable soup 14 14 15 10 16 15 

Pudding, flour, or cereal ... . 9 6 11 6 7 9 

Potatoes 6 4 9 4 7 6 

Vegetables 3 3 3 3 3 3 

Other things; don't remem- 
ber; didn't have dinner. ... 5 3 6 3 3 5 

11. (US May 7 '43) Are the kind of meals you're having.now 
much different from those you were having last year at this 
time? Asked of a national cross-section of women, (norc) 



Yes 38% No 62% Don't know* 

* Less than 0.3%. 

12. (US May 7 '43) Taking everything into consideration, 
would you say your meals now are better than they were last 
year or not as good? (norc) 

Better 9% 

About the same 59 

Poorer 31 

Don't know 1 

13. (US May 7 '43) During the last year, have you had to 
cut down on the actual size of your meals — that is, altogether, 
are you eating any less food? Asked of a national cross-section 
of women, (norc) 

Yes, eating less 21% 

No, about the same 77 

Eating more 2 

Don't know * 

* Less than 0.5%. 

14. (US May 7 '43) Would you mind telling me what your 
husband had for breakfast today? Asked of 80% of a national 
cross-section of women whose husbands were working, (norc) 

Excellent* 2% 

Good* 23 

Fair* 34 

Poor* 6 

Not ascertainable 15 

80% 

* A breakfast was rated e.xcellent if it included: (1) Fruit or fruit 
juice; (2) cereal, eggs, meat, or whole wheat; (3) milk. It was called 
good if it included only two of the above. It was called fair if it in- 
cluded only one of the above, and poor if it included none of those 
three. 

15. (US May 7 '43) Does he [your husband] carry a lunch to 
work? Asked of 80% of a national cross-section of women 
whose husbands were working, (norc) 

Yes 25% 

No 44 

Sometimes 1 

No answer 10 

80% 

16. (Great Britain July 12 '43) Do you get one hot meal a 
day? 10% of the sample who said they didn't get a hot meal 
were asked: Would you like to be able to get one? (bipo) 

Get a hot meal 90% 

Would like to get a hot meal. . . 9 
Don't want a hot meal 1 

17. (US Aug 4 '43, Oct 22 '43, Jan 15 '44) Speaking of food, 
have you ever heard of the phrase "the basic seven"? In Oct 
'43, only women were questioned. In 1944 the introduction 
"Speaking of food" was omitted from the question. 36% of the 
Aug '43 sample, 47% of the Oct '43 sample of women, and 
48% of the 1944 sample who said they had heard the phrase 
were asked: What does it mean to you? (norc) 

Aug '43 Oct '4i Jan '44 

Never heard the expression 64% 53% 52% 

Speak in terms of well-balanced diet, 

nutrition, good health 16 23 23 

Speak in terms of vitamins 4 7 7 

Speak in terms of specific foods — 

cereals, milk, meat, vegetables, 

fruits, etc 6 7 5 



[167] 



k 



Aug '43 Oct '43 Jan '44 
Speak in terms of basic nutrients — 

fats, carbohydrates, etc 1% 4% 1% 

Speak in terms of conserving or 

economizing; getting along on 

less 1 * 1 

Specifies necessity to keep fit for war 

work * * * 

Miscellaneous 1 * * 

Couldn't define the phrase or didn't 

answer 7 9 11 



100% 103%** 100% 

* Less than 0.5%. 

** Percentages add to more than 100 because some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

18. (US Aug 27 '43) About how many pounds of food a day 
do you think an average man eats? Just your best guess, (norc) 

One pound 3% 

Two pounds 23 

Three pounds 33 

Four pounds 16 

Five pounds 12 

Six pounds 3 

Seven pounds or more 2 

Not ascertainable 8 

19. (US Aiig 27 '43) About how many pounds of food a day 
do you think it takes to keep a soldier in fighting trim? Just 
your best guess, (norc) 

One pound *% 

Two pounds 4 

Three pounds 15 

Four pounds 18 

Five pounds 23 

Six pounds 14 

Seven pounds 5 

Eight pounds 5 

Nine pounds 1 

Ten pounds or more 5 

Not ascertainable 10 

* Less than 0.5%. 

20. (US Dec '43) Most of us have had to change our eating 
habits somewhat. Do you feel that you are getting more actual 
nourishment out of the food you do eat or less (or about the 
same*) this year as compared with last year? (for) 

Don't 
More Less Same know 

Results when "same" 

was asked 10.0% 19.0% 70.0% 1.0% 

Results when "same" 

had to be volunteered. 12.8 27.1 59.3 0.8 

* Half of the people were asked the question without "or about the 
same." 

21. (Great Britain Jan 18 '44) Compared with your family's 
food before the war, do you think that today they are having 
better or worse food? (bipo) 

Better 9% Same 24% Worse 67% 

22. (Denmark Mar 18 '44) What is your favorite dish? (dgi) 

Roast pork 15.0% 

Soup 12.1 

Beefsteak 6.3 

Pea soup 5.7 

Green cabbage soup 4.3 

Liver 3.2 



Duck 3.5% 

Cutlets 3.0 

Hare 2.1 

Chicken 2.0 

Fried bacon 2.1 

Goose 2.0 

Vegetables 1.9 

"Brown cabbage" 17 

Pancakes 1.3 

Fried eel 13 

Plaice 1.2 

Rice pudding 1 .0 

Roast beef 1.0 

Don't know 38.4 



109.1%* 

* Percentages add to more than 100 becnuse some respondents gave 
more than one answer. 

23. (US Jan 17 '45) At your last three meals, or between them, 
did you happen to have any of the following: milk to drink, 
cheese, or ice cream? (aipo) 

Milk 85% Cheese 28% Ice cream 17% = 130%* 

* Percentages add ro more than 100 because some respondents had 
eaten more than one of the items named. 

24. (Great Britain Sept 29 '45, Germany Mar 15 '46, Apr 15 
'46, May 8 '46, Nov 25 '46) Do you feel that you are getting 
enough food to enable you to work efficiently? (bipo, omgus) 

Don't know 
and 
Yes No no answer 

Sept '45 results in England 47% 50% 3% 

Mar '46 results in Germany 38 61 1 

Apr '46 results in Germany 27 72 1 

May '46 results in Germany 28 71 1 

Nov '46 results in Germany 46 53 1 



3% 
3 



RESULTS IN GREAT BRITAIN BY SEX 

Men 47% 50% 

Women 46 51 

RESULTS IN GREAT BRITAIN BY AGE 

21-29 years 52% 44% 4% 

30-49 years 43 54 3 

50 years and over 49 48 3 

RESULTS IN GREAT BRITAIN BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher 73% 23% 4% 

Middle 58 40 2 

Lower 41 55 4 

RESULTS IN GREAT BRITAIN BY OCCUPATION 

Professional; salaried executives . . 71% 25% 4% 

Salaried clerical 59 38 3 

Proprietor, shop or business; farm- 
ers 62 36 2 

Weekly wages; factory, heavy in- 
dustry, transport, miner 35 61 4 

Agricultural workers (excluding 

farmers) 34 64 2 

Weekly wages, all others 45 52 3 

Housewives 43 53 4 

Retired, unoccupied 52 44 4 

25. (Great Britain Apr 27 '46) What would be your chief 
complaint about food at the moment; that it is monotonous 
and without variety, or that you do not get enough of it? 
(bipo) 



[1G8] 



Monoto- Not 
nous enough 



36% 
40 

36% 

40 

37 

22% 
32 
42 
52 



30 
35 

42 



Don't 
know 

7% 

8% 
6 

5% 

7 

7 

11%, 



11% 
6 
11 



57 


3 


39 


6 


44 


5 


40 


6 



National total 55% 

BY SEX 

Men 56% 

Women 54 

BY AGE 

21-29 years 59% 

30-49 years 53 

50 years and over 56 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Higher 67% 

Middle 60 

Lower 52 

Very poor 45 

BY OCCUPATION 

Professional; salaried executives 71% 

Salaried clerical 64 

Proprietor, shop or business; farmers 54 

Weekly wages; factory, heavy indus- 
try, transport, miners 50 

Agricultural workers (excluding 

farmers) 40 

Weekly wages, all others 55 

Housewives 51 

Retired, unoccupied 54 

26. (Germany May 8 '46) Would you, please, enumerate the 
food items — rationed and unrationed — you ate during the last 
twenty-four hours? (omgus) 

Bread 87%** 

Food-stufFs (unspecified). . . 48 

Potatoes 91 

Fat 70 

Sugar 5 

Meat 32 

Pulse 23 

Cheese (hard) 18 

Cottage cheese 7 

Milk, skimmed 52 

Milk, unskimmed 23 

Fish 3 

Eggs 15 

Coffee 84 

Fruit, dry 3 

Fruit, fresh 2 

Vegetables, canned 5 

Vegetables, fresh 50 

Poultry 1 

Game * 

Beer 1 

Salt and spices 4 

Farinaceous food 4 

Others 4 

* Less than 0.5%. 

** Since respondents were asked to name all the foods thev had eaten, 
percentages add to considerably more than 100. 

27. (Great Britain June '46) How does your food today com- 
pare with a year ago, as to quality? (bipo) 

Better The same 



National total. 

Men 

Women 



BY SEX 

.. 11% 
7 



40% 

38% 
42 



Worse 
51% 

51% 
51 



Belter The same 



by age 
21-29 years 14% 



30-49 years 

50 years and ovcr.^ . 



by economic status 



Higher. . . . 
Middle... 

Lower 

Very poor . 



9% 
12 



Conservative. 

Labor 

Liberal 

Other 

Non-voters. . 



by politics 

. . . . 5% 
10 



10 
14 
12 



38% 

40 

41 

36% 

40 
40 
43 

38% 

42 

45 

24 

39 



by geographical SECTION 



London and south . 

Midlands 

Wales 

Nofthern 

Scotland 



1 if^ 
9 



46% 

40 

51 

38 

24 



Worse 

48% 

51 

52 

55% 
48 
52 
51 

57% 

48 

45 

62 

49 

43% 
51 

41 
54 

72 



28. (Great Britain June '46) How does your food today com- 
pare with a year ago, as to variety? (bipo) 

Better The same Worse 
National total 20% 26% 54% 



Men . . . 
Women. 



20% 
20 



21-29 years 23% 

30-49 years 20 

50 years and over 18 

by economic status 

Higher 22% 

Middle 23 

Lower 19 

Very poor 17 



26% 
25 

22% 

25 

28 

23% 
24 
26 
29 



by geographical section 



London and south. 

Midlands 

Wales 

Northern 



21 

30 

17 

Scotland 25 



31% 

23 

20 

24 

17 



54% 
55 

55% 

55 

54 

55% 

53 

55 

54 

49% 

56 

50 

59 

58 



29. (Hungary June '46) What do you miss most in your diet? 
Asked in Budapest and suburbs, (hipor) 

By Sex and Age 

men 'WOMEN 

Under 40 Over 40 Under 40 Over 40 

Sugar 30.7% 33.2% 35.0% 34.5% 

Fat 25.7 20.8 19.2 17.0 

Meat 19.9 18.5 19.4 17.9 

Vitamins 0.8 1.6 0.6 — 

Cereals 4.4 2.9 2.5 4.2 

Fruits 2.8 4.3 4.5 3.8 

Vegetables O.S 1.4 1.5 2.1 

Milk, dairy products. . . 9.C 12.4 13.9 17.0 

Other 1.6 1.6 1.3 0.9 

Nothing 0.9 0.6 0.2 0.5 

Everything 2.4 2.7 0.8 2.1 

No answer 0.9 — 1-1 — 



[ 169 ] 



30. (Germany Nov 25 '46) What suits you least of the food 
provision of today — the monotony or the scarcity? A compa- 
rable cross-section was asked the same question with order of 
the words "monotony" and "scarcity" reversed, (omgus) 

No opinion 
Qualified and 
Scarcity Monotony answers no answer 
American Zone and 

Berlin 83% 10% 2% 5% 

Berlin only 81 10 1 8 



DISARMAMENT 



1. (us Sept 5 '36) Would you favor a new international con- 
ference to limit and reduce armaments? (aipo) 



No No opinion 

43% = 100% 22% 



Yes 
National total 57% 

2. (US Sept 5 '36) Should the United States call such a 
[disarmament] conference? Asked of a national cross-section 
of those who favored a new international conference. 57% of 
the sample represented, (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

National total 72% 28% = 100% 19% 

3. (US Apr 5 '37, June 1 '37, June 9 '38, Oct 1 '38) Should 
President Roosevelt call a world disarmament conference? (aipo) 



No No opinion 

69% = 100% 19% 
59 = 100 20 

63 = 100 23 

69 = 100 15 



Yes 

Apr '37 results 31% 

June '37 results 41 

June '38 results 37 

Oct '38 results 31 

JUNE '37 RESULTS BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 43% 57% 

Middle Atlantic 45 

East central 38 

West central 41 

South 43 

Rocky mountain 36 

Pacific coast 36 



55 
62 
59 
57 
64 
64 



JUNE 



'37 RESULTS BY POLITICS 

Democratic 47% 53% 

Republican 32 68 

4. (US June 1 '37 and June 9 '38) Would you favor a world 
disarmament conference? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

1937 66% 34% = 100% 16% 

1938 63 37 = 100 13 

1937 RESULTS BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 67% 33% 

Middle Atlantic 67 33 

East central 63 37 

West central 63 37 

South 65 35 

Rocky mountain 66 34 

Pacific coast 70 30 

1937 RESULTS BY POLITICS 

Democratic 70% 30% 

Republican 56 44 



5. (US June 1 '37 and June 9 '38) Do you think the time is 
ripe to bring together the leading nations of the world for 
this purpose [world disarmament conference]? A comparable 
cross-section in June '38 was asked the following question: 
Do you think now is the time to bring together the leading 
nations of the world for a disarmament conference? Results 
were combined. (Oct 1 '38) Do you think the time is ripe to 
bring leading nations of the world together for a disarmament 
conference? (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

June '37 results 56% 44% = 100% 20% 

June '38 results 48 52 =100 21 

Oct '38 results 59 41 =100 11 

1937 RESULTS BY POLITICS 

Democratic 61% 39% 

Republican 47 53 

1937 RESULTS BY geographical SECTION 

New England 55%, 45% 

Middle Atlantic 59 41 

East central 51 49 

West central 61 39 

South 57 43 

Rocky mountain 54 46 

Pacific coast 46 54 

6. (US Oct 1 '38) Should the United States take part in such 
a [world disarmament] conference? (aipo) 

Yes 60% No 40% = 100% No opinion 107o 

7. (Great Britain June 12 '37 and June 29 '37) Do you think 
the time is ripe for another disarmament conference? (bipo) 

Yes No 

June 12 '37 52% 48% 

June 29 '37 51 49 

8. (Great Britain June 12 '37 and June 29 '37) Should our 
government call it [world disarmament conference]? Asked of 
52% of the June 12 sample and 51% of the June 29 sample 
who thought it was time for a disarmament conference, (bipo) 

Yes No 

June 12 '37 85% 15% = 100%* 

June 29 '37 49 51 = 100* 

* 100% of those who thought a conference should be called. 

9. (Great Britain Dec '37) Are you in favor of the all-round 
reduction of armaments by international agreement? (bipo) 

Yes 49% 

No 24 

Doubtful 16 

No opinion 11 

10. (Great Britain Dec '37) Are you in favor of the all-round 
abolition of national military and naval aircraft by interna- 
tional agreement? (bipo) 

Yes 46% 

No 27 

Doubtful 15 

No opinion 12 

11. (US Feb 14 '38) If other nations would sign a disarmament 
treaty with the United States, would you favor giving up our 
plans to build a larger navy? (aipo) 

Yes 52% No 



12. (US Feb 16 '39) I would like to ask you a question about 
our government's foreign policy: Would you favor a conference 
of the leading nations to reduce the size of all armies and 



[170] 



navies at this time? A comparable cross-section was asked the 
question in the following form: Would you favor a world dis- 
armament conference at this time? Results were combined. 
(alpo) 

Yes No No opinion 

National total 43% 57% = 100% 10% 

BY POLITICS 

Democratic 43% 57% 

Republican 41 59 

13. (US Feb 16 '39) Should President Roosevelt call this dis- 
armament conference? A comparable cross-section was asked 
the question with the phrase "to meet in Washington" added. 
Results were combined. Asked of a national cross-section of 
those who favored a world disarmament conference. 43% of 
the sample is represented, (alpo) 

Yes 28% No 72% 

14. (US Jan 11 '43) If we win, do you think we should com- 
pletely disarm our enemies? (norc) 

Yes 77% No 16% Don't know 7% 

15. (Canada Jan 20 '43) Do you think that after this war, all 
nations should disarm completely, or do you think the Allies 
should maintain a strong armed force? (cipo) 

Favor armed force 81% Favor disarmament 19% 

16. (Great Britain Aug '44) Do you think Germany should 
be totally deprived of all forms of arms and armed forces for a 
period after the war? (bipo) 

Yes 93% No 4% Don't know 3% 

17. (Australia Nov '44) Would you disarm Germany com- 
pletely or permit a small armed force? (apop) 

Complete disarmament 81% 

Small armed force 14 

No opinion 5 

18. (US Jan 17 '45) Do you think that now is the time for 
the United States, England, Russia, and China to make an 
agreement to use force after the war to keep Germany and 
Japan disarmed for all time? A comparable cross-section was 
asked the same question with the wording "permanently dis- 
armed" substituted for "disarmed for all time." Results were 
combined, (aipo) 

Yes 68% No 16% No opinion 16% 

19. (US Jan 22 '45 and Jan 31 '45) After the war, should Ger- 
many and Japan be kept permanently disarmed? (aipo) 

No opinion 
and 
Yes No don't know 

6% 2% 

7 7 



Jan 22 '45 results 92% 

Jan 31 '45 results 86 



JAN 31 

Roosevelt voters 

Dewey voters 

Others 



'45 



RESULTS BY POLITICS 

. . 89% 6% 

..89 6 

..80 9 



5% 
5 
11 



20. (US Jan 22 '45 and Jan 31 '45) Should the United States, 
England, Russia, and China make a written agreement now 
to keep Germany and Japan disarmed, or should we wait until 
the war is over to make such an agreement? (aipo) 



Should 

Make Wait not make 

agreement until war agreement 

now is over at all Undecided 



Jan 22 "45 results 57% 

Jan 31 '45 results 51 



29 



8% 



JAN 31 '45 RESULTS BY politics 

Roosevelt voters 56% 27% 7% 

Dewey voters 53 31 8 

Others 42 28 8 



4% 
12 



10% 
8 
22 



21. (US Apr 4 '45) Would you approve of allowing Germany 
to have a small army and navy after this war, or should Ger- 
many be completely disarmed? The 90% of the sample who 
thought that Germany should be completely disarmed were 
asked; For how long? (aipo) 

Under 10 years 1% 

10-19 years 4 

20-24 years ; a generation 4 

25 years 6 

26-49 years 3 

50 years 11 

51-99 years 1 

100 years; a century 4 

Over 100 years 1 

Forever; eternity; indefinitely; always 48 

As long as necessary; until world peace is established ... 4 

Miscellaneous * 

Didn't mention a time 3 

Thought Germany should have a small army and navy 

after the war 5 

Had no opinion on the subject 5 

* Less than 0.5%. 

22. (US May 10 '45) Do you think the United Nations should 
or should not completely demobilize the German army and 
navy and keep them from having any again? (nyht) 

Should 85% Should not 9% Don't know 6% 

23. (US Oct 4 '45) Do you think the United Nations should 
or should not completely demobilize the Japanese army and 
navy and keep them from having any again? (nyht) 

Should 82.7% Should not 7.7% Don't know 9.6% 

24. (US Oct 31 '45) It has been suggested that the best way 
to preserve peace in the world is for all nations to get together 
and agree to do away with standing armies and military train- 
ing. Do you think the United States should or should not 
enter into such an agreement? 24% of the sample who thought 
the United States should enter such an agreement were asked: 
Do you think the United States should take the lead in trying 
to bring about such an agreement? (aipo) 

United States should not enter such an agreement 68% 

Don't know whether or not United States should enter 

such an agreement 8 

United States should take the lead 20 

Should not take the lead 2 

Don't know whether or not should take the lead 2 

25. (US Mar 13 '46) It has been suggested that Russia, Britain, 
and the United States get together and do away with arma- 
ments and military training. Do you think we should agree 
to this? (alpo) 

Yes 30% No 62% No opinion 8% 



[171] 



DISEASES 



1. (us Mar 30 '39) Which of these diseases would you hate 
most to have — tuberculosis, heart trouble, cancer, pneumonia? 
(aipo) 

Tuberculosis 13% 

Heart trouble 9 

Cancer 76 

Pneumonia 2 

2. (US Mar 6 '40) In your opinion, which of the following 
diseases is the most serious public health problem — tubercu- 
losis, cancer, infantile paralysis, syphilis? (aipo) 

Tuberculosis 16% 

Cancer 29 

Infantile paralysis 9 

Syphilis 46 

3. (Sweden Oct '43) Do you suffer from rheumatism (arthritis), 
sciatica, lumbago, or any similar pains? (sgi) 

Have 
suffered. 
Yes No but cured 

National total 32% 65% 3% 

AGE BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Townspeople, 20-29 years 13% 85% 2% 

Country people, 20^29 years 17 80 3 

Townspeople, 30-49 years 24 73 3 

Country people, 30-49 years 32 65 3 

Townspeople, 50 years and over. ... 45 52 3 

Country people, 50 years and over . . 53 43 4 

4. (US Dec 28 '44) Have you ever heard of undulant fever 
(Malta fever or Bang's disease)? (aipo) 

Yes 63% No 37% 

5. (US Dec 28 '44) Do you know anyone in this community 
who now has, or has had, undulant fever? Asked of 63% of 
the sample who had heard of undulant fever, (aipo) 

Yes 16% No 47% = 63% 

6. (Great Britain July '45) What do you think causes rheuma- 
tism? (bipo) 

Cold and damp climate; getting wet 42% 

Excess acid 10 

Damp houses; bad living conditions 9 

Wrong diet; lack of vitamins 5 

General bad health; lack of exercise 4 

Hereditary 4 

Liver and kidney trouble; indigestion and constipation. . 3 

Too much hard work and worry 2 

Bad or wrong clothing 1 

Bad teeth 1 

Drinking water 1 

A germ 1 

Miscellaneous answers 3 

No answer; don't know 14 

7. (Great Britain July '45) Do you think it [rheumatism] is 
contagious? (bipo) 

Yes 3% No 90% Don't know 7% 

8. (Great Britain July '45) Do you know of any way in which 
it [rheumatism] may be cured? (bipo) 



No cure, alleviation but no cure. . . . 24% 

Diet; reduction of acidity 6 

Patent cures 6 

Electrical treatment 5 

Massage; rub with liniment 4 

Take salts daily 4 

Rest and warmth 4 

Brine baths 3 

Move to dry climate 3 

Good housing 2 

Injections 1 

Careful living; no alcohol 1 

Good, warm clothing 1 

Miscellaneous answers 5 

No answer; don't know 31 



DIVORCE 



1. (us Apr 11 '36) Should divorces be easier to obtain in your 
state? (aipo) 

Yes No 

National total 23% 77% 

BY SIZE OF COMMUNITY 

Farmers 16% 84% 

Small towns 16 84 

Cities 23 77 

STATE BY STATE 

Alabama 15% 85% 

Arizona 33 67 

Arkansas 10 90 

California 23 77 

Colorado 7 93 

Connecticut 29 71 

Delaware 14 86 

Florida 14 86 

Georgia 24 76 

Idaho 12 88 

Illinois 16 84 

Indiana 14 86 

Iowa 10 90 

Kansas 12 88 

Kentucky 22 78 

Louisiana 26 74 

Maine 4 96 

Maryland 27 73 

Massachusetts 15 85 

Michigan 15 85 

Minnesota 16 84 

Mississippi 17 83 

Missouri 10 90 

Montana 24 76 

Nebraska 12 88 

Nevada 11 89 

New Hampshire 9 91 

New Jersey 39 61 

New Mexico 29 71 

New York 51 49 

North Carolina 24 76 

North Dakota 16 84 

Ohio 14 86 

Oklahoma 15 85 

Oregon 11 89 

Pennsylvania 20 80 



[172] 



Yes No 

Rhode Island 15% 85% 

South Carolina 45 55 

South Dakota 21 79 

Tennessee 19 81 

Texas 14 86 

Utah 15 85 

.Vermont 13 87 

Virginia 23 77 

Washington 15 85 

West Virginia 24 76 

Wisconsin 9 91 

Wyoming 21 79 

2. (Great Britain Jan 14 '37) Do you consider that the grounds 
of divorce should be made easier? (bipo) 

Yes 58% No 42% = 100% No opinion 1% 

3. (US Apr '37) Do you thinlc that there should be easy di- 
vorce laws so that it would not be so expensive and trouble- 
some to dissolve an unhappy marriage? (for) 

No divorce 



Yes No 

National total 28.3% 54.3% 

BY SEX 

Men 31.2% 51.9% 

Women 25.3 56.7 

BY AGE 

Under 40 31.1% 54.2% 

Over 40 25.5 54.4 



should be 
allowed 
10.8% 



10.4% 
11.2 



8.3% 
13.4 



Don't 

know 
6.6% 

6.5% 
6.8 

6.4% 
6.7 



BY RELIGION 



Roman Catholic 15% 60% 11% 14% 

Anglican 35 33 21 11 

Presbyterian 29 37 18 16 

Methodist 24 38 24 14 

Baptist 19 64 14 3 

Protestant, unspecified .... 24 32 21 23 

Other Christians 34 35 15 16 

No religion 47 26 15 12 

8. (Australia Feb-Mar '45) At present divorce is controlled by 
different laws in each state. Would you favor or oppose one 
federal divorce law for all Australia? (apop) 



Favor 83% 



Oppose 5^ 



No opinion 12% 



9. (Australia Feb-Mar '45) For how many years should a de- 
serted man or woman have to wait before seeking a divorce? 
(apop) 

1 year 28% 

2 years 14 

3 years 27 

5 years 6 

No opinion 25 

10. (US July 12 '45) Do you think the courts of this state 
should recognize divorces granted by Reno courts? A compa- 
rable cross-section was asked if they thought courts of their 
states "should recognize Reno divorces." Results were com- 
bined, (aipo) 

Yes No No opinion 

National total 34% 51% 15% 



4. (Canada July 14 '43) In your opinion, is it easy to get a 
divorce in this country or not easy enough? (cipo) 

Too Too About Unde- 

easy hard right cided 

National total 27% 24% 32% 17% 



BY RELIGION 



Catholic 42% 17% 

Non-Catholic 20 27 



BY LANGUAGE SPOKEN 



French-Canadian 42% 18% 

English-Canadian 23 26 



25% 
36 



25% 
34 



16% 
17 



15% 
17 



6. (US Feb 20 '45) Do you think the divorce laws in this state 
now are too strict or not strict enough? (aipo) 

Too Not strict About Unde- 

strict enough right cided 

National total 9% 35% 31% 25% 

BY AGE 

21-49 years 11% 31% 31% 27% 

50 years and over 5 41 31 23 

6. (US Feb 20 '45) Do you think that divorce laws should he 
the same in every state? (aipo) 

Yes 83% No 5% Undecided 12% 

7. (Australia Feb-Mar '45) Should divorce be made easier, or 
more difficult? (apop) 

More No Unde- 

Easier difficult change cided 

National total 27% 39% 19% 15% 



44% 


13% 


50 


14 


56 


18 



21-29 years 43% 

30-49 years 36 

50 years and over 26 



11. (Great Britain Apr 27 '46) Do you think that steps should 
be taken to make the hearings of divorce speedier, or is it a 
good thing that it takes a long time before the case is heard 
in the courts? (bipo) 

Speedup Take time Don't know 
National total 49% 36% 15% 



Men . . . 
Women. 



BY SEX 

53% 
45 



21-29 years 50% 

30-49 years 52 

50 years and over 44 



BY economic status 



Higher 62% 

Middle 52 

Lower 46 



33% 
39 

35% 

34 

39 

s 

30% 

38 

36 



14% 
16 

15% 

14 

17 

8% 
10 
18 



12. (Brazil Sept '46) In Brazil, a Catholic country, divorce is 
prohibited. When asked whether there should be a divorce 
law in their country, a cross-section of the population of 
Rio de Janeiro answered as follows: (ibope) 

Yes No 



No opinion 



Men . . . 
Women. 



1' SEX 






70% 


22% 


8% 


48 


37 


15 



[173] 



EASTERN QUESTION 



1. (Hungary Dec 20 '45 and Mar 20 '46) What do you think 
of the trend of affairs in Iran? Asked in Budapest, (hipor) 

Mentioned 

definite 
penetration 
Might lead jrom one 

to open Hope of side or No 

conflict agreement the other opinion 
... 9% 11% 12% 68% 

... 26 25 18 31 



1945 results. 

1946 results . 



ECONOMIC CONDITIONS 



1. (US Oct '35, Apr '38, July '38, May '39) Regardless of gen- 
eral economic conditions, do you personally feel more or less 
secure than you did a year ago? The Oct '35 and Apr '38 sam- 
ples were asked the same question with the phrase "regardless 
of general economic conditions" omitted and the word "per- 
sonally" was omitted from the '35 sample, (for) 

Don't 
More Less Same know 

Oct '35 results 36.6% 30.2% 30.3% 2.9% 

Apr '38 results 28.2 34.2 34.7 2.9 

July '38 results 22.4 43.4 32.0 2.2 

May '39 results 32.0 28.7 37.0 2.3 

OCT '35 RESULTS BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Prosperous 42.1% 22.9% 32.1% 2.9% 

Upper middle 40.8 23.4 32.9 2.9 

Lower middle 40.9 26.4 29.9 2.8 

Poor 25.0 42.0 29.9 3.1 

Negroes 22.0 52.6 22.8 2.6 

MAY '39 RESULTS BY AGE 

Under 40 38.8% 24.5% 34.5% 2.2% 

Over 40 25.4 32.9 39.4 2.3 

2. (US July '36) Are you personally better off now than during 
the past two or three years? (for) 

Yes 40.4% No 30.8% Same 28.8% 

3. (US Oct 4 '37, Apr 6 '38, Oct 17 '38, Mar 8 '39, Nov 8 '39, 
Nov 15 '39, Nov 30 '39) Considering your income and cost of 
living, do you feel you are better off today than you were a 
year ago? 'The Oct '37 and Mar '38 samples were asked the 
same question with words "you were" omitted. The Nov 15 '39 
and Nov 30 '39 samples were asked the question with the 
phrases "worse off, or about the same as" added, (aipo) 

ill 
■§" > § 

5 - i " i"S 

>^ ^ ^ :? Q 5 

Oct 4 '37 38% 62% - - - = 100% 

Apr 6 "38 36 64 — = 100% 8% — 

Oct 17 '38 35 65 — — — = 100 

Mar 8 '39 34 55 4% 7 — = 100 

Nov 8 '39 37 55 — 4 4% = 100 

Nov 15 '39 25 22 53 _ _ = 100 

Nov 30 '39 24 22 53 — 1 = 100 



a I 5 

5 ..§ 's 
■-S. '- § 

5 •=. S o S ^ 

>^ 2; c^ ^ Q § 

OCT '37 and APR '38 RESULTS BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 

1937 25% 75% 

1938 26 74 

Middle Atlantic 

1937 33 67 

1938 32 63 

East central 

1937 40 60 

1938 33 67 

West central 

1937 48 52 

1938 38 62 

South 

1937 40 60 

1938 46 54 

Kocky Mountain 

1937 40 60 

938 45 55 

Pacific coast 

1937 37 63 

1938 36 64 

OCT '37 RESULTS BY POLITICS 

Republican,. .. 28% 72% 
Democratic 39 61 

OCT '37 RESULTS BY OCCUPATION 

Unemployed not 

on relief 14% 86% 

Businessmen. ... 32 68 

Reliefers 18 82 

Unskilled labor, 32 68 

White-collar ... 40 60 

Skilled labor... 41 59 

Professional .... 42 58 

Farmers 47 53 

APR '38 RESULTS BY OPINIONS ON ROOSEVELT 

Persons who 

have turned 

against him 

since 1936. .. . 23% 77% 
Persons who are 

still for him .47 53 

4. (US Nov 30 '37 and Mar 13 '40) In general, which do you 
think is better off today— the man who lives on the farm or 
the man who lives in the city? The '37 sample was asked the 
question with the phrase "in general" omitted and in 1940 a 
comparable cross-section was asked the question with the 
phrases "the man who lives on a farm" and "the man who 
lives in the city" reversed. These results were combined, (aipo) 

Man on farm Man in city Don't know 

66% 34% = 100% 7% 

66 34 =- 100 12 



1937. 
1940. 



5. (Great Britain Jan '38) Considering your income and the 
cost of living, do you feel you are better off today than you 
were a year ago? Qune '44) Taking into account prices and the 
amount of money coming into your home, do you think that 
you are better off or worse off than you were a year ago? (bipo) 



[174] 



1938. 

1944. 



Better 


Worse 


Same 


16% 


57% 


11% 


19 


36 


45 



■^ 






§ S 




a 


■-. 5 




« 








1? ^ 


■? 


<* 


1^ 


O 




% 


% 


% 



6. (US Apr '38) Do you believe that general economic condi- 
tions in this country are better or worse than they were a 
year ago? (for) 

Better 25.3% 

Same 17.2 

Worse 51.0 

Don't know 6.5 

7. (US Apr '38) What do you think is the reason [for the 
economic conditions being worse]? Asked of 51%j of the sample 
who thought conditions were worse than last year, (for) 

a I ~ 

S t • 

or or o/ 07 C7 or or 

/o /o /o ,0 /o /c /o 

National total 26.8 21.4 20.3 10.5 12.5 8.5=100.0** 

BY ECONOMIC STATUS 

Prosperous 43.3 12.7 185 4.6 16.0 4.9 

Poor 16.0 31.7 21.0 8.1 13.8 9.4 

* These other reasons included percentages saying "imports from 
foreign countries," "lack of confidence," "lack of cooperation between 
business and government," "taxes too high," etc. 

** 100.0% of those who thought conditions were worse in this coun- 
try. 

8. (US Apr '38) Do you feel personally more or less secure 
than you did five years ago? (for) 

More secure 47.8% 

Same 18.2 

Less secure 30.6 

Don't know 3.4 

9. (US Apr 6 '38) Are you better off or worse off today than 
you were in the last depression? (aipo) 

Better 43% 

Worse 30 

About same 27 



No opinion. 



100% 
■ 5% 



10. (US June 21 '38, July 27 '38, Sept 23 '38, Jan 25 '39, Mar 

21 '39, July 8 '39, Mar 7 '40, June 11 '40, July 19 '40, Aug 

22 '40, Dec 2 '40, Jan 9 '41) Do you think you will spend more 
money or less money next month than you have during the 
past month? The Mar '39 and July '39 questions used the words 
"four weeks" instead of "month." (aipo) 

No 
More Less Same opinion 

June '38 29% 27% 39% 5% = 100% 

July '38 26 29 45 = 100% 5 

Sept '38 30 24 46 = 100 6 

Jan '39 21 27 48 4 = loo 

Mar '39 37 22 38 3 = 100 

July '39 23 27 42 8 = 100 

Mar '40 34 24 42 =100 12 

June '40 28 21 40 11 = 100 

July '40 26 19 42 13 = 100 

Aug '40 34 19 38 9 = 100 

Dec '40 50 12 31 7 = 100 

Jan '41 24 31 35 10 = 100 



11. (US July 13 '38) Are you better off or worse off than you 
were a year ago? (aipo) (Great Britain Jan '39) Are you better 
off today than you were a year ago? (dipo) (US June 7 '41) 
Financially, are you better off or worse off than last year? 
(aipo) (Feb '42) Do you feel better off or worse off han last 
year? Qan '43) Taking everything into consideration, do you 
feel you are now better off, worse off, or about the same as 
last year at this time? Asked of a national cross-section of the 
working force including factory labor, miners, transportation, 
and public utility workers, and personal service workers (jani- 
tors, beauticians, laundrymen, domestics, etc.). (for) 

Better Worse About Don't 

off off same know 

RESULTS IN THE UNITED STATES 

July '38 26.0% 31.0% 43.0% = 100% 1.0% 

June '41 30.0 20.0 50.0 — 

Feb '42 30.9 21.3 46.9 .9 

Jan '43 

Factory workers. .. . 518 12.3 351 .8 

Personal-service 

workers 35.0 17.0 47.2 .8 

Mine workers 290 21.7 47.9 1.4 



RESULTS IN GREAT BRITAIN 



Jan '39. 



1941 RESULTS IN THE UNITED STATES BY GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION 

New England 35% 20% 45% — 

Middle Atlantic 30 22 48 — 

East central 33 18 49 — 

West central 30 16 54 — 

South 27 21 52 — 

Mountain 29 22 49 — 

Pacific coast 27 22 51 — 

1941 RESULTS IN THE UNITED STATES BY OCCIXPATION 

Professional 34% 16% 50% — 

Businessmen 32 19 49 — 

Farmers 26 16 58 — 

White-collar 38 17 45 — 

Skilled labor 34 21 45 — 

Unskilled labor 24 24 52 — 

On relief 11 33 56 — 

Semi-skilled labor .... 32 23 45 — 

1941 RESULTS IN THE UNITED STATES BY AGE 

21-29 years 47% 15% 38% — 

30-49 years 31 18 51 — 

50 years and over 17 26 57 — 

OPINIONS OF AMERICAN FACTORY WORKERS IN 1943 BY SEX 

Men 49.9% 12.8% 36.6% .7% 

Women 57.4 11.1 30.5 10 

1943 RESULTS IN THE UNITED STATES BY LABOR-MIGRATION STATUS 

Working for same com- 
pany as last year .. . 35.8% 18.5% 45.0% .7% 

Working for different 

company 51.7 155 31.7 1.1 

Was unemployed, on 
WPA, or student .. . 72.3 55 21.7 .5 

12. (US Mar 21 '39, July 8 '39, Mar 6 '40, June 11 '40, Nov 
30 '40, Jan 9 '41) Do you think you will spend more money 
or less money during the next eight weeks than you did during 
the last eight weeks? The July '39 sample was asked "do you 
plan to" instead of "do you think you will" and the 1940 and 
1941 questions used "two months" instead of "eight weeks." 
(aipo) 



[175] 



Less 


Same 


Don't know 


22% 


38% 


5% = 100% 


31 


35 


9 =100 


29 


36 = 


100% 12 


22 


38 


10 = 100 


14 


34 


6 =100 


29 


31 


10 = 100 



I 



More 

Mar '39 35% 

July '39 25 

Mar '40 35 

June '40 30 

Nov '40 46 

Jan '41 30 

13. (US May 18 '49) Ten years from now, do you think Ameri- 
can farmers will be better off or worse off than now? (aipo) 

Better 54% 

Worse 15 

Same 11 

Don't know 20 

14. (Great Britain Nov '40 and Aug '46) Are you better or 
worse off than before the war? The '46 sample was asked the 
question with the phrase "on the whole" preceding the ques- 
tion, (bipo) 

Better Worse Same Don't know 

1940 results 18% 50% 32% — 

1946 results 27 47 23 3% 



BY ECONOMIC STATUS 



Higher 

1940. . . 

1946... 
Middle 

1940. . . 

1946... 
Lower 

1940. . . 

1946. . . 
Very poor 

1946. . . 



17% 
19 


52% 
58 


31% 
19 


19 
23 


54 
55 


27 
21 


18 
29 


49 

44 


33 

24 



4% 



24 



46 



27 



1946 RESULTS BY SEX 

Men.. 30% 48% 20% 

Women 24 47 26 

1946 RESULTS BY AGE 

21-29 years 34% 39% 20% 

30-49 years 28 46 24 

50 years and over. .22 53 23 

1946 RESULTS BY POLITICS 

Conservative 17% 61% 21% 

Labor 38 38 21 

Liberal 25 42 32 

Other voters 30 40 27 

Non-voters 21 47 26 



3 
3 

2% 
3 

7% 

2 

2 

1% 

3 

1 

3 

6 



15. (US Feb '41) Do you feel that your prospects are better 
or worse than last year? (for) 

Better 37.5% 

Worse 14.9 

Same 45.0 

Don't know 2.6 

16. (US Nov '41) First of all, consider the executive state of 
mind: Which of the following comes closest to being your 
prediction of the kind of economic structure with which this 
country will emerge after the war? Which of these would you 
prefer — (l) a system of free enterprise restored very much along 
the prewar lines, with modifications to take care of conditions 
then current; (2) an economic system in which government 
will take over many public services formerly under private 
management but still leave many opportunities for private 
enterprise; (3) a semi-socialized society in which there will be 
very little room for the profit system to operate; (4) a com- 



plete economic dictatorship along fascist or communist lines? 
Asked of a national cross-section of business executives, (for) 

Predict Prefer 

Statement 1 7.2% 91.5% 

Statement 2 52.4 8.3 

Statement 3 36. 7 0.2 

Statement 4 3.7 — 

17. (US Nov 19 '41 and Sept 11 '46) Are you better off or worse 
off today than you were six months ago? (opor and aipo) 

Better Worse No 

off off Same opinion 

opoR 1941 results 25% 26% 48% 1% 

AIPO 1946 results 27 31 41 1 

18. (US May 30 '42) What do you think your own personal 
situation will be for the first two or three years after the 
war — will you be better off or worse off? (aipo) 

Better 16% 

Worse 36 

Same 29 

Don't know 19 

19. (Australia June '42, Aug-Sept '43, Dec '44, Jan '45) Con- 
sidering your income and the cost of living, do you feel you 
are better off or worse off today than you were before the war? 
(apop) 



Better 

1942 results 15% 

1943 results 20 

1944-1945 results 17 

1942 RESULTS B 

Business owners and pro- 
fessional 10% 

Managers 15 

Farm owners 11 

Clerks, shophands 16 

Skilled and semi-skilled 

workers 21 

Unskilled workers 16 



20. (US June 9 '42) Do you think you are spending more 
money or less money in the stores than you did before rationing 
started? Asked of a national cross-section of car and truck 
owners in gas rationed states and areas only, (aipo) 

More 22% 

Less 19 

About same 56 

Don't know 3 

21. (US July '42) After the war, do you think farmers as a 
group will be better off, worse, or about the same as they 
were before the war? Factory workers? Business leaders? Office 
workers? (for) 

Better 
off 

Farmers 43.0% 

Factory workers 36.6 

Business leaders 22.2 

Office workers 20.8 

22. (US Nov 27 '42 and June 18 '43) If we win the war, do 
you think business conditions in the five years right afterward 
will be better or worse than they were in the five years before 
the war started? (norc) 







Unde- 


No 


Worse 


Same 


cided 


opinion 


59% 


57o 


19% 


2% 


54 


26 


— 


— 


56 


27 


— 


— 


OCCUPATION 






71% 


19% 






69 


16 






62 


27 






54 


30 






54 


25 






56 


28 









Worse 


Don't 


Same 


off 


know 


11.1% 


13.5% 


10.8% 


30.1 


21.9 


11.4 


34.2 


25.8 


17.8 


45.6 


20.1 


13.5 



[176] 





About 


Don't 


Worse 


the same 


know 


29% 


10% 


10% 


25 


12 


10 



Better 

1942 results 51% 

1943 results 53 

23. (US Jan 21 '43) Do you feel you would be better off or 
worse off financially if you took a job in a war plant? Asked 
of a national cross-section of farmers, (aipo) 

Better 29% 

Worse 44 

Same 11 

No opinion 16 

24. (US Jan 21 '43) Do you think farmers as a group will be 
better off or worse off after this war? Asked of a national cross- 
section of farmers, (aipo) 

Better 30% 

Worse 36 

Same 16 

No opinion 18 

25. (US May 22 '43) Do you think people are better off in 
this war than they were during the last war, or are they 
wor:e off? (norc) 

Better off 52% 

Worse off 21 

About the same 14 

Don't know 13 

26. (US May 22 '43) In what way [are people better off in 
this war]? Asked of 52% of the sample who thought people 
were better off in this war than the last, (norc) 

Making more money in this war 13% 

Shortages less acute; standard of living higher 13 

Rationing; more equal distribution 11 

Prices are lower now (control specifically mentioned). . 7 

Prices are lower now (no mention of control) 6 

Better control (prices not specifically mentioned) 6 

More work; less unemployment 5 

Progress since last war 3 

Better prepared 1 

Health 1 

Miscellaneous 1 

Not ascertainable 2 



69%* 



* Percentages add to more than 52 because some of the respondents 
gave more than one answer. 

27. (US May 22 '43) In what way [are people worse off in 
this war]? Asked of 21% of the sample who thought people 
were worse off in this war than the last, (norc) 

Shortages 6% 

Shortages due to overseas shipments * 

Rationing 5 

Pf ices are higher now 4 

Made more money in the last war 3 

This is a longer, more serious war 2 

More men in service; labor shortages 1 

Didn't have